CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 544

_id e184
authors Popov, V., Popova, L. and De Paoli, G.
year 1998
title Towards an Object-Oriented Language for the Declarative Design of Scenes
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 316-353
summary We propose a prototype “kernel” of an object-oriented language, SOML (Scene Objects Modeling Language), intended to assist in the declarative design of scenes in image synthesis. This language is an attempt to provide the designer with a tool to facilitate the rapid prototyping of 3D scenes. It can also serve as a tool for knowledge acquisition and representation , and for communication and exchange of data with other tools in a design environment. Advantages offered by the implementation of SOML are: (a) from user’s viewpoint: the possibility of declarative description of the initial concept associated with the target scene in terms of properties and constraint vocabulary, the possibility of quantitative and qualitative reasoning on these properties, the modification of the intermediate solutions to different levels of detail, the utilisation of previous solutions; and (b) from the implementation viewpoint: the structuring of the properties and methods in the form of domain knowledge, the optimal solution generation according to heuristic causal-probabilistic criteria, the transformation of the semantic concept description of the scene in generic entry code for a geometrical CSG modeler or for rendering and visualization software, the integration of functionality for parameter generation and modification, the compilation of a scene from components of other final scenes and operations of geometrical transformations acting on groups of scenes. We present the architecture of the object-based implantation of the language and its interpreter, in the unified notation formalism UML. The utilization of the SOML language is illustrated by some examples.
series ACADIA
email popov@giotto.univ-poitiers.fr, popova@giotto.univ-poitiers.fr, depaolig@ere.umontreal.ca
last changed 1998/12/16 07:38

_id 0f09
authors Ando, H., Kubota, A. and Kiriyama, T.
year 1998
title Study on the collaborative design process over the internet: A case study on VRML 2.0 specification design
source Design Studies 19, pp. 289-308
summary In this paper, we analyze the process of VRML 2.0 (Virtual Reality Modeling Language, Version 2.0) specification design for the deeper understanding of Internet-based collaboration. The VRML design process has the characteristics of being open to the public, geographically distributed, long-term, large-scale, and diverse. First, we examine the overall features of the design process by analyzing the VRML mailing list archive statistically. Secondly, we extract prototyping vocabulary (operational patterns) from the document change log. Thirdly, we analyze the process of proposing and agreeing with the PROTO node in detail. The results of analysis provide us with a guidance for facilitating innovation in the Internet-based collaboration.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c11a
authors Campbell, D.A.
year 1998
title VRML In Architectural Construction Documents: A Case Study
source VRML 98 Monterey - Proceedings of the 1998 VRML Conference, pp. 115-120
summary The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and the World Wide Web (WWW) offer new opportunities to communicate an architect's design intent throughout the design process. We have investigated the use of VRML in the production and communication of construction documents, the final phase of architectural building design. A prototype, experimental Web site was set up and used to disseminate design data as VRML models and HTML text to the design client, contractor, and fabricators. In this paper, we discuss the way our construction documents were developed in VRML, the issues we faced implementing it, and critical feedback from the users of the Web space/site. Finally, we suggest ways to enhance the VRML specification which would enable its widespread use as a communication tool in the design and construction industries. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: 1.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object Modeling - Curve, surface, solid, and object representations; 1.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism - Virtual Reality; J-6. [Computer Applications]: Computer-aided Engineering - Computer-aided design (CAD), Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM). Additional Keywords: architecture, construction, AEC, design, construction documentation, specifications, Internet, extranet, World Wide Web, VRML, virtual worlds, virtual environments
series other
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id c0e0
authors Campbell, Dace
year 1998
title Architectural Construction Documents on the Web: VRML as a Case Study
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 266-275
summary The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and the World Wide Web (WWW) offer new opportunities to communicate an architect’s design intent throughout the design process. We have investigated the use of VRML in the production and communication of construction documents, the final phase of architectural building design. A prototype, experimental Web site was set up and used to disseminate design data as VRML models and HTML text to the design client, contractor, and fabricators. In this paper, we discuss the way our construction documents were developed in VRML, the issues we faced implementing it, and critical feedback from the users of the Web space/site. We analyze the usefulness of VRML as a communication tool for the design and construction industries. Finally, we discuss technical, social, and legal issues the AEC industry faces as it shifts to embrace widespread use of a “paperless” Web-based communications infrastructure for design documentation.
series ACADIA
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 1998/12/16 08:42

