CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 526

_id 624d
authors Coors, V. and Wiedmann, B.
year 1998
title Using Wearable GIS in outdoor applications
source Proceedings of the Symposium on Interactive Applications for Mobile Computing, IMC’98, Rostock, Germany, November 1998
summary Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are tools for acquiring, managing, analyzing, and presenting spatially related information. GIS represent parts of our world by digital maps or images. They facilitate the access to multimedial data using criteria such as geographic location or spatial proximity. Today, GIS are being used in all areas where spatial data need to be managed and analyzed. Three major application areas of GIS technology are - public administration, where GIS are used to generate and update spatially related data, - planning, where GIS support spatial decisions, e. g. in urban and regional planning, - research, where GIS help to analyze and describe spatial processes, e.g. in electoral research and environmental management.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a136
authors Blaise, J.Y., Dudek, I. and Drap, P.
year 1998
title Java collaborative interface for architectural simulations A case study on wooden ceilings of Krakow
source International Conference On Conservation - Krakow 2000, 23-24 November 1998, Krakow, Poland
summary Concern for the architectural and urban preservation problems has been considerably increasing in the past decades, and with it the necessity to investigate the consequences and opportunities opened for the conservation discipline by the development of computer-based systems. Architectural interventions on historical edifices or in preserved urban fabric face conservationists and architects with specific problems related to the handling and exchange of a variety of historical documents and representations. The recent development of information technologies offers opportunities to favour a better access to such data, as well as means to represent architectural hypothesis or design. Developing applications for the Internet also introduces a greater capacity to exchange experiences or ideas and to invest on low-cost collaborative working platforms. In the field of the architectural heritage, our research addresses two problems: historical data and documentation of the edifice, methods of representation (knowledge modelling and visualisation) of the edifice. This research is connected with the ARKIW POLONIUM co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France) and the Institute HAiKZ of Kraków's Faculty of Architecture. The ARKIW programme deals with questions related to the use of information technologies in the recording, protection and studying of the architectural heritage. Case studies are chosen in order to experience and validate a technical platform dedicated to the formalisation and exchange of knowledge related to the architectural heritage (architectural data management, representation and simulation tools, survey methods, ...). A special focus is put on the evolution of the urban fabric and on the simulation of reconstructional hypothesis. Our contribution will introduce current ARKIW internet applications and experiences: The ARPENTEUR architectural survey experiment on Wieża Ratuszowa (a photogrammetrical survey based on an architectural model). A Gothic and Renaissance reconstruction of the Ratusz Krakowski using a commercial modelisation and animation software (MAYA). The SOL on line documentation interface for Kraków's Rynek G_ówny. Internet analytical approach in the presentation of morphological informations about Kraków's Kramy Bogate Rynku Krakowskiego. Object-Orientation approach in the modelling of the architectural corpus. The VALIDEUR and HUBLOT Virtual Reality modellers for the simulation and representation of reconstructional hypothesis and corpus analysis.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ga9921
id ga9921
authors Coates, P.S. and Hazarika, L.
year 1999
title The use of genetic programming for applications in the field of spatial composition
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Architectural design teaching using computers has been a preoccupation of CECA since 1991. All design tutors provide their students with a set of models and ways to form, and we have explored a set of approaches including cellular automata, genetic programming ,agent based modelling and shape grammars as additional tools with which to explore architectural ( and architectonic) ideas.This paper discusses the use of genetic programming (G.P.) for applications in the field of spatial composition. CECA has been developing the use of Genetic Programming for some time ( see references ) and has covered the evolution of L-Systems production rules( coates 1997, 1999b), and the evolution of generative grammars of form (Coates 1998 1999a). The G.P. was used to generate three-dimensional spatial forms from a set of geometrical structures .The approach uses genetic programming with a Genetic Library (G.Lib) .G.P. provides a way to genetically breed a computer program to solve a problem.G. Lib. enables genetic programming to define potentially useful subroutines dynamically during a run .* Exploring a shape grammar consisting of simple solid primitives and transformations. * Applying a simple fitness function to the solid breeding G.P.* Exploring a shape grammar of composite surface objects. * Developing grammarsfor existing buildings, and creating hybrids. * Exploring the shape grammar of abuilding within a G.P.We will report on new work using a range of different morphologies ( boolean operations, surface operations and grammars of style ) and describe the use of objective functions ( natural selection) and the "eyeball test" ( artificial selection) as ways of controlling and exploring the design spaces thus defined.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id e5a2
authors Debevec, P.
