CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 121 to 140 of 590

_id d8df
authors Naticchia, Berardo
year 1999
title Physical Knowledge in Patterns: Bayesian Network Models for Preliminary Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 611-619
summary Computer applications in design have pursued two main development directions: analytical modelling and information technology. The former line has produced a large number of tools for reality simulation (i.e. finite element models), the latter is producing an equally large amount of advances in conceptual design support (i.e. artificial intelligence tools). Nevertheless we can trace rare interactions between computation models related to those different approaches. This lack of integration is the main reason of the difficulty of CAAD application to the preliminary stage of design, where logical and quantitative reasoning are closely related in a process that we often call 'qualitative evaluation'. This paper briefly surveys the current development of qualitative physical models applied in design and propose a general approach for modelling physical behaviour by means of Bayesian network we are employing to develop a tutoring and coaching system for natural ventilation preliminary design of halls, called VENTPad. This tool explores the possibility of modelling the causal mechanism that operate in real systems in order to allow a number of integrated logical and quantitative inference about the fluid-dynamic behaviour of an hall. This application could be an interesting connection tool between logical and analytical procedures in preliminary design aiding, able to help students or unskilled architects, both to guide them through the analysis process of numerical data (i.e. obtained with sophisticate Computational Fluid Dynamics software) or experimental data (i.e. obtained with laboratory test models) and to suggest improvements to the design.
keywords Qualitative Physical Modelling, Preliminary Design, Bayesian Networks
series eCAADe
email Naticchia@idau.unian.it
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 1d79
authors Ofer, Kurt
year 1999
title 1:1 SIMULATION IN ARCHITECTURAL PRACTICE
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 57-66
summary Full-scale mock ups have a long and successful history within the architectural profession. There is consensus that future users as well as professionals are better able to make design decisions in full-scale and in real time. Full-scale analogue simulation must be implemented as part of a typical design process for the sake of our clients as well as the sake of the profession: the cost of doing anything less is enormous. Altonview believes it is possible to develop an economical, flexible and utilitarian architectural environmental system (AES) which can be used, with modifications, by all professionals. Additionally, the media needs to take an interest in the AES movement, which will change their focus from the building image to the user. American architectural schools need to increase their interest in AES as well. The AES movement can be closely linked with the zeitgeist that will define the next century as seen in further examples and references from the popular press.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Architectural Profession, Education, Spatial Experience, Architectural Environmental System, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email kofer@altonview.com
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:28

_id b127
authors Oliveira, A.L., Santiago, A.G. and Mittmann, R.
year 1999
title Digital Floripa - CD-ROM of the City
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 399-403
summary The graduation course of Architecture and Urbanism of the Federal University of Santa Catarina makes use of informatic tecnology in several teaching and research activities. This technology supports initial data proccessing, analysis, evaluations, simulations, and project development both in architecture and urban fields. Aiming to stimulate and improve the use of computer techniques in graduation courses, the INFOARQ group, belonging to the 'LABMICRO' developed the project 'Digital Floripa'. This project is an CD image data basis, with digital aerophotographs Florianópolis’ city taken, from the aerophotogrametric data of 1994. This project aims to facilitate image's access to teachers, students and researchers, to allow use of photos and scales, and to make possible the development of new alternatives interventions. A navegator program called 'DIGITAL INDEX'supports the user in the image's search and creates a same graphic interface. This project also acts as basis for research development wich aims to analyse and develop tutorial proceedures to access the utilization of the data images basis.
keywords Digital Patrimony, Digital Reconstruction, Virtual Worlds
series SIGRADI
email andrelim@arq.ufsc.br, alina@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id 3033
authors Oxman, R., Golan, E., Nir, E. and Brainin, D.
year 1999
title Schema Emergence in Collaborative Design
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 215-224
summary In this paper, we report on work in which media environments are developed to support schema emergence in collaborative design. We present a conceptual framework to support the cognitive phenomena of emergence in CAAD environment. First, we introduce and present a cognitive conception of schema emergence in design. We then discuss our computational model of schema emergence. Based upon this model we propose a conceptual framework to support emergence in collaborative design. Finally, the potential of the present implementation and the computational tools which support the approach are discussed .
series CAADRIA
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 60a5
authors Oxman, R.E.
year 1999
title Educating the designerly thinker
source Design Studies, Vol 20 No 2
summary This paper presents a hypothesis about design education that is framed within and derived from cognitive theories of learning. The relevance of design thinking and cognitive approaches to the development of pedagogical approaches in design education is presented and discussed. A conceptual model for design education that emphasizes the acquisition of explicit knowledge of design is proposed. The acquisition of knowledge is achieved through the explication of cognitive structures and strategies of design thinking. The explication process is constructed by exploiting a representational formalism, and a computational medium which supports both the learning process as well as the potential re-use of this knowledge. Finally, an argument is presented that the measure of learning, generally equated with the evaluation of the product of designing, can instead be based upon evaluating learning increments of acquired knowledge.
