CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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References

Hits 61 to 80 of 547

_id c3e0
authors Dorsey, J. and McMillan, L.
year 1998
title Computer Graphics and Architecture: State of the Art and Outlook for the Future
source Computer Graphics, Vol 32, No 1, Feb 1998. pp. 45-48
summary During the three decades since Ivan Sutherland introduced the Sketchpad system, there has been an outpouring of computer graphics systems for use in architecture. In response to this development, most of the major architectural firms around the world have embraced the idea that computer literacy is mandatory for success. We would argue, however, that most of these recent developments have failed to tap the potential of the computer as a design tool. Instead, computers have been relegated largely to the status of drafting instruments, so that the "D" in CAD stands for drafting rather than design. It is important that future architectural design systems consider design as a continuous process rather than an eventual outcome.The advent of computer graphics technology has had an impact on the architectural profession. Computer graphics has revolutionized the drafting process, enabling the rapid entry and modification of designs. In addition, modeling and rendering systems have proven to be invaluable aids in the visualization process, allowing designers to walk through their designs with photorealistic imagery. Computer graphics systems have also demonstrated utility for capturing engineering information, greatly simplifying the analysis and construction of proposed designs. However, it is important to consider that all of these tasks occur near the conclusion of a larger design process. In fact, most of the artistic and intellectual challenges of an architectural design have already been resolved by the time the designer sits down in front of a computer. In seeking insight into the design process, it is generally of little use to revisit the various computer archives and backups. Instead, it is best to explore the reams of sketches and crude balsa models that fill the trash cans of any architectural studio.In architecture, as in most other fields, the initial success of computerization has been in areas where it frees humans from tedious and mundane tasks. This includes the redrawing of floor plans after minor modifications, the generation of largely redundant, yet subtly different engineering drawings and the generation of perspective renderings.We believe that there is a largely untapped potential for computer graphics as a tool in the earlier phases of the design process. In this essay, we argue that computer graphics might play a larger role via applications that aid and amplify the creative process.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e72f
authors Dorta, Tomás and LaLande, Philippe
year 1998
title The Impact of Virtual Reality on the Design Process
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 138-163
summary Sketching, either hand or computer generated, along with other traditional visualization tools such as perspective drawing have difficulty in correctly representing three dimensional objects. Even physical models, in architecture, suffer in this regard because of inevitable scaling. The designer finds himself cut off from the reality of the object and is prone to misinterpretations of the object and its surrounding space and to resulting design errors. These are sometimes not perceived until too late, once the object has been constructed. Traditional tools use 2D media to represent 3D objects and only manage to introduce the third dimension in a limited manner (perspectives, not only tedious to construct, are static). This scenario affects the design process, particularly the cycle of proposal, verification and correction of design hypotheses as well as the cognitive aspects that condition the designer’s visualization of the designed object. In most cases, computer graphics mimic, through its interface, the traditional way of doing things. The architectural model is parametricized with little regard for visualization. No allowance is made for the change in the medium of graphic representation. Moreover, effort is not made to capitalize on the advantages of numerical calculation to propose new interfaces and new dimensions in object visualization. Virtual Reality (VR), seen not only as technology but as experience, brings the 3D object, abstractly viewed by traditional means, into clearer focus and provides us with these new dimensions. Errors due to abstracted representation are reduced since the interface is always three dimensional and the interactions intuitively made in real time thus allowing the designer to experience the presence of the designed object very quickly. At the École de design industriel of the Faculté d’aménagement, we have run tests using non-immersive VR–one passive (comprehension) and another active (design). This project, involving a group of 72 students during a period of six weeks (6h/week), aimed at analyzing the impact of VR as a visualization tool on the design process versus traditional tools. The results, described in this presentation, shed light on the effect of VR on the creative process as such, as well as on the quality of the results produced by that process.

series ACADIA
email dortat@ere.umontreal.ca, lalandep@ere.umontreal.ca
last changed 1998/12/16 07:27