_id c721
authors Dauner, J., Landauer, E. and Fraunhofer, I.
year 1998
title 3D Product Presentation Online: The Virtual Design Exhibition
source VRML 98 - Third Symposium on the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. S. N. Spencer. Monterey, CA, ACM: 57-62
summary VRML offers a high potential for product presentation: Instead of regarding flat, static pictures, configurable and animated 3D models embedded in entertaining environments provide a new way of product presentation. But seriously using VRML for this application domain means facing several challenges. We discuss these issues by using the Virtual Design Exhibition as a showcase. In this exhibition seven interior design companies show products with high aesthetic quality. We discuss how these aesthetics influence the VRML presentation and give some guidelines resulting from our experience. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: H.5.1 [Information Interfaces and Presentation] Multimedia Information; Systems - Artificial realities H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation] User Interfaces - Screen design; I.3.6 [Computer Graphics] Methodology and Techniques - Interaction techniques
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 0453
authors McIntosh, Patricia G.
year 1998
title The Internet as Communication Medium and Online Laboratory For Architecture Research
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 151-157
summary This case study documents the experiences of two courses recently conducted on the Internet. The courses are a sequence of core methods courses offered to post-professional degree architecture students studying in a Computer Aided Design concentration in a Master of Science program. In these courses the students use the Internet as a communication medium and as a research tool using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). The VRML interface in the Web browser serves as an online laboratory and presents new opportunities for communication and for studying distributed computing in a multimedia and multidimensional environment.
series eCAADe
email pgm@cox.net
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/09mcintosh/index.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 253a
authors Snyder, James Daniel
year 1998
title Conceptual modeling and application integration in CAD: the essential elements
source Camegie Mellon University, School of Architecture, Pittsburgh
summary A research focus in design research has been the exchange of information between different participants in the design process. While information system automation has occurred in various areas, known as islands of informafion, significant software integration has yet to emerge. A current belief among researchers in this area is that support for information sharing will require shared resources, and more specifically, shared descriptions of the information to be exchanged. If buildings are viewed as a product, the notion of a product and process modeling system ought to support the electronic exchange of information between various design process participants. While significant research has been done, no consensus has emerged as to a satisfactory solution to design information exchange. Many important contributions have been discovered, however, no overall strategy has emerged that embraces both the research issues as well as the practical issues surrounding information exchange. To address the above issues in a specific context, a series of experiments were conducted utilizing a prototype modeling framework that supports product modeling via the Object Model Language (Om). The results of these experiments along with a literature survey allowed for a comprehensive set of product/process modeling requirements. The resulting requirements were then formalized into a product /process modeling environment that includes a modeling language called SPROUT (supported by a compiler) and an associated software architecture that can be targeted toward many different hardware and software platforms. A particularly unique capability supported in this environment is formal support for integrating existing software systems. Given a schematic description in SPROUT, a formal specification can be used to generate computer programs that provably map data to and from the application program.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 44e0
authors Weishar, Peter
year 1998
title Digital Space: Designing Virtual Environments
source New York: McGraw-Hill
summary Take control of the latest technology in 3D design with this comprehensive guide for architects, designers, illustrators, and graphics professionals. Digital Space provides start-to-finish, how-to instructions of 3D design that close the gap between software manuals and traditional architecture and design books. Chapters include: industry overview...planning...space design...modeling...lighting...textures...interior space...exterior space...rendering...tips and techniques...glossary of terms. The non-technical language and abundant illustrations make Digital Space: Designing Virtual Environments one of the most accessible guides to 3D design on the market. From basic concepts to sophisticated applications, it covers: the design process; optimal working techniques; 3D modeling; methods of streamlining complex tasks; real world case studies; extensive interviews with famous 3D artists.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4f8e
authors Yeung, C., Kan, C., Bradford, J. and Wong, R.
year 1998
title Campus Guided Tour VR System for the University of Hong Kong
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 77-82
summary Virtual Reality has been an ideal environment for visualizing three-dimensional models as well as implementing simulation systems such as flight training and surgery preparation. In such a system, the user can be familiar himself/herself with a particular environment or the procedure of a task even before going into the real site or actually performing a task. In this project, we are trying to implement a Guided Tour System inside a Virtual Reality Environment. Basically, a three-dimensional model of the campus of the University of Hong Kong will be built in the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). It is now possible to have a 3D visualization of the model in any Web browser. A non-directed graph can be built based on the 3D model with every branch representing a path, and every node represents a specific location inside the campus. Based on this graph, we can calculate all possible routes between any two nodes and deduce the shortest path between them. The guided tour system is designed in such a way that whenever the user attempts to move to a new place inside the campus, he/she will be brought to there in the quickest way automatically with just a few “mouse-click”. In this project, the Cosmo VRML player will be used as the browser’s plugin, and other associated tasks are developed in Javascript.
keywords Virtual Reality, Guided Tour
series CAADRIA
email csky@eee.hku.hk
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:46

