CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 6
authors Neiman, Bennett and Bermudez, J.
year 1998
title Entre la Civilizacion Analoga y la Digital: El Workshop de Medios y Manipulacion Espacial (Between the Analogue and Digital Civilization: Workshop of Media and Space Manipulation)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 46-55
summary As the power shift from material culture to media culture accelerates, architecture finds itself in the midst of a clash between centuries old analog design methods (such as tracing paper, vellum, graphite, ink, chipboard, clay, balsa wood, plastic, metal, etc.) and the new digital systems of production (such as scanning, video capture, image manipulation, visualization, solid modeling, computer aided drafting, animation, rendering, etc.). Moving forward requires a realization that a material interpretation of architecture proves limiting at a time when information and media environments are the major drivers of culture. It means to pro-actively incorporate the emerging digital world into our traditional analog work. It means to change. This paper presents the results of an intense design workshop that looks, probes, and builds at the very interface that is provoking the cultural and professional shifts. Media space is presented and used as an interpretive playground for design experimentation in which the poetics of representation (and not its technicalities) are the driving force to generate architectural ideas. The work discussed was originally developed as a starting exercise for a digital design course. The exercise was later conducted as a workshop at two schools of architecture by different faculty working in collaboration with it's inventor. The workshop is an effective sketch problem that gives students an immediate start into a non-traditional, hands-on, and integrated use of contemporary media in the design process. In doing so, it establishes a procedural foundation for a design studio dealing with digital media.
series SIGRADI
email bneiman@ix.netcom.com, bermudez@arch.utah.edu
more http://www. arch.utah.edu/people/faculty/julio/studio.htm
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7560
authors Gomez, Nestor
year 1998
title Conceptual Structural Design Through Knowledge Hierarchies
source Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pittsburgh
summary Computer support for conceptual design still lags behind software available for analysis and detailed design. The Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design (SEED) project has the goal of providing design generation and exploration capabilities to aid in the conceptual design of buildings, from architectural programming and layout to enclosure design and structural configuration. The current work presents a component of the efforts of the SEED-Config Structure group in providing computer support for conceptual structural design. The Building Entity and Technology (BENT) approach models data about building elements in a general, hierarchical form, where design evolution is represented by the growing specificity of the design description. Two methods of system-supported design generation are provided: case-based reasoning and application of knowledge rules. The knowledge rules, termed technologies, and how they are specified and used are the primary focus of this thesis. In the BENT approach, conceptual structural engineering knowledge is modularized into technology nodes arranged in a directed 'AND/OR' graph, where OR nodes represent alternative design decisions and AND nodes represent problem decomposition. In addition, nodes in the graph may also be specified as having AND/OR incoming arcs thus reducing the duplication of nodes and enhancing the representational power of the approach. In order to facilitate the incorporation of new knowledge into the system, and verify and/or change the knowledge already in the system, the data model and the interface allow for dynamic creation, browsing, and editing of technology nodes. Design generation through the use of the knowledge hierarchy involves the conditional application of nodes according to the design context as represented by the building element(s) under consideration. Each application of a technology node expands the design of building elements by increasing the detail of the design description or by decomposing the elements into less abstract components. In addition, support for simultaneous design of multiple elements and for iteration control are also provided. An important feature of the BENT approach is that the generative knowledge (i.e., the technology hierarchy) is detached from the information repository (i.e., the database of entities which make up the building). This allows the technology hierarchies to be used in a modular fashion from building problem to building problem.
series thesis:PhD
email ngomez@eng.fiu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id acadia03_047
id acadia03_047
authors Martens, B., Brown, A. and Turk, Z.
year 2003
title Automated Classification of CAAD-related Publications: Conditions for Setting-Up a Keywording System
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 365-371
summary This paper deals with the CUMINCAD-repository (Cumulative Index on CAD), which was set up in 1998 and has served the CAAD-community since then as an important source of archived domain related information. CUMINCAD contains over 5,000 entries in the form of publications in the field of Computer Aided Architectural Design. The number has been growing steadily over the years. To date only advanced search mechanisms have been provided to access these works. This may work out well for a just-in-time location of a reference, but is inadequate for just in case browsing through the history of CAAD. For such applications, a hierarchical browsing interface, like one in Yahoo or DMOZ.org is envisioned. This paper describes how the keyword categories were defined and how a moderate, distributed effort in defining the categories will allow machine-identified classification of the entire data set. The aim of the paper is to contribute to building up a wide spread consensus on what the appropriate keyword categories in CAAD are, and what sub-topics should sit below the main keyword categories.