_id 6b33
authors Dudek, I., Czubinski J., Blaise, J.-Y. and Drap, P.
year 1998
title Collaborative Network Tools for the Architectural Analysis in Conservation Research
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 75-84
summary Development of net-based tools initiate a new architecture-computer science junction, offering a possibility to investigate distant exchange and updating of research work on architectural artefacts. Tools such as CAD platforms, rendering software and DBMS are integrated to the every day work of more and more architects and conservationists. Computer tools, which have been introduced in the process of analysing architecture as drawing and data management platforms, now bring to the fore a deeper change: distant analysis. The development of web technologies and the object oriented approach to knowledge representation give us an opportunity of research in the fields of collaborative work on architectural data models. The research presented in this paper focuses on a first set of network operative tools for a co-operation program aimed at developing web-enabled architectural data models referring to the evolution of Cracow's Old Town Hall.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id ddss9819
id ddss9819
authors Emdanat, S. S. and Vakalo, E.-G.
year 1998
title Sharing Design Knowledge Using Shape Algebras
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary Recent work on shape algebras and the maximal element representation produced a uniform and composable representation of shapes. This paper presents ongoing work to formulate a framework for sharing design knowledge based on shape algebras. The shape algebraic definitions are translated into Ontolingua, a framework for representing ontologies. It provides forms for defining classes, relations, functions, objects, and theories that are part of a conceptualization. The paper discusses some of the axioms and definitions of this ontology. It discusses the factors that influenced its design and the selection of its representational abstractions.
series DDSS
email emdanat@umich.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6fdf
authors Emdanat, Samir S. and Vakalo, Emmanuel-G.
year 1998
title An Ontology for Conceptual Design in Architecture
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 425-434
summary This paper presents ongoing efforts to formulate an ontology for conceptual design on the basis of shape algebras. The ontology includes definitions for spatial elements such as points, lines, planes, and volumes, as well as, non-spatial elements such as material properties. The ontology is intended to facilitate sharing knowledge of shapes and their properties among independent design agents. This paper describes the formulation of the ontology and discusses some of its underlying classes, axioms, and relations.
keywords Ontologies, Knowledge Representation
series CAADRIA
email emdanat@umich.edu
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:12

_id 2d75
authors Entous, Marc
year 1998
title Developments in 3D Scanning and Digitizing: New Strategies for an Evolving Design Process
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 212-220
summary The computer is now a widely accepted tool in architecture as a production and business tool. Acceptance of digital technology as a design aid has been much slower, but continuing developments in ease of use, capabilities, and lower costs are encouraging the use of three-dimensional design modeling. As the demand for 3D design computing grows, peripheral digital technologies are also developing and being integrated. This paper describes on-going research into how current and near-future developments in three-dimensional scanning and digitizing technology that have the potential to substantially change processes of architectural design. Scanners, or digitizers, assist in transforming physical objects and models into digital representations. The capabilities of 3D scanners in architectural design have only begun to be explored. Existing and emerging 3D scanning technologies are briefly described followed by a discussion of sample existing, new, and potential uses of these capabilities as a design tool. An experiment is conducted to contrast the differences between stylus-based and laser-based digitizers in an architectural design environment.

series ACADIA
email entous@usc.edu
last changed 1998/12/16 08:40

_id de62
authors Eriksson, Joakim
year 1998
title Planning of Environments for People with Physical Disabilities Using Computer Aided Design
source Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture
summary In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings from six case studies of real planning situations. The case studies indicated that although such a tool would support the design, as well as the dialog between the participants, a certain level of technical and economical efficiency must be obtained. To facilitate the professional planner's work, an important issue is to maintain a large library of 3D objects. With the latest prototype implementation, it was found that such a planning tool can be produced, even when using consumer-oriented computers. One previous critical factor, interactive manipulation of 3D objects, can now be achieved if utilizing modern graphic cards with 3D acceleration. A usability test was performed to evaluate the prototype's basic operations, involving two groups of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with major physical impairments. It was found that although the usability was satisfactory for the basic tasks, several items needed to be improved or added in future versions. It is important with an integrated support for manikins, in order to evaluate, e.g., wheelchair accessibility, reach ability, positioning of handrails, etc. This thesis reviews and compiles published anthropometrical and biomechanical data into a uniform segment-by-segment structure, in order to aid the design and modifications of manikins. The compilation was implemented as a spreadsheet document. An MRI investigation of the neck-shoulder region was performed on 20 healthy Scandinavian, female volunteers, measuring various musculoskeletal properties. These measurements can be used for further refinements of manikin specifications and biomechanical models.
keywords Rehabilitation; Disability; Adaptation; Participatory Planning; Design Tool; 3D Graphics; Computer Aided Design; Virtual Reality; Manikin; Anthropometry; Biomechanics; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cervical Spine Kinematics
series thesis:PhD
email joakim.eriksson@design.lth.se
more http://www.lub.lu.se/cgi-bin/show_diss.pl?db=global&fname=tec_250.html
last changed 2003/02/26 08:21