_id ddss9804
id ddss9804
authors Assaf, S.
year 1998
title A Decision Support System (DSS) for Forward Housing Planning
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper presents a specification of a Local Housing Strategy Decision Support System (LHS-DSS) (Conceptual and Physical model design). Emphasis throughout the design process is laid on the techniques that provide housing planners with accurate rapid assistance during the preparation process of local housing strategy. Relevant knowledge (descriptive, procedural, reasoning) and data about each step of the process, options for each situation as it arises, and a record of decisions made with underlying reasons are provided to system users. Three main components are identified to shape up the LHS-DSS: the language system for addressing housing problems; knowledge system which is responsible for gathering and accumulating the housing knowledge required; and problem processing system (an inquiry system) which produces suitable and effective recommendations to support the strategy preparation process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7436
authors Barría Chateau, H., Muñoz Viveros, C. and Cerda Brintrup, G.
year 1999
title Virtual Tour Through Modern Architecture in Conception
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 475-477
summary This paper describes the development of a project that was selected and sponsoured by the Regional Competition FONDART 1998 (Funds for the Development of Arts of the Regional Secretary of Education) that follows the aim of cultural diffusion. Towards the middle of the 30s, the city of Concepción developed an architecture distinctly colonial, neoclassical and eclectic. An earthquake in 1939 abruptly interrupted this scene, destroying the enterity of its most important buildings. The reconstruction of the city followed the manifestoes of Modern Architecture, consolidating the urban importance of buildings such us the Law Courts, the Railway Station and the Regional Government, that emerged as the new architectural and cultural heritage of the city. The project consisted on the modeling of eleven buildings of the modern architectural heritage, and on the generation of 42 virtual tours through the buildings that were finally edited on a 16' video. This video allows the spectator to make a virtual tour through the original modern heritage of the city, nowadays demolished, altered, and sometimes, even forgotten. This project pretends to widen the ways of comprehension of our cultural identity by using computer modelling and animation as a tool for the conservation of the architectural heritage; and creating a record that can be used as a reference and as an instrument of cultural difussion.
series SIGRADI
email mtrebilc@zeus.dci.ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id b335
authors Bayle, E., Bellamy, R., Casaday, G., Erickson, T., Fincher, S., Grinter, B., Gross, B., Lehder, D., Marmolin, H., Moore, B., Potts, C., Skousen, G. and Thomas, T.
year 1998
title Putting It All Together: Towards a Pattern Language for Interaction Design Reports
source ACM SIGCHI Bulletin 1998 v.30 n.1 pp.17-23
summary Pattern languages are representations that have been used in architecture and urban design for about twenty years. They focus on the interaction between physical form and social behavior, and express design solutions in an understandable and generalizable form. But pattern languages are not simply set of patterns intended to be universally applied; instead, they are actually meta-languages which, when used in a particular situations, generate situated design languages. This report describes a CHI 97 workshop which explored the utility of pattern languages for interaction design. We discuss the workshop's rationale, the structure and process of the workshop, and some of the workshop's results. In particular, we describe some patterns developed as part of the workshop, and our consequent reflections on the use of patterns and pattern languages as lingua franca for interaction design. This report concludes with a bibliography on pattern languages and related matters that spans architecture, software design, and organizational design.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 029f
authors Bermudez, Julio and King, Kevin
year 1998
title Media Interaction & Design Process: Establishing a Knowledge Base
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 6-25
summary Integrating computers in architectural design means to negotiate between centuries-old analog design methods and the new digital systems of production. Analog systems of architectural production use tracing paper, vellum, graphite and ink, clipboard, clay, balsa wood, plastic, metal, etc. Analog systems have also been termed ‘handmade’, ‘manual’, ‘material’ or ‘physical’. Digital systems of architectural production use scanning, image manipulation, visualization, solid modeling, computer aided drafting, animation, rendering, etc. Digital systems have also been called ‘electronic’, ‘computer-aided’, ‘virtual’, etc. The difficulty lies in the underdeveloped state of the necessary methods, techniques, and theories to relate traditional and new media. Recent investigations on the use of multiple iterations between manual and electronic systems to advance architectural work show promising results. However, these experiments have not been sufficiently codified, cross-referenced and third party tested to conform a reliable knowledge base. This paper addresses this shortcoming by bringing together reported experiences from diverse researchers over the past decade. This summary is informed by more than three years of continuous investigation in the impacts of analog-digital conversations in the design process. The goal is to establish a state-of-the-art common foundation that permits instructors, researchers and practitioners to refer to, utilize, test, criticize and develop. An appendix is included providing support for the paper’s arguments.