keywords Web-based Bibliographic Database; Searchable Index; CAAD Research; Classification
series ACADIA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id 30
authors Vizcaino, M.S., Leal, M., Maria, L., Persia, M. and Tamagnini, A.
year 1998
title Base de Datos Bodega (Data Base Warehouse)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 232-237
summary The architectural objects and their site are an indivisible part of the concrete culture of a place.in order to achieve the protection of the Cultural Property, the indispensable previous step is the fulfilment of an inventory. If a good inventory is not available, serious tasks of public awareness could not be carried out, nor could be adopted policies or specific safeguard projects. Besides, neither criteria nor protective measurements in the plans of urban or regional development could be incorporated. Finally, we could not discuss with the sufficient scientific support. San Juan has climatic features typical of and regions with high seismic risk, scarce hydric resources, landscape diversity and singular vegetation. This favoured the cultivation of vineyards as well as the construction of important industrial buildings. In this sense, the Architecture of the Vine Production and Wine - making gave rise to establishments (buildings and sites), whose architectural characteristics, in a holistic consideration, are part of the Provincial Architectural Patrimony. A relational database structured by fields related to different levels of information was designed so as to fulfil this inventory. The data processing application used enables to search and ask for information by means of an easy access interface with the following possibilities :expansion, versatility in the design of visualization-printing plugs and readiness to migrate to other formats.
series SIGRADI
email msoria@unsj.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id 38
authors Combes., Leonardo and Saito, Keiko
year 1998
title Exploracion de Alternativas Formales de Edificios Ortogonales (Exploration of Formal Alternatives of Orthogonal Buildings)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 286-291
summary The shape of buildings determines the relationships between the contained spaces with the contained activities. As shapes are represented by their perimeter, the form and the length of building perimeters is of particular interest to architectural design. This paper presents a short computer program oriented to the exploration of modular floor plans related to their perimeter. The characteristics of a class of orthogonal configurations called polyminoes has been taken as a basis for the programming work. Polyminoes are briefly presented in the first part of the paper as well as some data concerning their geometrical structure. The operation of the computer program illustrated by some working examples, is described in the last part of the paper. The results obtained can be used for comparison between alternative shapes. Additional information about these modular shapes is given together with every particular form so as to ease the evaluation task. In these terms the program must be seen as a tool of assessment rather than as a designing procedure.
series SIGRADI
email labsist@herrera.unt.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 0c54
authors Datta, Sambit and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1998
title Reducing Semantic Distance in Generative Systems: A Massing Example
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 164-171
summary Generative design formalisms utilise discrete, constructive steps to encode strategies for formal change. In physical design media, the pervasive metaphor for doing design is the direct and continuous manipulation of the developing form. The goal of our investigation is to develop mixed initiative approaches to design exploration. In this paper, we address how constrained manipulation in generative systems can support both discrete and continuous modes of interaction. Massing is a common strategy for processing conceptual notions about three dimensional form. We use massing models of tenth century temple cellas as an example to illustrate an environment for constrained manipulation.

