CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 549

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e72f
authors Dorta, Tomás and LaLande, Philippe
year 1998
title The Impact of Virtual Reality on the Design Process
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 138-163
summary Sketching, either hand or computer generated, along with other traditional visualization tools such as perspective drawing have difficulty in correctly representing three dimensional objects. Even physical models, in architecture, suffer in this regard because of inevitable scaling. The designer finds himself cut off from the reality of the object and is prone to misinterpretations of the object and its surrounding space and to resulting design errors. These are sometimes not perceived until too late, once the object has been constructed. Traditional tools use 2D media to represent 3D objects and only manage to introduce the third dimension in a limited manner (perspectives, not only tedious to construct, are static). This scenario affects the design process, particularly the cycle of proposal, verification and correction of design hypotheses as well as the cognitive aspects that condition the designer’s visualization of the designed object. In most cases, computer graphics mimic, through its interface, the traditional way of doing things. The architectural model is parametricized with little regard for visualization. No allowance is made for the change in the medium of graphic representation. Moreover, effort is not made to capitalize on the advantages of numerical calculation to propose new interfaces and new dimensions in object visualization. Virtual Reality (VR), seen not only as technology but as experience, brings the 3D object, abstractly viewed by traditional means, into clearer focus and provides us with these new dimensions. Errors due to abstracted representation are reduced since the interface is always three dimensional and the interactions intuitively made in real time thus allowing the designer to experience the presence of the designed object very quickly. At the École de design industriel of the Faculté d’aménagement, we have run tests using non-immersive VR–one passive (comprehension) and another active (design). This project, involving a group of 72 students during a period of six weeks (6h/week), aimed at analyzing the impact of VR as a visualization tool on the design process versus traditional tools. The results, described in this presentation, shed light on the effect of VR on the creative process as such, as well as on the quality of the results produced by that process.

series ACADIA
email dortat@ere.umontreal.ca, lalandep@ere.umontreal.ca
last changed 1998/12/16 07:27

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9801
id ddss9801
authors Achten, Henri and Leeuwen, Jos van
year 1998
title A Feature-Based Description Technique for Design Processes: A Case Study
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary In order to develop appropriate tools for decision support in design processes, it is necessary to found them on an understanding of design. Analytical techniques of design processes that have a direct relationship with tool development can enhance design support systems development. The paper focuses on a design support system in the VR-DIS research program. The aim of this research program is to develop insight in the architectural design process and to establish design tools for architectsworking in Virtual Reality. The basic approach for data modelling in VR in this research is based on an extension of the Feature Based Modelling paradigm taken from design in mechanical engineering. The computer model of the design in the system is a Feature-based model. This paper describes design processes in terms of changes in the Feature-based model of the design. For this purpose, a case of a house design is used. Drawings in the conceptual design phase up to the preliminary design phase arestudied. Each state of the drawings is described in terms of a Feature-model. Particular design actions such as creation of spaces, definition of architectural elements, and changes during the design process can be expressed in terms of changes in the Feature-model. Because of the use of Features, the changes can be formalised in the VR-DIS system. The description in terms of Features offers an analytical toolthat leads to a functional brief for design support tools. The paper ends with a discussion of implications and future work.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0f09
authors Ando, H., Kubota, A. and Kiriyama, T.
year 1998
title Study on the collaborative design process over the internet: A case study on VRML 2.0 specification design
source Design Studies 19, pp. 289-308
summary In this paper, we analyze the process of VRML 2.0 (Virtual Reality Modeling Language, Version 2.0) specification design for the deeper understanding of Internet-based collaboration. The VRML design process has the characteristics of being open to the public, geographically distributed, long-term, large-scale, and diverse. First, we examine the overall features of the design process by analyzing the VRML mailing list archive statistically. Secondly, we extract prototyping vocabulary (operational patterns) from the document change log. Thirdly, we analyze the process of proposing and agreeing with the PROTO node in detail. The results of analysis provide us with a guidance for facilitating innovation in the Internet-based collaboration.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 215e
authors Bai, Rui-Yuan and Liu, Yu-Tung
year 1998
title Towards a Computerized Procedure for Visual Impact Analysis and Assessment - The Hsinchu Example
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 67-76
summary This paper examines the procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment proposed by Rahman and reviews the use of CAD applications in urban projects in the real world. A preliminary computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is proposed. An experiments was conducted in our laboratory to verify the preliminary procedure. In order to further study the revised procedure in real urban projects, it was also applied into the renew project of The Eastern Gate Plaza located in the center of city Hsinchu, Taiwan from 1996 to 1998. According to several face-to-face discussions with Hsinchu habitants, government officials, and professional designers, a final computerized procedure for visual impact analysis and assessment is concluded.
keywords Environmental Simulation, Visual Impact Analysis and Assessment, Virtual Reality
series CAADRIA
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a841
authors Brady, Darlene A.
year 1998
title Premise & Process: The Pedagogical Implications of Computing in Design
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 31-39
summary Form is capable of communicating a profound idea only when it is linked to a more essential metaphorical intention. The design studio is a forum for addressing this relationship of idea and the means of expression. Computing offers the potential to enhance the design enquiry, but issues of how and when to integrate computer applications in the studio have significant pedagogical implications. It not only has an impact on the size, complexity and number of design projects, but also on whether architectural ideas or computer technology is the content of the studio. It is important to distinguish between the computer image and the process used to achieve the final result. Many computer-based studios focus on the final product which encourages technology to drive design. This paper addresses how design issues can determine the use of technology so that design ideas and computing can reinforce each other, rather than be competing issues. It examines how the unique strengths of computer modeling and animation is used to explore the relationship between visual expression and intention via the issues of metaphor, tectonic color, context and kinetics in several of my graduate and upper-level undergraduate computer-based design studios in the School of Architecture at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UI-UC). The studio topics are diverse in nature and include Normative Studio: Prototype as Formgiver; Urban Issues: Context, Color & Kinetics; and Virtual Metaphors: Literature as Formgiver.