year 1998
title Rendering synthetic objects into real scenes: Bridging traditional and image-based graphics with global illumination and high dynamic range photography
source Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 98, M. Cohen, Ed., 189–198
summary We present a method that uses measured scene radiance and global illumination in order to add new objects to light-based models with correct lighting. The method uses a high dynamic range imagebased model of the scene, rather than synthetic light sources, to illuminate the newobjects. To compute the illumination, the scene is considered as three components: the distant scene, the local scene, and the synthetic objects. The distant scene is assumed to be photometrically unaffected by the objects, obviating the need for re- flectance model information. The local scene is endowed with estimated reflectance model information so that it can catch shadows and receive reflected light from the new objects. Renderings are created with a standard global illumination method by simulating the interaction of light amongst the three components. A differential rendering technique allows for good results to be obtained when only an estimate of the local scene reflectance properties is known. We apply the general method to the problem of rendering synthetic objects into real scenes. The light-based model is constructed from an approximate geometric model of the scene and by using a light probe to measure the incident illumination at the location of the synthetic objects. The global illumination solution is then composited into a photograph of the scene using the differential rendering technique. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the technique to recovering surface reflectance properties in uncontrolled lighting situations. Applications of the method include visual effects, interior design, and architectural visualization.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 1d83
authors Dodge, M., Doyle, S. and Smith, A.
year 1998
title Visual Communication in Urban Planning and Urban Design
source Working Paper 2; Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis Working Papers; London; June 1998
summary This Case Study documents the current status of visual communication in urban design and planning. Visual communication is examined through discussion of standalone and network media, specifically concentrating on visualisation on the World Wide Web (WWW). First, we examine the use of Solid and Geometric Modelling for visualising urban planning and urban design. This report documents and compares examples of the use of Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) and proprietary WWW based Virtual Reality modelling software. Examples include the modelling of Bath and Glasgow using both VRML 1.0 and 2.0. The use of Virtual Worlds and their role in visualising urban form within multi-user environments is reviewed. The use of Virtual Worlds is developed into a study of the possibilities and limitations of Virtual Internet Design Arena's (ViDA's), an initiative undertaken at the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London. The use of Virtual Worlds and their development towards ViDA's is seen as one of the most important developments in visual communication for urban planning and urban design since the development plan. Secondly, the role of photorealistic media in the process of communicating plans is examined. The process of creating photorealistic media is documented, and examples of the Virtual Streetscape and Wired Whitehall Virtual Urban Interface System are provided. The conclusion is that, although the use of photo-realistic media on the WWW provides a way to visually communicate planning information, its use is limited. The merging of photorealistic media and solid geometric modelling in the creation of Augmented Reality is reviewed. Augmented Reality is seen to provide an important step forward in the ability quickly and easily to visualise urban planning and urban design information. Third, the role of visual communication of planning data through GIS is examined in terms of desktop, three dimensional, and Internet based GIS. The evolution to Internet GIS is seen as a critical component in the development of virtual cities that will allow urban planners and urban designers to visualise and model the complexity of the built environment in networked virtual reality. Finally, a viewpoint is put forward of the Virtual City, linking Internet GIS with photorealistic multi-user Virtual Worlds. At present there are constraints on how far virtual cities can be developed, but a view is provided on how these networked virtual worlds are developing to aid visual communication in urban planning and urban design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9820
id ddss9820
authors Fukui, H.
