CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 551

_id e5a2
authors Debevec, P.
year 1998
title Rendering synthetic objects into real scenes: Bridging traditional and image-based graphics with global illumination and high dynamic range photography
source Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 98, M. Cohen, Ed., 189–198
summary We present a method that uses measured scene radiance and global illumination in order to add new objects to light-based models with correct lighting. The method uses a high dynamic range imagebased model of the scene, rather than synthetic light sources, to illuminate the newobjects. To compute the illumination, the scene is considered as three components: the distant scene, the local scene, and the synthetic objects. The distant scene is assumed to be photometrically unaffected by the objects, obviating the need for re- flectance model information. The local scene is endowed with estimated reflectance model information so that it can catch shadows and receive reflected light from the new objects. Renderings are created with a standard global illumination method by simulating the interaction of light amongst the three components. A differential rendering technique allows for good results to be obtained when only an estimate of the local scene reflectance properties is known. We apply the general method to the problem of rendering synthetic objects into real scenes. The light-based model is constructed from an approximate geometric model of the scene and by using a light probe to measure the incident illumination at the location of the synthetic objects. The global illumination solution is then composited into a photograph of the scene using the differential rendering technique. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the technique to recovering surface reflectance properties in uncontrolled lighting situations. Applications of the method include visual effects, interior design, and architectural visualization.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id e6ca
authors Curry, Michael
year 1998
title Digital Places: Living With Geographic Information Technologies
source N.Y.: Routledge
summary The last twenty-five years have seen major changes in the nature and scope of geographical information. This has happened in one way in society at large, where computers, satellites and global positioning systems have made geographical information more extensive, more detailed and more available. It has happened in another way within the university, where rapidly evolving geographic information systems have been touted as tools useful in a wide range of disciplines, tools that will resolve problems as different as the nature of global climate change and the routing of mail. In both settings the move from manual to computer-based systems is viewed as having a natural trajectory, from less powerful to more powerful technologies. These systems are held to be increasingly able to model and represent all that is important in geographical knowledge and behaviour. They are seen as fitting into and supporting traditional scientific and social practices and institutions. Digital Places: Living with Geographic Information Technologies shows that on each score the systems have been misunderstood and their impacts underestimated. By offering an understanding of Geographic Information Systems within the social, economic, legal, political and ethical contexts within which they exist, the author shows that there are substantial limits to their ability to represent the very objects and relationships, people and places, that many believe to be most important. Focusing on the ramifications of GIS usage, Digital Places shows that they are associated with far-reaching changes in the institutions in which they exist, and in the lives of those they touch. In the end they call for a complete rethinking of basic ideas, like privacy and intellectual property and the nature of scientific practice, that have underpinned public life for the last one hundred years.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id de62
authors Eriksson, Joakim
year 1998
title Planning of Environments for People with Physical Disabilities Using Computer Aided Design
source Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture
summary In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings from six case studies of real planning situations. The case studies indicated that although such a tool would support the design, as well as the dialog between the participants, a certain level of technical and economical efficiency must be obtained. To facilitate the professional planner's work, an important issue is to maintain a large library of 3D objects. With the latest prototype implementation, it was found that such a planning tool can be produced, even when using consumer-oriented computers. One previous critical factor, interactive manipulation of 3D objects, can now be achieved if utilizing modern graphic cards with 3D acceleration. A usability test was performed to evaluate the prototype's basic operations, involving two groups of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with major physical impairments. It was found that although the usability was satisfactory for the basic tasks, several items needed to be improved or added in future versions. It is important with an integrated support for manikins, in order to evaluate, e.g., wheelchair accessibility, reach ability, positioning of handrails, etc. This thesis reviews and compiles published anthropometrical and biomechanical data into a uniform segment-by-segment structure, in order to aid the design and modifications of manikins. The compilation was implemented as a spreadsheet document. An MRI investigation of the neck-shoulder region was performed on 20 healthy Scandinavian, female volunteers, measuring various musculoskeletal properties. These measurements can be used for further refinements of manikin specifications and biomechanical models.
keywords Rehabilitation; Disability; Adaptation; Participatory Planning; Design Tool; 3D Graphics; Computer Aided Design; Virtual Reality; Manikin; Anthropometry; Biomechanics; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cervical Spine Kinematics
series thesis:PhD
email joakim.eriksson@design.lth.se
more http://www.lub.lu.se/cgi-bin/show_diss.pl?db=global&fname=tec_250.html
last changed 2003/02/26 08:21

_id ga9811
id ga9811
authors Feuerstein, Penny L.