_id ga9811
id ga9811
authors Feuerstein, Penny L.
year 1998
title Collage, Technology, and Creative Process
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Since the turn of the twentieth century artists have been using collage to suggest new realities and changing concepts of time. Appropriation and simulation can be found in the earliest recycled scraps in Cubist collages. Picasso and Braque liberated the art world with cubism, which integrated all planes and surfaces of the artists' subjects and combined them into a new, radical form. The computer is a natural extension of their work on collage. The identifying characteristics of the computer are integration, simultaneity and evolution which are inherent in collage. Further, the computer is about "converting information". There is something very facinating about scanning an object into the computer, creating a texture brush and drawing with the object's texture. It is as if the computer not only integrates information but different levels of awareness as well. In the act of converting the object from atoms to bits the object is portrayed at the same conscious level as the spiritual act of drawing. The speed and malleability of transforming an image on the computer can be compared to the speed and malleability of thought processes of the mind. David Salle said, "one of the impulses in new art is the desire to be a mutant, whether it involves artificial intelligence, gender or robotic parts. It is about the desire to get outside the self and the desire to trandscend one's place." I use the computer to transcend, to work in different levels of awareness at the same time - the spiritual and the physical. In the creative process of working with computer, many new images are generated from previous ones. An image can be processed in unlimited ways without degradation of information. There is no concept of original and copy. The computer alters the image and changes it back to its original in seconds. Each image is not a fixed object in time, but the result of dynamic aspects which are acquired from previous works and each new moment. In this way, using the computer to assist the mind in the creative processes of making art mirrors the changing concepts of time, space, and reality that have evolved as the twentieth century has progressed. Nineteenth-century concepts of the monolithic truth have been replaced with dualism and pluralism. In other words, the objective world independent of the observer, that assumes the mind is separate from the body, has been replaced with the mind and body as inseparable, connected to the objective world through our perception and awareness. Marshall Mcluhan said, "All media as extensions of ourselves serve to provide new transforming vision and awareness." The computer can bring such complexities and at the same time be very calming because it can be ultrafocused, promoting a higher level of awareness where life can be experienced more vividly. Nicholas Negroponte pointed out that "we are passing into a post information age, often having an audience of just one." By using the computer to juxtapose disparate elements, I create an impossible coherence, a hodgepodge of imagery not wholly illusory. Interestingly, what separates the elements also joins them. Clement Greenberg states that "the collage medium has played a pivotal role in twentieth century painting and sculpture"(1) Perspective, developed by the renaissance archetect Alberti, echoed the optically perceived world as reality was replaced with Cubism. Cubism brought about the destruction of the illusionist means and effects that had characterized Western painting since the fifteenth century.(2) Clement Greenberg describes the way in which physical and spiritual realities are combined in cubist collages. "By pasting a piece of newspaper lettering to the canvas one called attention to the physical reality of the work of art and made that reality the same as the art."(3) Before I discuss some of the concepts that relate collage to working with computer, I would like to define some of the theories behind them. The French word collage means pasting, or gluing. Today the concept may include all forms of composite art and processes of photomontage and assemblage. In the Foreword on Katherine Hoffman's book on Collage Kim Levin writes: "This technique - which takes bits and pieces out of context to patch them into new contexts keeps changeng, adapting to various styles and concerns. And it's perfectly apt that interpretations of collage have varied according to the intellectual inquiries of the time. From our vantage point near the end of the century we can now begin to see that collage has all along carried postmodern genes."(4) Computer, on the other hand is not another medium. It is a visual tool that may be used in the creative process. Patrick D. Prince's views are," Computer art is not concrete. There is no artifact in digital art. The images exist in the computer's memory and can be viewed on a monitor: they are pure visual information."(5) In this way it relates more to conceptual art such as performance art. Timothy Binkley explains that,"I believe we will find the concept of the computer as a medium to be more misleading than useful. Computer art will be better understood and more readily accepted by a skeptical artworld if we acknowledge how different it is from traditional tools. The computer is an extension of the mind, not of the hand or eye,and ,unlike cinema or photography, it does not simply add a new medium to the artist's repertoire, based on a new technology.(6) Conceptual art marked a watershed between the progress of modern art and the pluralism of postmodernism(7) " Once the art is comes out of the computer, it can take a variety of forms or be used with many different media. The artist does not have to write his/her own program to be creative with the computer. The work may have the thumbprint of a specific program, but the creative possibilities are up to the artist. Computer artist John Pearson feels that,"One cannot overlook the fact that no matter how technically interesting the artwork is it has to withstand analysis. Only the creative imagination of the artist, cultivated from a solid conceptual base and tempered by a sophisticsated visual sensitivity, can develop and resolve the problems of art."(8) The artist has to be even more focused and selective by using the computer in the creative process because of the multitude of options it creates and its generative qualities.
series other
email pennyf@mcs.net
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 4062
authors Flanagan Robert and Shannon, Kelly
year 1998
title Digital Studio Confronts Tradition
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 65-71
summary This is a record of a collaborative teaching effort of two architect/educators, each contributing theoretical components to the educational process necessary for the development of an urban housing strategy vis à vis an integrated digital/judgment effort. Twenty graduate architecture students were involved in this ‘computer design studio’. The focus of the studio was the 1997 Otis Elevator Housing Design Competition. A prerequisite introductory computer class was required for participation in this studio. Two distinct analysis and design methodologies were introduced; one concentrating on the formal tectonic aspects of architecture and the other highlighting the multiplicity, and often competing, forces shaping the built reality. The summary offered at the conclusion of this document both supports and questions the direction of the class as a whole and further classifies the relative success and failures of the individual student initiatives. In some cases, the computer simply facilitated (and occasionally hindered) progress. In the most opportunistic examples, the computer undoubtedly changed both the process and the consequence of the design effort.  
series eCAADe
email rflanaga@carbon.cudenver.edu, kelly.shannon@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
more http://www.eaae.be/
last changed 2000/11/21 08:13