series journal paper
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 0e79
authors Oxman, Rivka
year 1999
title Visual Emergence in Creative Collaboration
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 357-363
summary A conceptual framework to support creative collaboration in a Web-based design environment is proposed and discussed. We demonstrated this approach in our work on visual emergence. First, our model of visual emergence of design schema is presented. Following, a conceptual framework to support this model in CAAD environment is developed and introduced. Finally, a web-based computational environment is presented. One that may support visual emergence as part of a creative collaboration process.
keywords Web Design, Collaborative Design, Visual Design, Design Thinking, Visual Emergence
series eCAADe
email arro01@tx.technion.ac.il
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 9ce0
authors Ozcan, Oguzhan
year 1999
title Education of Interactive Panorama-design in Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 223-229
summary This paper mainly discusses the importance of interactive panorama in design, and its education in the MDes program, which will run at Yildiz Technical University in the year 2000. The first part of the paper summarizes the potentials of current interactive panorama technique, which was "A popular form of the public entertainment" in 19th-century. Then, it compares the real-world experiences with observations in an interactive panorama. This comparison is carried out together with technical aspects i.e. limitations, audio-visual effects, composite techniques, live video input, and conceptual aspects i.e. camera actions, natural phenomenon. The technical discussion in the paper is concentrated on the examples from newly developed tools such as Nodemedia, Electrifier, Wasabi Software, and Skypaint as well as Apple QuickTime VR Authoring Tool. The second part underlines the role of interactive panorama technique in design. In this part, the paper also summarizes how to use the technique at the beginning and, during creation of the design and in its presentation, taking the installation advantages of sound, vision, text and transition effects. The third part concentrates on the interactive panorama design as an individual project, offered in the MDes program. Then it explains how the preliminary courses were planned for this individual project and summarizes the content of the course formulated through the linear and non-linear structures of the media. Finally, considering with the future development of interactive panorama technique, the last part of the paper discusses the possible results of this education method.
keywords Interactive Media, Panoramic Image, Design Education
series eCAADe
email ooczan@yildiz.edu.tr
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 2e50
authors Ozersay, Fevzi and Szalapaj, Peter
year 1999
title Theorising a Sustainable Computer Aided Architectural Education Model
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 186-195
summary The dogmatic structure of architectural education has meant that the production and application of new educational theories, leading to educational models that use computer technology as their central medium of education, is still a relatively under-explored area. Partial models cannot deliver the expected bigger steps, but only bits and pieces. Curricula developments, at many schools of architecture, have been carried out within the closed circuit manner of architectural education, through expanding the traditional curricula and integrating computers into them. There is still no agreed curriculum in schools of architecture, which defines, at least conceptually, the use of computers within it. Do we really know what we are doing? In the words of Aart Bijl; 'If I want to know what I am doing, I need a separate description of my doing it, a theory' [Bijl, 1989]. The word 'sustainability' is defined as understanding the past and responding to the present with concern for the future. Applying this definition to architectural education, this paper aims to outline the necessity and the principles for the construction of a theory of a sustainable computer aided architectural education model, which could lead to an architectural education that is lasting.
keywords Architectural Education, Educational Theories, Computers, Sustainable Models
series eCAADe
email F.Oversay@sheffield.ac.uk, p.szalapaj@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id cd2e
authors O’Reilly, T.