year 1998
title Collage, Technology, and Creative Process
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Since the turn of the twentieth century artists have been using collage to suggest new realities and changing concepts of time. Appropriation and simulation can be found in the earliest recycled scraps in Cubist collages. Picasso and Braque liberated the art world with cubism, which integrated all planes and surfaces of the artists' subjects and combined them into a new, radical form. The computer is a natural extension of their work on collage. The identifying characteristics of the computer are integration, simultaneity and evolution which are inherent in collage. Further, the computer is about "converting information". There is something very facinating about scanning an object into the computer, creating a texture brush and drawing with the object's texture. It is as if the computer not only integrates information but different levels of awareness as well. In the act of converting the object from atoms to bits the object is portrayed at the same conscious level as the spiritual act of drawing. The speed and malleability of transforming an image on the computer can be compared to the speed and malleability of thought processes of the mind. David Salle said, "one of the impulses in new art is the desire to be a mutant, whether it involves artificial intelligence, gender or robotic parts. It is about the desire to get outside the self and the desire to trandscend one's place." I use the computer to transcend, to work in different levels of awareness at the same time - the spiritual and the physical. In the creative process of working with computer, many new images are generated from previous ones. An image can be processed in unlimited ways without degradation of information. There is no concept of original and copy. The computer alters the image and changes it back to its original in seconds. Each image is not a fixed object in time, but the result of dynamic aspects which are acquired from previous works and each new moment. In this way, using the computer to assist the mind in the creative processes of making art mirrors the changing concepts of time, space, and reality that have evolved as the twentieth century has progressed. Nineteenth-century concepts of the monolithic truth have been replaced with dualism and pluralism. In other words, the objective world independent of the observer, that assumes the mind is separate from the body, has been replaced with the mind and body as inseparable, connected to the objective world through our perception and awareness. Marshall Mcluhan said, "All media as extensions of ourselves serve to provide new transforming vision and awareness." The computer can bring such complexities and at the same time be very calming because it can be ultrafocused, promoting a higher level of awareness where life can be experienced more vividly. Nicholas Negroponte pointed out that "we are passing into a post information age, often having an audience of just one." By using the computer to juxtapose disparate elements, I create an impossible coherence, a hodgepodge of imagery not wholly illusory. Interestingly, what separates the elements also joins them. Clement Greenberg states that "the collage medium has played a pivotal role in twentieth century painting and sculpture"(1) Perspective, developed by the renaissance archetect Alberti, echoed the optically perceived world as reality was replaced with Cubism. Cubism brought about the destruction of the illusionist means and effects that had characterized Western painting since the fifteenth century.(2) Clement Greenberg describes the way in which physical and spiritual realities are combined in cubist collages. "By pasting a piece of newspaper lettering to the canvas one called attention to the physical reality of the work of art and made that reality the same as the art."(3) Before I discuss some of the concepts that relate collage to working with computer, I would like to define some of the theories behind them. The French word collage means pasting, or gluing. Today the concept may include all forms of composite art and processes of photomontage and assemblage. In the Foreword on Katherine Hoffman's book on Collage Kim Levin writes: "This technique - which takes bits and pieces out of context to patch them into new contexts keeps changeng, adapting to various styles and concerns. And it's perfectly apt that interpretations of collage have varied according to the intellectual inquiries of the time. From our vantage point near the end of the century we can now begin to see that collage has all along carried postmodern genes."(4) Computer, on the other hand is not another medium. It is a visual tool that may be used in the creative process. Patrick D. Prince's views are," Computer art is not concrete. There is no artifact in digital art. The images exist in the computer's memory and can be viewed on a monitor: they are pure visual information."(5) In this way it relates more to conceptual art such as performance art. Timothy Binkley explains that,"I believe we will find the concept of the computer as a medium to be more misleading than useful. Computer art will be better understood and more readily accepted by a skeptical artworld if we acknowledge how different it is from traditional tools. The computer is an extension of the mind, not of the hand or eye,and ,unlike cinema or photography, it does not simply add a new medium to the artist's repertoire, based on a new technology.(6) Conceptual art marked a watershed between the progress of modern art and the pluralism of postmodernism(7) " Once the art is comes out of the computer, it can take a variety of forms or be used with many different media. The artist does not have to write his/her own program to be creative with the computer. The work may have the thumbprint of a specific program, but the creative possibilities are up to the artist. Computer artist John Pearson feels that,"One cannot overlook the fact that no matter how technically interesting the artwork is it has to withstand analysis. Only the creative imagination of the artist, cultivated from a solid conceptual base and tempered by a sophisticsated visual sensitivity, can develop and resolve the problems of art."(8) The artist has to be even more focused and selective by using the computer in the creative process because of the multitude of options it creates and its generative qualities.