year 1998
title An Example of Visualization for Urban Economic Scenery andUrban Modeling using GIS
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper presents a zone-based urban model to forecast population distribution and land use transition. A GIS model has been suggested for urban economic scenery forecasting by using data related to an urban environment like Tokyo in Japan. The model has structural simplicity, visibility and applicability of policy analysis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 9bee
authors Gerzso, J. Michael
year 2001
title Automatic Generation of Layouts of an Utzon Housing System via the Internet
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 202-211
summary The article describes how architectural layouts can be automatically generated over the Internet. Instead of using a standard web server sending out HTML pages to browser client, the system described here uses an approach that has become common since 1998, known as three tier client/server applications. The server part of the system contains a layout generator using SPR(s), which stands for “Spatial Production Rule System, String Version”, a standard context- free string grammar. Each sentences of this language represents one valid Utzon house layout. Despite the fact that the system represents rules for laying out Utzon houses grammatically, there are important differences between SPR(s) and shape grammars. The layout generator communicates with Autocad clients by means of an application server, which is analogous to a web server. The point of this project is to demonstrate the idea that many hundreds or thousands of clients can request the generation of all of the Utzon layouts simultaneously over the Internet by the SPR(s) server, but the server never has to keep track when each client requested the generation of all of the layouts, or how many layouts each client has received.
keywords Internet, Spatial-Production-Rules Grammars, Utzon
series ACADIA
email 104164.341@compuserve.com
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id ddss9831
id ddss9831
authors Kellett, Ronald and Girling, Cynthia
year 1998
title Informing Public Participation in Neighborhood ScalePlanning and Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary Neighborhood scale planning and design in many areas of the United States has been evolving toward a system of negotiated priorities and agreements. Common models include public workshops and design 'charrettes' which bring diverse stakeholders (citizens, land owners, developers, consultantsand public officials, for example) together to develop a mutually acceptable plan. Crucial to the quality and effectiveness of the outcome are decision support tools that help this diverse audience understand, communicate, collaborate and make decisions about complex and often emotional issuesof land use and design. Net Energy Communities (NEC), the project summarized in this paper, creates a suite of computer based tools for this purpose. NEC links three types of computer software — the spatial data manipulation, modeling and visualization capabilities of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the illustration and information retrieval capabilities of multimedia relational databases and, the simulation and comparison capabilities of spreadsheet-based calculation models;into four tools — a site modeller, an elements of neighborhood database, a scenario modeller and ascenario calculator. This paper reports on the NEC project as an example of decision support tools for public participation using illustrations and examples from a 420 acre demonstration neighborhood design in progress for the City of Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 446f
authors Mcintyre, B. and Feiner, S.
year 1998
title A Distributed 3D Graphics Library
source SIGGRAPH 98 Conference Proceedings, Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 1998, ACM SIGGRAPH
summary We present Repo-3D, a general-purpose, object-oriented library for developing distributed, interactive 3D graphics applications across a range of heterogeneous workstations. Repo-3D is designed to make it easy for programmers to rapidly build prototypes using a familiar multi-threaded, object-oriented programming paradigm. All data sharing of both graphical and non-graphical data is done via general-purpose remote and replicated objects, presenting the illusion of a single distributed shared memory. Graphical objects are directly distributed, circumventing the "duplicate database" problem and allowing programmers to focus on the application details. Repo-3D is embedded in Repo, an interpreted, lexically-scoped, distributed programming language, allowing entire applications to be rapidly prototyped. We discuss Repo-3D's design, and introduce the notion of local variations to the graphical objects, which allow local changes to be applied to shared graphical structures. Local variations are needed to support transient local changes, such as highlighting, and responsive local editing operations. Finally, we discuss how our approach could be applied using other programming languages, such as Java.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 9bbc
authors Miranda, V. and Park, T.
year 1998
title Representation of architectural concepts in the study of precedents: a concept-learning system
source Automation in Construction 8 (1) (1998) pp. 99-106
summary Learning architectural concepts through the study of precedents is a common activity in design studio. Traditionally, an instructor presents a design concept by showing selected examples using slides, photographs, drawings, texts and verbal analyses. This method relies on a linear mode of conveying design knowledge and is time bound. It emphasizes information retention and recall of facts rather than an understanding of information. If information on architectural precedents are represented digitally in a system designed to promote understanding of the material rather than just presentation of facts, then some disadvantages of the traditional method may be overcome and additional advantages may be achieved. This paper describes a computer-assisted lesson system designed to represent architectural concepts related to spatial composition in design by using graphic images and text and reports on its development, implementation and testing. The system relies on many characteristics, such as accessibility, interactivity, flexibility, rapid feedback, etc., which are known to foster effective concept learning. The paper also evaluates the viability and effectiveness of this system from a technological and logistical viewpoint as well as from a concept learning viewpoint, and concludes with a discussion on other potential applications.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 29
authors Nozica, G., Grizas, E. and Potenzoni, A.