series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu, kingke@slcc.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 487c
authors Blazquez, Oscar and Hardin, Mary
year 1998
title Balancing Computer Use and Design Content in Studio Projects
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 36-43
summary Particular design approaches must be taught in order to take advantage of the strengths of computers in design rather than attempting to make computers conform to methods developed as by-products of manual design techniques. For the last three years our team of faculty teaching the second year design studio has been trying different approaches to the use of computers in design, in order to find the advantages and opportunities especially suited to electronic media. There are several projects during the semester which use computers at different stages of the design process. One of these projects, called “A Spatial Sequence,” uses information from a previous project as well as the knowledge from the computer class in parallel to design studio. The project asked students to create spatial archetypes based on the work of well-known architects. They explore the following topics as represented in the work of one particular architect: relationships of major spaces/minor spaces, approach/entry, and transition/threshold. Following the analysis, they create digital models to explore the spaces formed by their archetypes. Before committing to a physical study model, they look at the transitions between spaces by creating a sequence using the digital model and producing a series of shots through the digital model to show the flow of spaces. The use of computer through the process accelerates the options available to explore a sequence of elements, while simultaneously giving them a window to look into the spaces they have created. This hybridized approach of precedent analysis, digital modeling, and physical modeling was uniquely suited to the studio problem.