series other
email pennyf@mcs.net
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id e184
authors Popov, V., Popova, L. and De Paoli, G.
year 1998
title Towards an Object-Oriented Language for the Declarative Design of Scenes
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 316-353
summary We propose a prototype “kernel” of an object-oriented language, SOML (Scene Objects Modeling Language), intended to assist in the declarative design of scenes in image synthesis. This language is an attempt to provide the designer with a tool to facilitate the rapid prototyping of 3D scenes. It can also serve as a tool for knowledge acquisition and representation , and for communication and exchange of data with other tools in a design environment. Advantages offered by the implementation of SOML are: (a) from user’s viewpoint: the possibility of declarative description of the initial concept associated with the target scene in terms of properties and constraint vocabulary, the possibility of quantitative and qualitative reasoning on these properties, the modification of the intermediate solutions to different levels of detail, the utilisation of previous solutions; and (b) from the implementation viewpoint: the structuring of the properties and methods in the form of domain knowledge, the optimal solution generation according to heuristic causal-probabilistic criteria, the transformation of the semantic concept description of the scene in generic entry code for a geometrical CSG modeler or for rendering and visualization software, the integration of functionality for parameter generation and modification, the compilation of a scene from components of other final scenes and operations of geometrical transformations acting on groups of scenes. We present the architecture of the object-based implantation of the language and its interpreter, in the unified notation formalism UML. The utilization of the SOML language is illustrated by some examples.
series ACADIA
email popov@giotto.univ-poitiers.fr, popova@giotto.univ-poitiers.fr, depaolig@ere.umontreal.ca
last changed 1998/12/16 07:38

_id e72f
authors Dorta, Tomás and LaLande, Philippe
year 1998
title The Impact of Virtual Reality on the Design Process
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 138-163
summary Sketching, either hand or computer generated, along with other traditional visualization tools such as perspective drawing have difficulty in correctly representing three dimensional objects. Even physical models, in architecture, suffer in this regard because of inevitable scaling. The designer finds himself cut off from the reality of the object and is prone to misinterpretations of the object and its surrounding space and to resulting design errors. These are sometimes not perceived until too late, once the object has been constructed. Traditional tools use 2D media to represent 3D objects and only manage to introduce the third dimension in a limited manner (perspectives, not only tedious to construct, are static). This scenario affects the design process, particularly the cycle of proposal, verification and correction of design hypotheses as well as the cognitive aspects that condition the designer’s visualization of the designed object. In most cases, computer graphics mimic, through its interface, the traditional way of doing things. The architectural model is parametricized with little regard for visualization. No allowance is made for the change in the medium of graphic representation. Moreover, effort is not made to capitalize on the advantages of numerical calculation to propose new interfaces and new dimensions in object visualization. Virtual Reality (VR), seen not only as technology but as experience, brings the 3D object, abstractly viewed by traditional means, into clearer focus and provides us with these new dimensions. Errors due to abstracted representation are reduced since the interface is always three dimensional and the interactions intuitively made in real time thus allowing the designer to experience the presence of the designed object very quickly. At the École de design industriel of the Faculté d’aménagement, we have run tests using non-immersive VR–one passive (comprehension) and another active (design). This project, involving a group of 72 students during a period of six weeks (6h/week), aimed at analyzing the impact of VR as a visualization tool on the design process versus traditional tools. The results, described in this presentation, shed light on the effect of VR on the creative process as such, as well as on the quality of the results produced by that process.