series eCAADe
email architexture@earthlink.net
more http://www.eaae.be/
last changed 2000/11/21 08:10

_id c0e0
authors Campbell, Dace
year 1998
title Architectural Construction Documents on the Web: VRML as a Case Study
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 266-275
summary The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and the World Wide Web (WWW) offer new opportunities to communicate an architect’s design intent throughout the design process. We have investigated the use of VRML in the production and communication of construction documents, the final phase of architectural building design. A prototype, experimental Web site was set up and used to disseminate design data as VRML models and HTML text to the design client, contractor, and fabricators. In this paper, we discuss the way our construction documents were developed in VRML, the issues we faced implementing it, and critical feedback from the users of the Web space/site. We analyze the usefulness of VRML as a communication tool for the design and construction industries. Finally, we discuss technical, social, and legal issues the AEC industry faces as it shifts to embrace widespread use of a “paperless” Web-based communications infrastructure for design documentation.
series ACADIA
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 1998/12/16 08:42

_id 1d83
authors Dodge, M., Doyle, S. and Smith, A.
year 1998
title Visual Communication in Urban Planning and Urban Design
source Working Paper 2; Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis Working Papers; London; June 1998
summary This Case Study documents the current status of visual communication in urban design and planning. Visual communication is examined through discussion of standalone and network media, specifically concentrating on visualisation on the World Wide Web (WWW). First, we examine the use of Solid and Geometric Modelling for visualising urban planning and urban design. This report documents and compares examples of the use of Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) and proprietary WWW based Virtual Reality modelling software. Examples include the modelling of Bath and Glasgow using both VRML 1.0 and 2.0. The use of Virtual Worlds and their role in visualising urban form within multi-user environments is reviewed. The use of Virtual Worlds is developed into a study of the possibilities and limitations of Virtual Internet Design Arena's (ViDA's), an initiative undertaken at the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London. The use of Virtual Worlds and their development towards ViDA's is seen as one of the most important developments in visual communication for urban planning and urban design since the development plan. Secondly, the role of photorealistic media in the process of communicating plans is examined. The process of creating photorealistic media is documented, and examples of the Virtual Streetscape and Wired Whitehall Virtual Urban Interface System are provided. The conclusion is that, although the use of photo-realistic media on the WWW provides a way to visually communicate planning information, its use is limited. The merging of photorealistic media and solid geometric modelling in the creation of Augmented Reality is reviewed. Augmented Reality is seen to provide an important step forward in the ability quickly and easily to visualise urban planning and urban design information. Third, the role of visual communication of planning data through GIS is examined in terms of desktop, three dimensional, and Internet based GIS. The evolution to Internet GIS is seen as a critical component in the development of virtual cities that will allow urban planners and urban designers to visualise and model the complexity of the built environment in networked virtual reality. Finally, a viewpoint is put forward of the Virtual City, linking Internet GIS with photorealistic multi-user Virtual Worlds. At present there are constraints on how far virtual cities can be developed, but a view is provided on how these networked virtual worlds are developing to aid visual communication in urban planning and urban design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id de62
authors Eriksson, Joakim
year 1998
title Planning of Environments for People with Physical Disabilities Using Computer Aided Design
source Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture
summary In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings from six case studies of real planning situations. The case studies indicated that although such a tool would support the design, as well as the dialog between the participants, a certain level of technical and economical efficiency must be obtained. To facilitate the professional planner's work, an important issue is to maintain a large library of 3D objects. With the latest prototype implementation, it was found that such a planning tool can be produced, even when using consumer-oriented computers. One previous critical factor, interactive manipulation of 3D objects, can now be achieved if utilizing modern graphic cards with 3D acceleration. A usability test was performed to evaluate the prototype's basic operations, involving two groups of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with major physical impairments. It was found that although the usability was satisfactory for the basic tasks, several items needed to be improved or added in future versions. It is important with an integrated support for manikins, in order to evaluate, e.g., wheelchair accessibility, reach ability, positioning of handrails, etc. This thesis reviews and compiles published anthropometrical and biomechanical data into a uniform segment-by-segment structure, in order to aid the design and modifications of manikins. The compilation was implemented as a spreadsheet document. An MRI investigation of the neck-shoulder region was performed on 20 healthy Scandinavian, female volunteers, measuring various musculoskeletal properties. These measurements can be used for further refinements of manikin specifications and biomechanical models.
keywords Rehabilitation; Disability; Adaptation; Participatory Planning; Design Tool; 3D Graphics; Computer Aided Design; Virtual Reality; Manikin; Anthropometry; Biomechanics; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cervical Spine Kinematics
series thesis:PhD
email joakim.eriksson@design.lth.se
more http://www.lub.lu.se/cgi-bin/show_diss.pl?db=global&fname=tec_250.html
last changed 2003/02/26 08:21