_id ddss9820
id ddss9820
authors Fukui, H.
year 1998
title An Example of Visualization for Urban Economic Scenery andUrban Modeling using GIS
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper presents a zone-based urban model to forecast population distribution and land use transition. A GIS model has been suggested for urban economic scenery forecasting by using data related to an urban environment like Tokyo in Japan. The model has structural simplicity, visibility and applicability of policy analysis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id aac0
authors Garcia, Renato
year 1998
title Structural Feel or Feelings for Structure? - Stirring Emotions through the Computer Interface in Behaviour Analysis of Building Structures
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 163-171
summary The use of computers in the analysis of architectural structures has at present become indispensable and fairly routine. Researchers & professionals in architecture and engineering have taken advantage of current computer technology to develop richer and more comprehensive interactive interfaces in systems designed to analyse structural behaviour. This paper discusses a research project which attempts to further enrich such computer interfaces by embodying emotion or mood (affective) components into them and assessing the effects of incorporating these into multimodal learning modules for students of architecture at the University of Hong Kong. Computer structural analysis is most often used to determine the final state of a structure after full loading, but can also be used very ably to depict the time-history behaviour of a structure. The time-dependent nature of this process of behaviour provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate emotion cues for added emphasis and reinforcement. Studying time-history behaviour of structures is a vital part of classroom learning in structures and this why such emotion cues can have significant impact in such an environment. This is in contrast to the confines of professional engineering practices where these cues may not be as useful or desirable because oftentimes intermediate time history data is bypassed as a blackbox and focus is placed primarily on bottomline analysis results. The paper will discuss the fundamental basis for the establishment of emotional cues in this project as well as it's implementation-which consists mainly of two parts. The first involves 'personifying' the structure by putting in place a structure monitoring system analogous to human vital signs. The second involves setting up a 'ladder' of emotion states (which vary from feelings of serenity to those of extreme anxiety) mapped to the various states of a structures stability or condition. The paper will further elaborate on how this is achieved through the use of percussion, musical motifs, and chord progression in resonance with relevant graphical animations. Initially in this project, emotion cues were used to reinforce two structural behaviour tutoring systems developed by this author (3D Catenary Stuctures module & Plastic Behaviour of Semi-rigid Steel Frames module). These modules were ideal for implementing these cues because both depicted nonlinear structural behaviour in a mainly time-history oriented presentation. A brief demonstration of the actual learning modules used in the project study will also be presented together with a discussion of the assessment of it's effectiveness in actual classroom teaching.
keywords Affective Interfaces, Human-Computer Interaction, Computer-Aided-Engineering
series CAADRIA
email rjgarcia@hku.hk
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:38