series ACADIA
email dortat@ere.umontreal.ca, lalandep@ere.umontreal.ca
last changed 1998/12/16 07:27

_id 473f
authors Bartnicka, Malgorzata
year 1998
title The Influence of Light upon the Spatial Perception of Image
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 21-26
summary With regard to mental perception, light is one of the basic and strongest experiences influencing man. It is a phenomenon unchanged since the beginning of human kind, regardless of the fact what form or shape it was transmitted in. We are so used to light that we have stopped noticing how much we owe to it. It is the basic source and condition of our visual perception. Without light, illumination, we would not be able to see anything as it is light that transmits the shapes, distances and colours seen by us. The light which we perceive is a specific sight stimulus. It constitutes of only a small range of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation existing in nature. The visible radiation encompasses the wave length from 400 to 800 nm. When the whole range of the visible wave spectrum enters the eye, the impression of seeing white light is produced. The light rays entering the sight receptors are subject to reflection, absorption and transmission. In the retina of the eye, the light energy is transformed into nerve impulses. The reception of light is dependent on the degree of absorption of the length of certain waves and the concentration of light. A ray of light entering the eye pupil is the proper eye stimulus which stimulates the receptors of the retina and causes visual impressions.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id dd16
authors Gibson, Kathleen
year 1999
title STUDIO @ CORNELL
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 18-21
summary Unique to the interior design program at Cornell University is a planned pedagogical approach requiring equal emphasis toward manual and digital graphic communication at the freshman level. Prior to 1998, computer-based instruction only occurred at the junior year of study. Recognizing that cultural and symbolic biases against digital media were formally being instituted by curriculum policy, faculty searched for a new perspective. Central to success was the removal of illogically placed boundaries, both mental and physical. In response, students are now encouraged to cultivate a fluid dexterity between traditional and digital methods, at times using various skills concurrently for design analysis and representation (Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). Course content for DEA115 ranges from basic orthographic drafting, paraline projection, and perspective drawing to color rendering and composition. Students utilize a full range of media: pencil, ink, marker, pastel, AutoCAD, 3DS/ MAX, and Photoshop in this graphics studio. Course meetings total six contact hours per week, constituting a three credit hour class. Assignments are purposefully created to shatter digital myths. For example, instead of a standard, rote drafting exercise, AutoCAD is used to explore design ideas through systemic object manipulation (Figures 8, 9).
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 6
authors Neiman, Bennett and Bermudez, J.
year 1998
title Entre la Civilizacion Analoga y la Digital: El Workshop de Medios y Manipulacion Espacial (Between the Analogue and Digital Civilization: Workshop of Media and Space Manipulation)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 46-55
summary As the power shift from material culture to media culture accelerates, architecture finds itself in the midst of a clash between centuries old analog design methods (such as tracing paper, vellum, graphite, ink, chipboard, clay, balsa wood, plastic, metal, etc.) and the new digital systems of production (such as scanning, video capture, image manipulation, visualization, solid modeling, computer aided drafting, animation, rendering, etc.). Moving forward requires a realization that a material interpretation of architecture proves limiting at a time when information and media environments are the major drivers of culture. It means to pro-actively incorporate the emerging digital world into our traditional analog work. It means to change. This paper presents the results of an intense design workshop that looks, probes, and builds at the very interface that is provoking the cultural and professional shifts. Media space is presented and used as an interpretive playground for design experimentation in which the poetics of representation (and not its technicalities) are the driving force to generate architectural ideas. The work discussed was originally developed as a starting exercise for a digital design course. The exercise was later conducted as a workshop at two schools of architecture by different faculty working in collaboration with it's inventor. The workshop is an effective sketch problem that gives students an immediate start into a non-traditional, hands-on, and integrated use of contemporary media in the design process. In doing so, it establishes a procedural foundation for a design studio dealing with digital media.