series ACADIA
email sdatta@arch.adelaide.edu.au, rw@arch.adelaide.edu.au
last changed 1998/12/16 07:41

_id a114
authors Faucher, Didier and Nivet, Marie-Laure
year 1998
title Playing with Design Intent: Integration of Physical and Urban Constraints in CAD
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 118-137
summary Our work deals with the exploration of a universe of forms that satisfy some design intents. That is, we substitute a “generate and test” approach for a declarative approach in which an object is created from its properties. In this paper we present an original method that takes into account design intents relative to sunlight, visibility and urban regulation. First of all we study how current CAD tools have considered these properties until now. Our conclusion is that the classical design / simulation / analysis process does not suit design practices, especially in the early stages. We think that an improved CAD system should offer the architect the option of manipulating abstract information such as design intents. We define an intent as a conceptual expression of constraints having an influence on the project. For instance, a visual intent will be stated with no reference to vision geometry: “ from this place, I want to see the front of the new building”. We show how to represent each of these constraints with a 3D volume associated to some characteristics. If some solutions exist, we are sure that they are included in these volumes. For physical phenomena we compute the volume geometry using the principles of inverse simulation. In the case of urban regulation we apply deduction rules. Design intents are solved by means of geometrical entities that represent openings or obstructions in the project. Computing constraint volumes is a way of guiding the architect in his exploration of solutions. Constraint volumes are new spaces that can restore the link between form and phenomenon in a CAD tool. Our approach offers the designer the possibility of manipulating design intents.

series ACADIA
email didier.faucher@cerma.archi.fr
last changed 2003/04/28 12:12

_id 4942
authors Gardner, Brian M.
year 1998
title The Grid Sketcher: An AutoCAD Based Tool for Conceptual Design Processes
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 222-237
summary Sketching with pencil and paper is reminiscent of the varied, rich, and loosely defined formal processes associated with conceptual design. Architects actively engage such creative paradigms in their exploration and development of conceptual design solutions. The Grid Sketcher, as a conceptual sketching tool, presents one possible computer implementation for enhancing and supporting these processes. It effectively demonstrates the facility with which current technology and the computing environment can enhance and simulate sketching intents and expectations. One pervasive and troubling undercurrent, however, is the conceptual barrier between the variable processes of human thought and those indigenous to computing. Typically with respect to design, the position taken is that the two are virtually void of any fundamental commonality. A designer’s thoughts are intuitive, at times irrational, and rarely follow consistently identifiable patterns. Conversely, computing requires predictability in just these endeavors. Computing is strictly an algorithmic process while thought is not always so predictable. Given these dichotomous relationships, the computing environment, as commonly defined, cannot reasonably expect to mimic the typically human domain of creative design. In this context, this thesis accentuates the computer’s role as a form generator as opposed to a form evaluator. The computer, under the influence of certain contextual parameters can, however, provide the designer with a rich and elegant set of forms that respond through algorithmics to the designer’s creative intents. The software presented in this thesis is written in AutoLISP and exploits AutoCAD’s capacious 3D environment. Designs and productions respond to a bounded framework where user selected parametric variables of size, scale, proportion, and proximity, all which reflect contextual issues, determine the characteristics of a unit form. Designer selected growth algorithms then arbitrate the spatial relationships between the unit forms and their propagation through the developing design. While the Sketcher implements only the GRID as an organizational discipline, many other paradigms are possible. Within this grid structure a robust set of editing features, supported by the computer’s inherent speed, allows the designer to analyze successive productions while refining ever more complex solutions. Through creative manipulation of these algorithmic structures ideas eventually coalesce to formalize images that represent a given design problem’s solution set.

series ACADIA
email jvcarch@mcione.com
last changed 1998/12/16 08:41

_id 8a40
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 1998
title A Pedagogical Model for an Introductory CAAD Course
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 39-46
summary This paper presents a pedagogical model developed for an introductory CAAD course in the first year of architecture studies. The model is based on a set of exercises that emphasize the use of electronic media for the collection of information, its distribution, presentation, transformation, interpretation, and abstraction. The primary goal was to enable students to creatively apply digital media in their design work by simultaneously introducing them to a wide range of applications, and by enabling them to engage in abstract exploration of shapes, forms, and images.
keywords Electronic Design Media, Pedagogy, CAAD Education
series CAADRIA
email branko@pobox.upenn.edu
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 2002/12/20 11:38

_id 220b
authors Potier, S., Malret, J.-L-. and Zoller, J.