_id 50a1
authors Hoffman, Donald
year 1998
title Visual Intelligence
source Norton Publishing, New York
summary After his stroke, Mr. P still had outstanding memory and intelligence. He could still read and talk, and mixed well with the other patients on his ward. His vision was in most respects normal---with one notable exception: He couldn't recognize the faces of people or animals. As he put it himself, "I can see the eyes, nose, and mouth quite clearly, but they just don't add up. They all seem chalked in, like on a blackboard ... I have to tell by the clothes or by the voice whether it is a man or a woman ...The hair may help a lot, or if there is a mustache ... ." Even his own face, seen in a mirror, looked to him strange and unfamiliar. Mr. P had lost a critical aspect of his visual intelligence. We have long known about IQ and rational intelligence. And, due in part to recent advances in neuroscience and psychology, we have begun to appreciate the importance of emotional intelligence. But we are largely ignorant that there is even such a thing as visual intelligence---that is, until it is severely impaired, as in the case of Mr. P, by a stroke or other insult to visual cortex. The culprit in our ignorance is visual intelligence itself. Vision is normally so swift and sure, so dependable and informative, and apparently so effortless that we naturally assume that it is, indeed, effortless. But the swift ease of vision, like the graceful ease of an Olympic ice skater, is deceptive. Behind the graceful ease of the skater are years of rigorous training, and behind the swift ease of vision is an intelligence so great that it occupies nearly half of the brain's cortex. Our visual intelligence richly interacts with, and in many cases precedes and drives, our rational and emotional intelligence. To understand visual intelligence is to understand, in large part, who we are. It is also to understand much about our highly visual culture in which, as the saying goes, image is everything. Consider, for instance, our entertainment. Visual effects lure us into theaters, and propel films like Star Wars and Jurassic Park to record sales. Music videos usher us before surreal visual worlds, and spawn TV stations like MTV and VH-1. Video games swallow kids (and adults) for hours on end, and swell the bottom lines of companies like Sega and Nintendo. Virtual reality, popularized in movies like Disclosure and Lawnmower Man, can immerse us in visual worlds of unprecedented realism, and promises to transform not only entertainment but also architecture, education, manufacturing, and medicine. As a culture we vote with our time and wallets and, in the case of entertainment, our vote is clear. Just as we enjoy rich literature that stimulates our rational intelligence, or a moving story that engages our emotional intelligence, so we also seek out and enjoy new media that challenge our visual intelligence. Or consider marketing and advertisement, which daily manipulate our buying habits with sophisticated images. Corporations spend millions each year on billboards, packaging, magazine ads, and television commercials. Their images can so powerfully influence our behavior that they sometimes generate controversy---witness the uproar over Joe Camel. If you're out to sell something, understanding visual intelligence is, without question, critical to the design of effective visual marketing. And if you're out to buy something, understanding visual intelligence can help clue you in to what is being done to you as a consumer, and how it's being done. This book is a highly illustrated and accessible introduction to visual intelligence, informed by the latest breakthroughs in vision research. Perhaps the most surprising insight that has emerged from vision research is this: Vision is not merely a matter of passive perception, it is an intelligent process of active construction. What you see is, invariably, what your visual intelligence constructs. Just as scientists intelligently construct useful theories based on experimental evidence, so vision intelligently constructs useful visual worlds based on images at the eyes. The main difference is that the constructions of scientists are done consciously, but those of vision are done, for the most part, unconsciously.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0beb
authors Koch, Volker and Russell, Peter
year 2000
title VuuA.Org: The Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 23-25
summary In 1998, architecture schools in the three nation region of the upper Rhine came together to undertake a joint design studio. With the support of the Center for Entrepeneurship in Colmar, France, the schools worked on the reuse of the Kuenzer Mill situated near Herbolzheim, Germany. The students met jointly three times during the semester and then worked on the project at their home universities usng conventional methods. This project was essential to generating closer ties between the participating students, tutors and institutions and as such, the results were quite positive. So much so, that the organisers decided to repeat the exercise one year later. However, it became clear that although the students had met three times in large groups, the real success of a co-operative design studio would require mechanisms which allow far more intimate interaction among the participants, be they students, teachers or outside experts. The experiences from the Netzentwurf at the Institut für Industrielle Bauproduktion (ifib) showed the potential in a web based studio and the addition of ifib to the three nation group led to the development of the VuuA platform. The first project served to illuminate the the differences in teaching concepts among the partner institutions and their teaching staff as well as problems related to the integration of students from three countries with two languages and four different faculties: landscape architecture, interior design, architecture and urban planning. The project for the Fall of 1999 was the reuse of Fort Kléber in Wolfisheim by Strasbourg, France. The students again met on site to kick off the Semester but were also instructed to continue their cooperation and criticism using the VuuA platform.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, CSCW, International Cooperation, Planning Platform
series eCAADe
email volker.koch@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de, peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
more http://www.vuua.org
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id cd01
authors Kolarevic, B. (et. al.)
year 1998
title An Experiment in Design Collaboration
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 90-99
summary Computer supported communication and collaboration among partners in the building design and construction process are no longer mere possibilities, but, given the will and know-how of the participants, a reality. Team members could work on a building design at any place, simultaneously together (synchronously) or separately (asynchronously), while the latest state of the design would always be available in a shared database. But to be successful, this emerging type of cooperation often requires new design and communication methods. This paper documents an experimental approach to design collaboration, tested in an intensive, one-week long Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions. It briefly describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting process of collaboration, and the lessons learned.