series SIGRADI
email bneiman@ix.netcom.com, bermudez@arch.utah.edu
more http://www. arch.utah.edu/people/faculty/julio/studio.htm
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 44e0
authors Weishar, Peter
year 1998
title Digital Space: Designing Virtual Environments
source New York: McGraw-Hill
summary Take control of the latest technology in 3D design with this comprehensive guide for architects, designers, illustrators, and graphics professionals. Digital Space provides start-to-finish, how-to instructions of 3D design that close the gap between software manuals and traditional architecture and design books. Chapters include: industry overview...planning...space design...modeling...lighting...textures...interior space...exterior space...rendering...tips and techniques...glossary of terms. The non-technical language and abundant illustrations make Digital Space: Designing Virtual Environments one of the most accessible guides to 3D design on the market. From basic concepts to sophisticated applications, it covers: the design process; optimal working techniques; 3D modeling; methods of streamlining complex tasks; real world case studies; extensive interviews with famous 3D artists.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ee96
authors Johnson, Scott
year 1998
title Making Models Architectural: Protean Representations to Fit Architects’ Minds
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 354-365
summary A rich vocabulary has evolved for describing architecture. It serves not only as a means of communication, but also as an embodiment of concepts relating to form, space, structure, function, mood, and symbolism. We architects not only speak in terms of walls, rooms, roofs, arches, etc., we see in terms of them and think in terms of them, as well. Such concepts are integral to our ability to design. Typical CAD representations, however, are based on geometric/mathematical elements like points, lines, planes, and symbols. Even more experimental approaches like parametric shapes or procedural assemblies correspond poorly to architectural elements, and seldom lend themselves well to making conceptual changes that would allow exploration of design alternatives. Small wonder some architecture schools experience a division between computer and studio courses, or even between computer and studio faculty. Different ways of talking and thinking are involved. The concepts involved are often mutually exclusive. This paper discusses an attempt to address this conceptual mismatch, using what are termed “protean” (meaning “very changeable”) elements. These are high-level elements corresponding to architectural concepts like “wall,” or “dome.” They each have parameters appropriate for the particular type of element they represent, and produce the polyhedra necessary for graphics based on these parameters. A system is being implemented to allow models to be constructed using these elements. The protean elements form a loosely structured model, in which some elements hierarchically contain others, and some elements are essentially freestanding, being created and manipulated independently of other elements. Characteristics of protean element are discussed, including the underlying object-oriented structure, the relationship between elements and graphics, and functions associated with the objects. A scheme is explained whereby all parts of a design can be represented even when the design includes extremely unusual forms not conforming to predictable classes of elements. The necessary support framework is also discussed; general flow of the system and mechanisms for viewing the model and editing subcomponents are explained. The current status of the project, and intentions for future work are discussed. The project has been partially implemented, and the necessary framework to support the system is mostly complete.

series ACADIA
email sven@umich.edu
last changed 1998/12/16 07:39

_id ga9809
id ga9809
authors Kälviäinen, Mirja
year 1998
title The ideological basis of generative expression in design
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper will discuss issues concerning the design ideology supporting the use and development of generative design. This design ideology is based on the unique qualities of craft production and on the forms or ideas from nature or the natural characteristics of materials. The main ideology presented here is the ideology of the 1980´s art craft production in Finland. It is connected with the general Finnish design ideology and with the design ideology of other western countries. The ideology for these professions is based on the common background of design principles stated in 19th century England. The early principles developed through the Arts and Crafts tradition which had a great impact on design thinking in Europe and in the United States. The strong continuity of this design ideology from 19th century England to the present computerized age can be detected. The application of these design principles through different eras shows the difference in the interpretations and in the permission of natural decorative forms. The ideology of the 1980ïs art craft in Finland supports the ideas and fulfilment of generative design in many ways. The reasons often given as the basis for making generative design with computers are in very many respects the same as the ideology for art craft. In Finland there is a strong connection between art craft and design ideology. The characteristics of craft have often been seen as the basis for industrial design skills. The main themes in the ideology of the 1980´s art craft in Finland can be compared to the ideas of generative design. The main issues in which the generative approach reflects a distinctive ideological thinking are: Way of Life: The work is the communication of the maker´s inner ideas. The concrete relationship with the environment, personality, uniqueness, communication, visionary qualities, development and growth of the maker are important. The experiments serve as a media for learning. Taste and Aesthetic Education: The real love affair is created by the non living object with the help of memories and thought. At their best objects create the basis in their stability and communication for durable human relationships. People have warm relationships especially with handmade products in which they can detect unique qualities and the feeling that the product has been made solely for them. Counter-culture: The aim of the work is to produce alternatives for technoburocracy and mechanical production and to bring subjective and unique experiences into the customerïs monotonious life. This ideology rejects the usual standardized mass production of our times. Mythical character: There is a metamorphosis in the birth of the product. In many ways the design process is about birth and growth. The creative process is a development story of the maker. The complexity of communication is the expression of the moments that have been lived. If you can sense the process of making in the product it makes it more real and nearer to life. Each piece of wood has its own beauty. Before you can work with it you must find the deep soul of its quality. The distinctive traits of the material, technique and the object are an essential part of the metamorphosis which brings the product into life. The form is not only for formïs sake but for other purposes, too. You cannot find loose forms in nature. Products have their beginnings in the material and are a part of the nature. This art craft ideology that supports the ideas of generative design can be applied either to the hand made crafts production or to the production exploiting new technology. The unique characteristics of craft and the expression of the material based development are a way to broaden the expression and forms of industrial products. However, for a crafts person it is not meaningful to fill the world with objects. In generative, computer based production this is possible. But maybe the production of unique pieces is still slower and makes the industrial production in that sense more ecological. People will be more attached to personal and unique objects, and thus the life cycle of the objects produced will be longer.