series ACADIA
email blasquez@u.arizona.edu, mchardin@u.arizona.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9808
id ddss9808
authors Boelen, A.J.
year 1998
title Pattern Matching for Decision Support
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary In this paper is discussed how we can use pattern matching techniques in combination with object orientation to support decision makers in arranging offices and industrial and commercial facilities in existing urban areas. The method used is based on the findings of a Ph.D. project almost finishedwhen writing this. The tool under development is specifically useful for rehabilitation of deteriorated industrial or commercial areas.I consider such an area already occupied and surrounded with all kinds of urban objects and connected to all kinds of infrastructure. I can describe this area in available objects and facilities. Furthermore we can describe the areas capacity left within the infrastructure, the capacity in forexample work force or clients and the available band width in noise or pollution. By describing the area in terms of availability of capacity to absorb or produce flows of people, goods, energy and information we sketch the room available for certain types of industrial or commercial facilities. I developed a technique to describe industrial and commercial facilities in such a way that we enable the match between these and the characteristics of an area available. Pattern matching techniquesenable the system to generate best matches between available areas, locations and facilities. This model can be adapted in several object oriented geographical information systems and be integrated with other information systems that for example calculate the pollution of certain kinds of facilities. The rules to match with are partly based on objective, measurable data like available capacity on the electricity network and needed electrical power for certain facilities. Other matching rules are based on political norms on for example acceptable pollution levels and suggested pollution of facilities. The paper presents the problem area of industrial area rehabilitation, describes the architecture of the modeling technique and presents the first findings of implementation studies.
keywords Pattern matching, Object GIS, Urban object modeling, Facility planning
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9807
id ddss9807
authors Boelen, A.J. and Lugt, Hermen J. van der
year 1998
title Communication of design parameters within groups
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper discusses the facilitation of worldwide concurrent design within the domains involved in environmental planning, urban design and civil engineering. Typical projects in these domains require the collaboration of many experts. Each of these has his reference framework for the taskat hand and for the variables used. The amount of variables makes it impossible for each project participant to take account for all possible impacts of proposed or planned actions. The typical project demands for a concurrent design process that enables all participants to concentrate ontheir domain of expertise. On the other hand the design process should enable them to have insight in the problems, within the domains of other experts. The system should provide a generic environment with the ability to attach domain specific knowledge. By providing this support thesystem integrates knowledge specific to various expert domains.In the PortPlan project within the LWI organization a system is being developed that supports the integration of various reference frameworks involved in environmental planning. We no longer need to develop a common language for the users. The system contains a dynamic set of scalebound reference objects for the domains involved. The system facilitates the communication of object characteristics. It also supports the presentation of these objects, in legends for each participant involved.We achieve the communication between participants using a dynamic legend. We also enable all participants to become informed on the interests of other participants. We achieve the technical communication using the exchange of interventions. We do not exchange results. This leads to alow "network traffic load" and thus enables the system to operate within the current Internet infrastructure. In this paper we present the problem area of concurrent design in environmental planning. We present this describing the background of our project, describing the overall architecture of the system and presenting the first findings of user studies.
keywords Concurrent Design, Interfaces, Legends
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a47a
authors Bourdakis, V.
year 1998
title Navigation in Large VR Urban Models. In Virtual Worlds
source J. Heudin (ed.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1434, Springer, Berlin, pp. 345-356
summary The aim of this research project is to utilise VR models in urban planning in order to provide easy-to-use visualisation tools that will allow non-experts to understand the implications of proposed changes to their city. In this paper, the navigation problems identified whilst working on large VR city models are discussed and a "fly" based navigation mode is proposed and evaluated.

keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email V.Bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
more http://fos.prd.uth.gr/vas/papers/VW98/
last changed 2003/04/02 09:55