year 1998
title Diagnostico del Patrimonio Cultural Ambiental Urbano de un ˇrea de la Ciudad de San Juan Usando la Tecnologia Sig (Diagnostico of the Urban Cultural Patrimony in an area of the City of San Juan Using SGI Tecnology)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 226-231
summary This paper includes some of the results obtained by "The Assessment of San Juan City Environmental Cultural Heritage - A methodology development based on G.I.S. technology" project team. Various criteria and methodologies used for an urban sector diagnosis are analysed based on D.F. Sarmiento Native Home National Historical Monument. Although the above mentioned GIS technology was applied together with the data base generated by the SICAT (Survey Data System), it was necessary to incorporate other data which were not considered by such a base. Consequently, a new system called Heritage Data System (HDS) was designed. The methodological contribution improved the GIS quality of detecting multiple relations among the sector under study cultural goods, such as: eleven environmental historical elements, two designated national historical monuments, one designated national historical site, historical buildings, urban districts, trees and facilities and allowed to define what was called "The Protected Environmental Historical Area".
series SIGRADI
email grnozica@farqui.unsj.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddss9852
id ddss9852
authors Shalaby, Tarek, Scutt, Tom and Palmer, Diane
year 1998
title The ‘Intelligent Map’ as A Decision Support System for UrbanPlanners in Nottingham Using GIS Technology
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary Location is often considered as the most important factor leading to the success of public or private services. Location is the key in maximising accessibility and keeping operating cost low. A collaborative research project between ‘Nottingham University’ and the ‘Environmental ServicesDepartment of Nottingham City Council’ is developing an ‘Intelligent Map’ for identifying optimum locations for the recycling centres in the city. The object is to develop a new decision support system for urban planners, to be used as a management and analytical tool for improving locational decisionmaking. This paper discusses the technique of the Intelligent Map, and its concept. The paper includes three main sections. The first discusses the introduction of the mini-recycling centres in Nottingham, theproblems associated with their spatial distribution, and the need for a new decision support system using GIS technology. The second examines traditional techniques using GIS for identifying optimum locations and calculating catchment areas. The third explains the concept of the Intelligent Map; discussion takes the form of an initial analysis of the likely method to be applied, and then briefly outlines some of the prototyping work that is currently taking place at Nottingham.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9851
id ddss9851
authors Torre, Carmelo and Selicato, Francesco
year 1998
title Consequences of Interdisciplinary Approaches in the Construction ofKnowledge-Bases
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The character of interdisciplinarity in planning approaches create a new, intriguing, emerging complexity (Funtowitcz and Ravetz, 1994) in problems and in knowledge-structuring of contexts of planning practices. The key-role played by information systems (IS) implicates a re-consideration ofcharacter of knowledge to be used in knowledge-bases. The necessity of considering knowledge domains coming from social, cultural, economical, technical, physical and naturalistic approaches means dealing with different scales of value, with non homogenous parameters. The necessity ofmanaging flexible knowledge rises on the fore as fundamental issue for future information system oriented to supporting decisions. Might information systems be useful in this interdisciplinary approach ? It is necessary to contain in a knowledge-base both quantitative and qualitativeinformation ? Three alternatives are available for a conceptual discussion :the possibility of identify new approaches, in order to develop information systems able in managing new knowledge; the necessity of adding new support systems oriented to manage soft knowledge, to traditionalgeographic information systems (GIS); the possibility of non using support systems coming from a technological vision of problem for nontechnical knowledge (Latouche 1996). The first two paragraphs are due to F. Selicato. The third and the fourth paragraph are due to C. Torre.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9863
id ddss9863
authors Yaakup, A., Johar, F. and Yusof, I.M.