year 1998
title Computer Graphics: Assistance for Archaeological Hypotheses
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 366-383
summary This paper is a contribution to the domain of computer tools for architectural and archeological restitution of ancient buildings. We describe an application of these tools to the modeling of the 14th century AD. Thermae of Constantin in Arles, south of France. It was a diploma project in School of Architecture of MarseilleLuminy, and took place in a context defined in the European ARELATE project. The general objective of this project is to emphasize the archeological and architectural heritage of the city of Arles; it aims, in particular, to equip the museum of ancient Arles with a computer tool enabling the storage and consultation of archaeological archives, the communication of information and exchange by specialized networks, and the creation of a virtual museum allowing a redescription of the monuments and a “virtual” visit of ancient Arles. Our approach involves a multidisciplinary approach, calling on architecture, archeology and computer science. The archeologist’s work is to collect information and interpret it; this is the starting point of the architect’s work who, using these elements, suggests an architectural reconstruction. This synthesis contains the functioning analysis of the structure and building. The potential provided by the computer as a tool (in this case, the POV-Ray software) with access to several three-dimensional visualizations, according to hypotheses formulated by the architect and archaeologists, necessitates the use of evolutive models which, thanks to the parametrization of dimensions of a building and its elements, can be adapted to all the changes desired by the architect. The specific contribution of POV-Ray in architectural reconstruction of thermae finds its expression in four forms of this modeling program, which correspond to the objectives set by the architect in agreement with archeologists: (a) The parametrization of dimensions, which contributes significantly in simplifying the reintervention process of the architectural data base; (b) Hierarchy and links between variables, allowing “grouped” modifications of modelized elements in order to preserve the consistency of the architectural building’s morphology; (c) The levels of modeling (with or without facing, for example), which admit of the exploration of all structural and architectural trails (relationship form/ function); and, (d) The “model-type,” facilitating the setting up of hypotheses by simple scaling and transformation of these models (e.g., roofing models) on an already modelled structure. The methodological validation of this modeling software’s particular use in architectural formulation of hypotheses shows that the software is the principal graphical medium of discussion between architect and archaeologist, thus confirming the hypotheses formulated at the beginning of this project.

series ACADIA
email stephane.potier@wanadoo.fr, jlm@marseille.archi.fr, jz@gamsau.archi.fr
last changed 1998/12/16 07:40

_id 2a12
authors Burry, Mark and More, Gregory
year 1998
title Representation, Realism and Computer Generated Architectural Animation
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 241-249
summary This paper documents a simple architectural form which, but for computer generated animation, has no ready alternative explanatory process for its complex generation. The subject is a column in the nave of the Sagrada Familia Church in Barcelona conceived by Gaudí at the beginning of this century without the contemporary opportunities for animated design exploration. The column is based on a set of counter-rotating mutually interfering profiles. As the column gains height, the profiles increase in interference with each other resulting in an increasingly fluted cross section, a tendency towards the Doric Order. For most, however, there is no easy access to a plausible explanation of the inherent rationale for the column. Animating the generation of the column reveals a unique and concealed sublimation of natural patterns of growth. Animation aids an understanding of the effect of the fourth dimension on design itself by releasing a meaning of time from an otherwise inanimate object. Here animation is used to decipher one aspect of the mystery of Gaudí's design while strengthening another: the source and conceptual power of Gaudí to anticipate this phenomenon. Rather than trivialising this design mystery, the explanatory role of the animation enriches comprehension of the formal concept of mutation through displacement or an evolutionary design paradigm. The paper discuss the implications of this ability to show transition, translation and dislocation without delving too deeply into how the animation was made, nor indeed the subject which, after all, requires animation to fully represent its less tangible qualities.
series plCAD
email mark.burry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id 8b37
authors Massie, T.