series ACADIA
email branko@hku.hk, schmitt@arch.ethz.ch, hirsch@arch.ethz.ch, kurmann@arch.ethz.ch, brj@u.washington.edu
last changed 1998/12/16 08:36

_id 10f9
authors Kvan, Th., West, R. and Vera, A.
year 1998
title Tools and Channels of Communication
source International Journal of Virtual Reality, 3:3, 1998, pp. 21-33
summary This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the effects of computer-mediated communication on collaboratively solving design problems. When setting up a virtual design community; choices must be made between a variety of tools; choices dictated by budget; bandwidth; ability and availability. How do you choose between the tools; which is useful and how will each affect the outcome of the design exchanges you plan? A commonly used method is to analyze the work done and to identify tools which support this type of work. In general; research on the effects of computer-mediation on collaborative work has concentrated mainly on social-psychological factors such as deindividuation and attitude polarization; and used qualitative methods. In contrast; we propose to examine the process of collaboration itself; focusing on separating those component processes which primarily involve individual work from those that involve genuine interaction. Extending the cognitive metaphor of the brain as a computer; we view collaboration in terms of a network process; and examine issues of control; coordination; and delegation to separate sub-processors. Through this methodology we attempt to separate the individual problem-solving component from the larger process of collaboration.
keywords Expertise; Collaboration; Novice
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 9
authors Stipech, Alfredo
year 1998
title Un Nuevo Horizonte Arquitectonico, Productivo e Intelectual (A New Architectural, Productive and Intelectual Horizon)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 76-83
summary This work presents the pedagogical experience of a Design Workshop that investigated the impact of the digital and analogic means on the architectonic design process This work was based on the research of Dr. Arch. Julio BermÝdez who also directed this workshop in 1997. This class was part of the Training Program organized by the "Centro de Informatica y Diseho" (CID) at the "Universidad Nacional del Litoral" FADU (Facultad de Arquitectura Diseho y Urbanismo) Santa Fe, Argentina and made possible by the ongoing International Program of Academic Exchange between the FADU and the (University of Utah Graduate School of Architecture (IPAE Project NO 4). The experimental studio utilized an architectural problem to study the procedural, technical, interpretative and theoretical issues associated with the relationship of contemporary media and design process. The pedagogical vehicle was a program that expresses in itself the meeting or collision between two cultures competing for dominance at the end of the millennium: the immemorial material culture (corporeal, tectonic) and the new and everyday more influent virtual culture (information, nets, media, simulation). The premise for the design process, communication and criticism was the constant migration between the digital and analog representation systems. Within this theoretical-practical context semantic aspects containing different representation modalities were used such as physical and electronic models along with systematic and sensitive drawings (manuals, pixels and with CAD). Hybrid interfaces took a leading role in the process since they allowed the communication between analog and digital media through the creative and technical interaction between scanner, video and computer. This architectural and media context generated an intense pedagogic environment fostering the development of creativity and a critical attitude while allowing concrete breakthroughs in the teaching process and format design. Our work reflects on these results showing examples of stud-go works and providing a final evaluation of this unique experience in Argentina.
series SIGRADI
email arqasoc@satlink.com
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id f02d
authors Vries, B. de, Achten, H. and Jessurun, J.
year 1998
title What offers Virtual Reality to the Designer?
source Proceedings of Conference on Integrated Design & Process Technology, Berlin, Germany