year 1998
title Development Control System and GIS for Local Authority in Malaysia:A Case of Kuala Lumpur City Hall
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary This paper examines the functions of local authority particularly in the context of planning and development control. The process of development control involves a technique for the systematic compilation of expert quantitative analysis and qualitative assessment of a project's land use and development viability, including its effect on the surrounding area, andthe presentation of results in a way which enables the importance of the predicted results, and the scope for modifying or mitigating them, to be properly evaluated by the relevant decision making body before a planning application decision is rendered. Taking Kuala Lumpur as an example this paper will demonstrate the development of database and its application for development and building control. The application indicates that thefunctionality of GIS can be enhanced, i.e. by adding new model and analytical tools to existing systems and by using the GIS toolkit to best effect. Consequently it will be used to assist decision-making, taking into account among other things, the current scenarios of the proposed development, physical constraint and future impacts.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levelsˇ@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design mediaˇXvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 6672
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1998
title A CAVE-Interface in CAAD-Education
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 110-115
summary The so called "CAVE-interface" is a very interesting and thrilling development for architects! It supports a better illusion of space by exposing almost a 270° view of a computer model than the 60° which can be viewed on an ordinary computer screen. At the Lund University we have got the possibility to experiment with a CAVE-installation, using it in research and the education of CAAD. The technique and two experiments are discribed. The possibilities are discussed and some problems and questions are put forward.
series eCAADe
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/31af_klercker/index.htm
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id de77
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 1998
title Computer animation for architectural visualisation
source University of Strathclyde
summary This thesis critically reviews the state of architectural animation, and relates this specific field to the more general motion-based representations, particularly traditional film-making techniques. It identifies key elements from traditional filmmaking and shows how these elements can improve computer-based architectural animation. The process of identification of the key elements from traditional film-making starts with a critical survey of the use of motion-based representation in local architectural practices and an empirical analysis of several architectural-based documentary films and past and present computer animations. All of the key ideas are illustrated on video by comparing real shooting clips to digital sequences focusing on production and post-production works. Some of these were implemented in two live projects ( Ministry of Finance, Malaysia and Damansara Parade ) for architects to understand the real problems and potentials in each process. These sets of illustrations expand the architect ideas to make full use of the motion-based process to improve the skill of combining architectural information in a good animation. The overall production process becomes more efficient when the motion-based footage is edited using a non-linear editing platform as it enhances the professional appearance as well as vastly saving most of the production time. The thesis concludes with specific recommendations relative to the stage at which the animation is produced. This technology can be best utilised with the right skills (a gained from film-making) and an understanding of each stage that requires a different level of input and gives a certain impact to the viewers.
series thesis:PhD
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddss9811
id ddss9811
authors Barbanente, A., Conte, E. and Monno, V.
year 1998
title Changing trends and approaches in human and computer modelling for social housing policies
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The paper discusses conceptual issues, goals and preliminary results of an on-going research which aims at building a Decision Support System for public housing environmental oriented maintenance and management in a city in Southern Italy, Bari. Traditional post-war Italian housing policies are compared with more recent approaches in the field, pointing out the change from quantitative, aggregated, more simple building problems and relatedapproaches to qualitative, differentiated, complex ones integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions with the aim of regenerating deteriorated residential areas. The paper claims for the need shift, both in the human and computer areas, from traditional quantitative models to new approaches able to manage also qualitative variables, temporal dynamics, emergencies, and intentionality, since they appear key aspects of the real world to be modelled. The housing estate of Bari and its needs of maintenance and management are examined, eliciting essential related knowledge using the interview technique. The clear orientation towards sustainable policies for urban regeneration, at a local, national, and Community level, is also considered. The innovative and collaborative nature of such policies and the attention to be paid to the social aspects ofthe problem require a complex DSS, integrating various kind of hypertexts, information systems and case-based fuzzy expert systems, whose main aims, functions, software and general organisation are outlined in the paper.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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