year 1998
title A Tangible Goal for 3D Modeling
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. pp. 62 - 65. Vol. 18, Issue: 3
summary Although the speed of computers increases exponentially, the amount and quality of useful work that we perform on them seems to increase linearly at best. Faster processors are not enough-to significantly increase the utility of computers requires new computer interfaces. The keyboard was adequate for text-based applications, but the advent of the desktop metaphor and windows computing environment demanded a new mechanical interface-the mouse. As we progress into applications that incorporate interactive life-like 3D computer graphics, the mouse falls short as a user interface device, and it becomes obvious that 3D computer graphics could achieve much more with a more intuitive user interface mechanism. Haptic interfaces, or forcefeedback devices, promise to increase the quality of humancomputer interaction by accommodating our sense of touch. Of all the senses, only touch is bidirectional-allowing us to perceive and change objects simultaneously in the same location. Because the sense of touch is so compelling, researchers have studied it for some time.1,2 (Refer to the annual proceedings of the Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.) Various commercial devices are now available that can accommodate1 even seven degrees of freedom. I used the three degrees-of-freedom Phantom haptic interface for most of the interactions described in this article. Users interact with the Phantom interface with their finger in a thimble or by holding a stylus
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 59
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1998
title Geometric Modeling intThe Simulation of Fire - Smoke Spread in Buildings
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 438-445
summary Since the performance simulation of buildings, such as fire/smoke spread, energy loss/gain, acoustics, etc. greatly rely on building geometry, the way the physical environment is modeled can substantially effect the reliability of the predictions made by such simulations. Most computer models that simulate fire and smoke spread in buildings limit the computer representation of the building to simpler geometries and define rooms as rectangular spaces or as spaces with uniform crossections. Such a definition does not account for the variety of building elements that can exist in a building such as large overhangs, half height walls, etc. Existing simulations are typically developed as mathematical models and use the principles of thermodynamics to represent the spread of the elements of fire through space over a given time period. For example, in zone models each room is defined as a two tier space with heat and smoke exchange between lower and upper tiers as the fire progresses. On the other hand, field models divide the space into small contiguous units where thermodynamic state of each unit is calculated as the simulated fire progresses. Dynamic processes such as fire and smoke spread must recognize both intangible (i.e. voids) and tangible (i.e. solids such as walls, balconies, ceiling, etc.) architectural entities. This paper explores the potential of solid modeling techniques in generating geometric definitions for both solid and void architectural entities that can interact With mathematical models of fire/smoke spread in buildings. The implications of cellular spatial partitioning techniques for zone or field models of fire/smoke spread are investigated, and the methods of creating cellular decomposftion models for architectural spaces as well as for spatial boundaries such as walls are explored. The size of each cellular partition, i.e. the resolution of the partition, and the material and heat transfer attributes of each cell were found to be very critical in modeling the spread fire through voids as well as through solids in a building.
series SIGRADI
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id ddss9802
id ddss9802
authors Akin, O., Aygen, Z., Cumming, M., Donia, M., Sen, R. and Zhang, Y.
year 1998
title Computational Specification of Building Requirements in theEarly Stages of Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary We have been exploring computational techniques to help building designers to specify design requirements during the early stages of design. In the past, little has been accomplished in this area either in terms of innovative computational technologies or the improvement of design performance.The prospect of improving design productivity and creating a seamless process between requirements specification and formal design are our primary motivations. This research has been conducted as partof a larger project entitled SEED (Software Environment to Support Early Phases in Building Design). SEED features an open-ended modular architecture, where each module provides support for a design activity that takes place in early design stages. Each module is supported by a database to store and retrieve information, as well as a user interface to support the interaction with designers. The module described in this paper, SEED-Pro (the architectural programming module of SEED), is a workingprototype for building design requirements specification. It can be used by other modules in SEED or by design systems in other domains, such as mechanical engineering, civil engineering, industrial designand electrical engineering. Our approach to SEED-Pro is divided into two phases: core, and support functionalities. The core functionalities operate in an interactive mode relying on a case-based approach to retrieve and adapt complex specification records to the problem at hand. The supportfunctionalities include the case-base, the data-base, and the standards processing environment for building specification tasks. Our findings indicate that SEED-Pro: (1) is a tool that structures the unstructured domain of design requirements; (2) enables the integration of design requirements with the rest of the design process, (3) leads to the creation of complex case-bases and (4) enables the observation of their performance in the context of real world design problems.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a136
authors Blaise, J.Y., Dudek, I. and Drap, P.