summary Virtual Reality being a relatively new technology receives much attention in scientific research as well as in public news media. In the first case because of the technical problems that still have to be solved to offer the functionality and performance required by the application developers. In the second case because of the appealing interface between the application user and the computer system. Design in general and especially architectural design has a long-standing tradition in solving design problems by mixing artistic and scientific approaches. Research has resulted in design theories and methodologies in order to better understand the design process and from that to improve the quality of the designed product. Before applying Virtual Reality as an enabling technology for design, the characteristics of the technology and of the application must be specified. This is not an easy job since VR is not yet very 'stable' and design is a very complex process. From the knowledge and experience in the Calibre research group a first draft of a specification is presented so that we can draw some conclusions on the applicability of VR for design.
series other
email b.d.vries@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 56
authors Barron, Alicia and Chiarelli, Julia
year 1998
title Proyecto Para la Red de un Estudio de Arquitectura (Project for the Network of a Studio of Architecture)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 418-425
summary A consequence of the globalization on information processes in the way in which new technologies influence on design and production processes. There is no doubt that there is an increasingly and a big change in the areas of architecture design concerning to the operational and working methodology on graphic and alphanumeric information. Now a day it is not a far away Utopia, but a soon to come reality that architects interact in a virtual manner with their individual or institutional clients in their own country, as well as in foreign countries. Keeping these considerations in mind, we elaborated this Paper in order to present one of the existing criteria for the organization of graphic information jointly with its spatial relationship. The work presented herewith shows the development of an informatic net for an ideal mega-studio which in its professional and entrepreneurial profile covers tasks such as design, construction, graphic design and representation of foreign concerns. In the net design and in the selection of equipment for computing design area are covered all the variables at every instance.
series SIGRADI
email barron@ub.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 029f
authors Bermudez, Julio and King, Kevin
year 1998
title Media Interaction & Design Process: Establishing a Knowledge Base
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 6-25
summary Integrating computers in architectural design means to negotiate between centuries-old analog design methods and the new digital systems of production. Analog systems of architectural production use tracing paper, vellum, graphite and ink, clipboard, clay, balsa wood, plastic, metal, etc. Analog systems have also been termed ‘handmade’, ‘manual’, ‘material’ or ‘physical’. Digital systems of architectural production use scanning, image manipulation, visualization, solid modeling, computer aided drafting, animation, rendering, etc. Digital systems have also been called ‘electronic’, ‘computer-aided’, ‘virtual’, etc. The difficulty lies in the underdeveloped state of the necessary methods, techniques, and theories to relate traditional and new media. Recent investigations on the use of multiple iterations between manual and electronic systems to advance architectural work show promising results. However, these experiments have not been sufficiently codified, cross-referenced and third party tested to conform a reliable knowledge base. This paper addresses this shortcoming by bringing together reported experiences from diverse researchers over the past decade. This summary is informed by more than three years of continuous investigation in the impacts of analog-digital conversations in the design process. The goal is to establish a state-of-the-art common foundation that permits instructors, researchers and practitioners to refer to, utilize, test, criticize and develop. An appendix is included providing support for the paper’s arguments.

series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu, kingke@slcc.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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