_id ecaade2018_243
id ecaade2018_243
authors Gardner, Nicole
year 2018
title Architecture-Human-Machine (re)configurations - Examining computational design in practice
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 139-148
summary This paper outlines a research project that explores the participation in, and perception of, advanced technologies in architectural professional practice through a sociotechnical lens and presents empirical research findings from an online survey distributed to employees in five large-scale architectural practices in Sydney, Australia. This argues that while the computational design paradigm might be well accepted, understood, and documented in academic research contexts, the extent and ways that computational design thinking and methods are put-into-practice has to date been less explored. In engineering and construction, technology adoption studies since the mid 1990s have measured information technology (IT) use (Howard et al. 1998; Samuelson and Björk 2013). In architecture, research has also focused on quantifying IT use (Cichocka 2017), as well as the examination of specific practices such as building information modelling (BIM) (Cardoso Llach 2017; Herr and Fischer 2017; Son et al. 2015). With the notable exceptions of Daniel Cardoso Llach (2015; 2017) and Yanni Loukissas (2012), few scholars have explored advanced technologies in architectural practice from a sociotechnical perspective. This paper argues that a sociotechnical lens can net valuable insights into advanced technology engagement to inform pedagogical approaches in architectural education as well as strategies for continuing professional development.
keywords Computational design; Sociotechnical system; Technology adoption
series eCAADe
email n.gardner@unsw.edu.au
last changed 2018/07/24 10:23

_id 46bb
authors Gerzso, J. Michael
year 1998
title Speculations on a Machine-Understandable Language for Architecture
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 302-314
summary One of the objectives of research in computer-aided design in architecture has been to make computer tools or instruments for architectural design, not just drafting. There has been work presented at ACADIA and other conferences related to artificial intelligence, data bases, shape grammars, among others. In all of these cases, existence of a computer language in one form or another is implied. The purpose of this paper is to argue that the progress in the development of intelligent design systems (IDS) is closely linked to the progress of the languages used to implement such systems. In order to make the argument, we will adopt an approach of first specifying the characteristics of an IDS in terms of a conceptual framework of computer languages in a CAD system in general, and what it means to develop a machine-understandable language for architectural CAD in particular. The framework is useful for classifying research projects and for structuring a research agenda in architectural CAD.
series ACADIA
email 104164.341@compuserve.com
last changed 1998/12/16 07:38

_id 9bee
authors Gerzso, J. Michael
year 2001
title Automatic Generation of Layouts of an Utzon Housing System via the Internet
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 202-211
summary The article describes how architectural layouts can be automatically generated over the Internet. Instead of using a standard web server sending out HTML pages to browser client, the system described here uses an approach that has become common since 1998, known as three tier client/server applications. The server part of the system contains a layout generator using SPR(s), which stands for “Spatial Production Rule System, String Version”, a standard context- free string grammar. Each sentences of this language represents one valid Utzon house layout. Despite the fact that the system represents rules for laying out Utzon houses grammatically, there are important differences between SPR(s) and shape grammars. The layout generator communicates with Autocad clients by means of an application server, which is analogous to a web server. The point of this project is to demonstrate the idea that many hundreds or thousands of clients can request the generation of all of the Utzon layouts simultaneously over the Internet by the SPR(s) server, but the server never has to keep track when each client requested the generation of all of the layouts, or how many layouts each client has received.
keywords Internet, Spatial-Production-Rules Grammars, Utzon
series ACADIA
email 104164.341@compuserve.com
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 0280
authors Geva, Anat
year 2000
title New Media in Teaching and Learning History of Building Technology
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 5-8
summary Numerous scholars in the field of education established that relevance is one of the important instructional components that influence students’ interest and motivation to learn (Bergin, 1999; Frymier and Shulman, 1995; Schumm and Saumell, 1995). Relevance can be achieved by juxtaposing personal experiences with professional scientific principles (Pigford, 1995; Blanton, 1998). In addition to the relevancy of a course substance Blanton (1998) recommends that instructors should introduce the material in an organized system that is relevant to the learner’s life.
series ACADIA
email architectanatgeva@archone.tamu.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id ac21
id ac21
authors Giddings B, Horne M
year 2008
title The Changing Patterns of Architectural Design Education
source Architecture and Modern Information Technologies, Vol. 3, No. 4. ISSN-1998-4839
summary Digital technologies have been introduced to students of architecture for over two decades and at present it could be argued that students are producing some of the highest quality designs, and some of the most interesting forms ever to come from University Schools. The value of computer aided design (CAD) is also being demonstrated in architectural practice, with high profile, large budget, bespoke and iconic buildings designed by internationally renowned architects. This paper reviews the changing patterns of architectural design education and considers the contribution digital technologies could make to buildings with more commonplace uses. The study offers a perspective on different kinds of buildings and considers the influence that emerging technologies are having on building form. It outlines digital technologies, alongside students’ application for architectural design and considers the role they could play in the future, in developing a shared architectural language. It is suggested that some of the biggest opportunities for future research will be in the design of external spaces, often a neglected part of architectural design education.
keywords architectural design education, digital technologies
series other
type normal paper
email m.horne@unn.ac.uk
more http://www.marhi.ru/AMIT
last changed 2008/11/02 19:38