year 1998
title Java collaborative interface for architectural simulations A case study on wooden ceilings of Krakow
source International Conference On Conservation - Krakow 2000, 23-24 November 1998, Krakow, Poland
summary Concern for the architectural and urban preservation problems has been considerably increasing in the past decades, and with it the necessity to investigate the consequences and opportunities opened for the conservation discipline by the development of computer-based systems. Architectural interventions on historical edifices or in preserved urban fabric face conservationists and architects with specific problems related to the handling and exchange of a variety of historical documents and representations. The recent development of information technologies offers opportunities to favour a better access to such data, as well as means to represent architectural hypothesis or design. Developing applications for the Internet also introduces a greater capacity to exchange experiences or ideas and to invest on low-cost collaborative working platforms. In the field of the architectural heritage, our research addresses two problems: historical data and documentation of the edifice, methods of representation (knowledge modelling and visualisation) of the edifice. This research is connected with the ARKIW POLONIUM co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France) and the Institute HAiKZ of Kraków's Faculty of Architecture. The ARKIW programme deals with questions related to the use of information technologies in the recording, protection and studying of the architectural heritage. Case studies are chosen in order to experience and validate a technical platform dedicated to the formalisation and exchange of knowledge related to the architectural heritage (architectural data management, representation and simulation tools, survey methods, ...). A special focus is put on the evolution of the urban fabric and on the simulation of reconstructional hypothesis. Our contribution will introduce current ARKIW internet applications and experiences: The ARPENTEUR architectural survey experiment on Wie¿a Ratuszowa (a photogrammetrical survey based on an architectural model). A Gothic and Renaissance reconstruction of the Ratusz Krakowski using a commercial modelisation and animation software (MAYA). The SOL on line documentation interface for Kraków's Rynek G_ówny. Internet analytical approach in the presentation of morphological informations about Kraków's Kramy Bogate Rynku Krakowskiego. Object-Orientation approach in the modelling of the architectural corpus. The VALIDEUR and HUBLOT Virtual Reality modellers for the simulation and representation of reconstructional hypothesis and corpus analysis.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9812
id ddss9812
authors Coomans, M.K.D. and Timmermans, H.J.P.
year 1998
title A VR-User Interface for Design by Features
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary We present the design of a Virtual Reality based user interface (VR-UI). It is the interface for the VR-DIS system, a design application for the Building and Construction industry (VRDIS stands for Virtual Reality - Design Information System). The interface is characterised by a mixedrepresentation of the task domain: an analogue “mock-up view” is being integrated with a descriptive “feature view”. It uses a Fish Tank VR configuration which integrates the virtual objects in the designer’s normal working environment. The issues underlying the design of the feature view are discussed, as well as the choice of input devices.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 1beb
authors Coomans, M.K.D. and Timmermans, H.J.P.
year 1998
title A VR User Interface for Design by Features
source Timmermans (ed.) Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Maastricht
summary We present the design of a Virtual Reality based user interface (VR-UI). It is the interface for the VR-DIS system, a design application for the Building and Construction industry (VRDIS stands for Virtual Reality - Design Information System). The interface is characterised by a mixed representation of the task domain: an analogue "mock-up view" is being integrated with a descriptive "feature view". It uses a Fish Tank VR configuration which integrates the virtual objects in the designer's normal working environment. The issues underlying the design of the feature view are discussed, as well as the choice of input devices.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 05d5
authors Corrao, R. and Fulantelli, G.
year 1998
title Cognitive accessibility to information on the Web: insights from a system for teaching and learning Architecture through the Net
source AA VV, Towards an Accesible Web, Proceedings of the IV ERCIM Workshop “User Interfaces for All”, Långholmen-Stockholm
summary The question of accessibility to the Web takes on a special meaning in educational settings where access to information requires cognitive elaboration of the page contents. It is, therefore, a matter of "cognitive access" to the Web. The main efforts of the designers of Web Based Instruction (WBI) environments to encourage cognitive access are usually aimed at the organisation and presentation of Web documents and at specific cues which can improve the user's interaction, orientation and navigation through the pages. However, it is possible to improve this high-level access to the information by supporting study activities through specific "Working tools" which can be implemented in the Web environment. In this paper we report on the design solutions we have adopted to provide cognitive access to a WBI environment for university students studying Architecture and Town Planning. In particular, we introduce "Working tools" that can be used to support flexible and effective study activities. The adopted design solutions provide different classes of users (not only students) with different access facilities. Finally, it should be noted that the methodologies of the design of WBI systems should deal with this kind of high level access and support it through specific solutions at interface and implementation levels.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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