series other
email mkalviai@kacd.pspt.fi
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 8b37
authors Massie, T.
year 1998
title A Tangible Goal for 3D Modeling
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. pp. 62 - 65. Vol. 18, Issue: 3
summary Although the speed of computers increases exponentially, the amount and quality of useful work that we perform on them seems to increase linearly at best. Faster processors are not enough-to significantly increase the utility of computers requires new computer interfaces. The keyboard was adequate for text-based applications, but the advent of the desktop metaphor and windows computing environment demanded a new mechanical interface-the mouse. As we progress into applications that incorporate interactive life-like 3D computer graphics, the mouse falls short as a user interface device, and it becomes obvious that 3D computer graphics could achieve much more with a more intuitive user interface mechanism. Haptic interfaces, or forcefeedback devices, promise to increase the quality of humancomputer interaction by accommodating our sense of touch. Of all the senses, only touch is bidirectional-allowing us to perceive and change objects simultaneously in the same location. Because the sense of touch is so compelling, researchers have studied it for some time.1,2 (Refer to the annual proceedings of the Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.) Various commercial devices are now available that can accommodate1 even seven degrees of freedom. I used the three degrees-of-freedom Phantom haptic interface for most of the interactions described in this article. Users interact with the Phantom interface with their finger in a thimble or by holding a stylus
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 791e
id 791e
authors Monreal, Amadeo; Jacas, Joan
year 2004
title COMPUTER AIDED GENERATION OF ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGIES
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 73-82.
summary The work we present may be considered as the consolidation of a methodology that was already outlined in the paper presented in the second M&D congress held in San Sebastian (1998). We establish that, in architectural design, the computer is only used in the last step in order to achieve the traditional Euclidean design in a more precise and comfortable way and to improve the quality of the handmade designs. Our proposal consists in modifying the process from the very beginning of the creative act. That is, when the design conception is born. If we want to obtain the maximum benefit of the computer possibilities, we ought to support this conception by means of a language tuned with the mentioned tool. Due to the fact that the internal language used by the computer for producing graphics is mathematical, we must incorporate, in some way, this language in the codification of the creative process. In accordance with this setting, we propose a mathematical grammar for the design based on the construction of modulated standard mathematical functions. This grammar is developed independently from the graphical software and it is specified only when a particular computer program for the effective generation on the graphical objects is selected.
series other
type normal paper
email joan.jacas@upc.es
last changed 2005/04/07 10:49

_id cf9d
authors Yeung, C., Cheung, L., Yen, J. and Cheng, C.
year 1998
title Virtual Classroom for Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 93-102
summary Over the past few years, we have seen that the evolution of the Internet and World Wide Web technologies have significantly enhanced the global communication and collaboration. People, no matter where they are, are virtually getting closer and closer. The barriers that came from time and distance have been partially removed by the use of such technologies. Internet and WWW are not just technology, they are an environment or space. With such breakthrough in technologies, a new paradigm in education is there. The education very differently from what we have now. This paper presents an Internet-based environment to support teaching and learning in architecture education. We will discuss the design concept and how to integrate the technology and knowledge-based techniques to implement the learning environment for architecture students. Architecture is a very specific discipline which consists of the knowledge from arts, sciences, engineering, and more. One of the focuses in architecture education is to teach how to express and communicate design ideas with the multimedia or other technologies, such as, virtual reality (VR). A case study presented in this paper is about how to deliver and present the ancient Chinese temples and its bracket set systems from the server to the browsers to support distance teaching. That is, students and teachers may not be in the same location, but they are able to watch the same objects and to exchange ideas. We will discuss how to use multimedia technologies to illustrate how a temple and its bracket set differ from dynasties to dynasties and introduce its basic properties to the viewers. Moreover, we will discuss how we organize and handle 3-dimensional objects with such system. Many people are still arguing about whether Internet-based teaching or a real classroom setting is better. We are not implying that Internet-based teaching is superior or predicting that it will dominate the teaching in the near future. However, we strongly believe that it is just another alternative to express and represent architectural thinking to over some of the barriers that come from time and distance. We believe, that it is always true, that the Internet-based teaching may provide both teachers and learners greater flexibility and to support more International collaboration. That is, regardless where the students or teachers are, they can always participate in learning or teaching and make teaching and learning much more rich and interesting.