_id 4e03
authors Grady, J.M.
year 1998
title Virtual Reality: Computers Mimic the Physical World
source New York: Facts on File
summary In the Science Sourcebook series, a clear and sensible approach to the wonders and mysteries of virtual reality, including its history and some possible scenarios for the future. Grady compares the state of virtual reality to the situation of television in its earliest years: Everyone thought it was great, but it was wildly expensive, and the technology had not yet caught up to the possibilities. He takes a tour through virtual reality's history, and describes its current uses, still in their infancy, in medicine, architecture, business, science, and, of course, fun and games. He writes quite accurately about the function of virtual realityessentially to fool the mind and body into creating a multidimensional experience from computers, software, and devices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id b0d2
authors Greenberg, S. and Roseman, M.
year 1998
title Groupware Toolkits for Synchronous Work
source Beaudouin-Lafon, M. (ed.) Computer - Supported Cooperative Work, Trends in Software Series, John Wiley
summary Groupware toolkits let developers build applications for synchronous and distributed computer-based conferencing. This chapter describes four components that we believe toolkits must provide. A run-time architecture automatically manages the creation, interconnection, and communications of both centralized and distributed processes that comprise conference sessions. A set of groupware programming abstractions allows developers to control the behaviour of distributed processes, to take action on state changes, and to share relevant data. Groupware widgets let interface features of value to conference participants be added easily to groupware applications. Session managers let people create and manage their meetings and are built by developers to accommodate the group's working style. We illustrate the many ways these components can be designed by drawing on our own experiences with GroupKit, and by reviewing approaches taken by other toolkit developers.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9822
id ddss9822
authors Gribnau, M.W., Verstijnen, I.M. and Hennessey, J.M.
year 1998
title Three Dimensional Object Orientation Using the Non-Dominant Hand
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The paper presents the “Turntable”, a 3D input device for orienting objects using the non-dominant hand. The device supports two-handed manipulation by allowing the non-dominant hand to orient an object while leaving the dominant hand free to perform other actions. Two-handed input is a technique that can enhance the performance, simplicity and intuitiveness of CAD systems. These properties are obligatory for CAD systems dedicated to support the conceptual phase of the design process. Anexperiment has been conducted in which the performance of the Turntable was compared to that of a well known 3D orientation method, known in literature as the “virtual sphere”. The virtual sphere is operated with the mouse using the dominant hand and is documented to be easy to use and efficient. The experiment establishes that a performance gain can be expected from a two-handed user interface that employs the Turntable for 3D object orientation with the non-dominant hand. In a single-handedinterface users must switch between rotating and manipulating an object. In a two-handed interface however, task switching is unnecessary and an additional performance benefit can be achieved when there is temporal overlap in the execution of the two tasks. Experimental results show that the Turntable, operated by the non-dominant hand, is easy to learn and its performance and accuracy are nearly equal to that of the virtual sphere operated by the dominant hand. With these results it can now be expected that a two-handed interface utilizing the Turntable performs better than a single-handed one for manipulating objects in 3D.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9823
id ddss9823
authors Groot, E.H. de and Pernot, C.E.E.
year 1998
title Energy Impact Knowledge-based System project:Outcomes of the Netherlands Workshops
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary Overcoming barriers in the current building process that hinder the realisation of optimal energy efficiency in buildings is the aim of the Energy Impact Knowledge-based System [EIKS] project. During this project, a demo-version of a knowledge based assistive information and decision supportsystem was developed, considering the design and evaluation of integrated daylight and artificial lighting systems for office rooms. Twenty workshops with building experts were carried out in four European countries. The first set of sixteen workshops delivered the specifications of the system.During the second set of four workshops, this prototype was shown to some of the building experts who had attended one of the workshops of the first series. The outcomes of the first series EIKS workshops were very general and not really specifying the EIKS-prototype as expected. However, from the generally enthusiastic response of participants during the second workshop series it can be concluded that the prototype is a good basis for further development.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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