_id bb72
authors Bourdot, P., Krus, M., Gherbi, R.
year 1998
title Cooperation Between Reactive 3D Objects and a Multimodal X Window Kernel for CAD
source Bunt, H., Beun, R.J., Borghuis, T. (Eds.). Multimodal Human-Computer Communication : Systems, Techniques, and Experiments. Berlin : Springer
summary From the early steps of sketching to final engineering, a frequent and very important activity in designing objects is to perform graphical and spatial simulations to solve the constraints on the objects which are being designed. But when we analyse work situations involving the use of CAD systems, it is today an acknowledged fact that these tools are not helpful to perform these types of simulations. While knowledge modeling based on form feature concepts already offers some possibilities for attaching behaviour to objects, the simulation activity requires in addition a `real time' and `intelligent' management of the interactions between the 3D virtual objects and the CAD user. Our general purpose is to study how future CAD systems could be improved to achieve the simulation steps of object design. In this context we present some issues concerning the cooperation between a model of reactive 3D objects and a multimodal X Window kernel. We have developed a prototype of a system where objects with reactive behaviour can be built, and with which the user can interact with a combination of graphical actions and vocal commands. This prototype is used to evaluate the feasability and the usefulness of the integration of such techniques in futur applications that would be used by object designers in a real working context. We describe the current state of this system and the planned improvements.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a841
authors Brady, Darlene A.
year 1998
title Premise & Process: The Pedagogical Implications of Computing in Design
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 31-39
summary Form is capable of communicating a profound idea only when it is linked to a more essential metaphorical intention. The design studio is a forum for addressing this relationship of idea and the means of expression. Computing offers the potential to enhance the design enquiry, but issues of how and when to integrate computer applications in the studio have significant pedagogical implications. It not only has an impact on the size, complexity and number of design projects, but also on whether architectural ideas or computer technology is the content of the studio. It is important to distinguish between the computer image and the process used to achieve the final result. Many computer-based studios focus on the final product which encourages technology to drive design. This paper addresses how design issues can determine the use of technology so that design ideas and computing can reinforce each other, rather than be competing issues. It examines how the unique strengths of computer modeling and animation is used to explore the relationship between visual expression and intention via the issues of metaphor, tectonic color, context and kinetics in several of my graduate and upper-level undergraduate computer-based design studios in the School of Architecture at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UI-UC). The studio topics are diverse in nature and include Normative Studio: Prototype as Formgiver; Urban Issues: Context, Color & Kinetics; and Virtual Metaphors: Literature as Formgiver.

series eCAADe
email architexture@earthlink.net
more http://www.eaae.be/
last changed 2000/11/21 08:10

_id 0471
authors Bruton, B.
year 1998
title Grammars and Pedagogy - Towards new Media Art and Design Education Strategies
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 385-394
summary The impact of computational grammatical design on pedagogy has received little attention in art education due to the dominant modes of traditional approaches to art and design education. This paper explores the pedagogical implications of grammatical strategies using computers for judgements of design within an art educational setting. Grammatical strategies are studied for their effect on the judgements of novice artists in a new media educational context. It is argued that concepts of grammar and views of contingency are used in a variety of senses in the conception and form making of artists; that finding methods for discussing and utilising complex visual information is aided by grammatical formalisation; that these strategies are evidently effective at both early and mature stages of the realisation of a project. The research explores the relation between computer and art on three levels in which grammar is used: as a sense of grammar, as a computational paradigm and as a description of a kind of computer program. Grammatical formalism is apparent in two dimensional linear and non-linear animations using Photoshop, Premiere and Director, and in solid modelling programs such as Extreme 3D, Form Z, Strata Studio Pro, 3D Studio Max and SoftImage. Web site construction also impacts on the judgements of 2D and 3D design. Computational grammatical programs generate forms that reflect alternative understandings of art and design. Art practise is defined in terms of developing consistent and appropriate design language for the contingency at hand. Form making using grammatical tools, both recursive and array types, is discussed in terms of their applicability and educative value. Reference is made to formal qualities for critique and strategic capability of alternative pedagogy for generation of forms. Examples provided show how simple rule sets develop into complex derivational sequences that challenge traditional strategies for computer imaging. The paper demonstrates the value of a sense of grammars for novice art and design practitioners by using first hand examples of experimental work at the South Australian School of Art, University of South Australia. For novice artists and designers, grammars in conjunction with reflective practice is offered as a useful mind set that supports an interest in actively defining a new kind of art. Illustrations provided show the utility of a contingent sense of grammar for pedagogy and highlights the significant role of grammar in pedagogy.
keywords Grammar, Pedagogy, Computer, Art, Design
series CAADRIA
email d.bruton@unisa.edu.au
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:15

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