keywords Virtual Classroom
series CAADRIA
email csky@eee.hku.hk
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:44

_id 10
authors Bund, Elizabeth and Barros, Diana Rodriguez
year 1998
title Imagen Digital: Proceso Proyectual Confluyente (Digital Image: Confluyent Design Process)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 84-93
summary The introduction of new technologies in architectural projects causes, in first place, their adaptation as an operative and instrumental resource, without considering the deep changes that their use generates. The digital image, understood as a reference of this process, is spreading and conquering new fields on ideation, representation and communication. The absence of theoretical support, that would offered another point of view is evident, so consequently we believe that is necessary to consider approaches qualitatively new, from epistemologic, methodologic, perceptive and aesthetic fields, in order to transfer them into professional an teaching practice. Today, the annulment of universal validity rules, and the different and contradictory interpretations, oblige to center our view in the interrelationships and,connections, rather than in the definition of each entity. This work develops synthetically a study which confronts and compares traditional project process - composition and heuristic design supported by linear proceeding and analogic media, with confluent project process, based on digital data and hypermedia links, generated simultaneously. The variants of the topics analyzed are at the same time the project itself, the underlying thinking model, and the project communication strategies.
series SIGRADI
email dibarros@mdp.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 48db
authors Proctor, George
year 2001
title CADD Curriculum - The Issue of Visual Acuity
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 192-200
summary Design educators attempt to train the eyes and minds of students to see and comprehend the world around them with the intention of preparing those students to become good designers, critical thinkers and ultimately responsible architects. Over the last eight years we have been developing the digital media curriculum of our architecture program with these fundamental values. We have built digital media use and instruction on the foundation of our program which has historically been based in physical model making. Digital modeling has gradually replaced the capacity of physical models as an analytical and thinking tool, and as a communication and presentation device. The first year of our program provides a foundation and introduction to 2d and 3d design and composition, the second year explores larger buildings and history, the third year explores building systems and structure through design studies of public buildings, fourth year explores urbanism, theory and technology through topic studios and, during the fifth year students complete a capstone project. Digital media and CADD have and are being synchronized with the existing NAAB accredited regimen while also allowing for alternative career options for students. Given our location in the Los Angeles region, many students with a strong background in digital media have gone on to jobs in video game design and the movie industry. Clearly there is much a student of architecture must learn to attain a level of professional competency. A capacity to think visually is one of those skills and is arguably a skill that distinguishes members of the visual arts (including Architecture) from other disciplines. From a web search of information posted by the American Academy of Opthamology, Visual Acuity is defined as an ability to discriminate fine details when looking at something and is often measured with the Snellen Eye Chart (the 20/20 eye test). In the context of this paper visual acuity refers to a subject’s capacity to discriminate useful abstractions in a visual field for the purposes of Visual Thinking- problem solving through seeing (Arnheim, 1969, Laseau 1980, Hoffman 1998). The growing use of digital media and the expanding ability to assemble design ideas and images through point-and-click methods makes the cultivation and development of visual skills all the more important to today’s crop of young architects. The advent of digital media also brings into question the traditional, static 2d methods used to build visual skills in a design education instead of promoting active 3d methods for teaching, learning and developing visual skills. Interactive digital movies provide an excellent platform for promoting visual acuity, and correlating the innate mechanisms of visual perception with the abstractions and notational systems used in professional discourse. In the context of this paper, pedagogy for building visual acuity is being considered with regard to perception of the real world, for example the visual survey of an environment, a site or a street scene and how that visual survey works in conjunction with practice.
keywords Curriculum, Seeing, Abstracting, Notation
series eCAADe
email grproctor@csupomona.edu
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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