year 1999
title Hardware, Software and Infoware
source Di Bona, C., Ockman, S. Stone, M.: Open Sources. Voices from the Open Source Revolution, First Edition, Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Publishers
summary I was talking with some friends recently, friends who don't own a computer. They were thinking of getting one so they could use Amazon.com to buy books and CDs. Not to use ``the Internet,'' not to use ``the Web,'' but to use Amazon.com. Now, that's the classic definition of a ``killer application'': one that makes someone go out and buy a computer. What's interesting is that the killer application is no longer a desktop productivity application or even a back-office enterprise software system, but an individual web site. And once you start thinking of web sites as applications, you soon come to realize that they represent an entirely new breed, something you might call an ``information application,'' or perhaps even ``infoware.'' Information applications are used to computerize tasks that just couldn't be handled in the old computing model. A few years ago, if you wanted to search a database of a million books, you talked to a librarian, who knew the arcane search syntax of the available computerized search tools and might be able to find what you wanted. If you wanted to buy a book, you went to a bookstore, and looked through its relatively small selection. Now, tens of thousands of people with no specialized training find and buy books online from that million-record database every day. The secret is that computers have come one step closer to the way that people communicate with each other. Web-based applications use plain English to build their interface -- words and pictures, not specialized little controls that acquire meaning only as you learn the software. Traditional software embeds small amounts of information in a lot of software; infoware embeds small amounts of software in a lot of information. The ``actions'' in an infoware product are generally fairly simple: make a choice, buy or sell, enter a small amount of data, and get back a customized result.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 2874
authors Pan, Yunhe
year 1999
title Dunhuang Art Cave Virtual Rebuilding and Navigation: Applying Multimedia, Intelligence and Design Technologies in Dunhuang Arts
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 1-20
summary Dunhuang Art Cave is confronted with the serious influence of natural forces. Integrating Multimedia, Artificial intelligence and CAD, we can virtually preserve and reproduce the original cave architecture, painting sculptures and murals. This paper first introduce the main ideas of Dunhuang cave virtual rebuilding, cave virtual navigating, mural color restoring as well as Dunhuang-style pattern designing, and then analyzes in detail their technical issues and show results of prototype systems. In the end, we give a brief summary.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/09/05 07:19

_id ee92
authors Papanikolaou Maria and Tuncer, Bige
year 1999
title The Fake.Space Experience - Exploring New Spaces
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 395-402
summary Fake.space is an elective CAAD course in which teachers and students form an online community. It is a Web-based communication environment for the exchange of ideas on the concept of space. Fake.space is also a narrative structure consisting of threads of nodes created by students. These nodes present different aspects of space. Fake.space represents our current generation of teaching environments. In this paper we describe and analyse its latest incarnation and discuss our aims and thoughts for further development. We believe that fake.space reflects on a future where online environments entice the students in a playful way to work with computers and CAD and consider the role of networked environments in architectural space.
keywords Online Community, Learning Environment, Identity, Transparency, Visualisation
series eCAADe
email papan@arch.ethz.ch, tuncer@arch.ethz.ch
more http://space.arch.ethz.ch/ws98/
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 55a8
authors Paranandi, Murali
year 1999
title CAD in Education
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 20-21
summary Acknowledging the integral role of computers in education, to assure effective access to computing resources, universities across the US have been requiring that their students purchase a personal computer to serve them throughout the program. While this trend was initiated by exclusive private universities some 10-15 years ago, even mainstream public universities seem to be catching up with it. There is evidence that many Architecture schools are now contemplating this option. This column features two distinct views on this topic by Henderson and Johnson.
series ACADIA
email paranam@muohio.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 9eb6
authors Peng C. and Blundell Jones, P.
year 1999
title Hypermedia Authoring and Contextual Modeling in Architecture and Urban Design: Collaborative Reconstructing Historical Sheffield
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 114-124
summary Studies of historical architecture and urban contexts in preparation for contemporary design interventions are inherently rich in information, demanding versatile and efficient methods of documentation and retrieval. We report on a developing program to establish a hypermedia authoring approach to collaborative contextual modeling in architecture and urban design. The paper begins with a description of a large-scale urban history study project in which 95 students jointly built a physical model of the city center of Sheffield as it stood in 1900, at a scale of 1:500. Continuing work on the Sheffield urban study project, it appears to us desirable to adopt a digital approach to archiving the material and in making it both indexible and accessible via multiple routes. In our review of digital models of cities, some interesting yet unexplored issues were identified. Given the issues and tasks elicited, we investigated hypermedia authoring in HTML and VRML as a designer-centered modeling methodology. Conceptual clarity of the methodology was considered, intending that an individual or members of design groups with reasonable computing skills could learn to operate it quickly. The methodology shows that it is practicable to build a digital contextual databank by a group of architecture/urban designers rather than by specialized modeling teams. Contextual modeling with or without computers can be a research activity on its own. However, we intend to investigate further how hypermedia-based contextual models can be interrelated to design development and communication. We discuss three aspects that can be explored in a design education setting.
series ACADIA
email c.peng@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id 8d64
authors Penttilä, Hannu
year 1999
title Top 5 Themes to Promote Architectural Information Technology and Top 5 Obstacles to Decelerate it
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 6-10
summary The objective of this paper is to scan a few interesting themes, features and ideas of current information and communication technology (ICT) to promote their wise use within the fields of architectural practice and architectural education. The core idea is to prepare for the future by understanding the future relevance of the dominating themes. The meaning and significance of the selected and presented common ideas is evaluated to strengthen a realistic future basis for the design discipline. The author finds organizing, structuring and sharing architectural design data with digital tools the most future-relevant ICT-theme, that should be supported with R&D-activities and taught in architectural ICT-education. The obstacles of digitalization to produce negative impacts to architectural profession seem to be of mental nature rather than technical. The human mind, juridical agreements and long-lived design traditions are possibly the most threatening and restrictive obstacles in the future. The selected top 5 methods in evaluating existing trends and features has been used for instance in futures studies as one systematical approach to chart history and current times as informants of the future (Bell, 1996). A pragmatic and personal approach has been used in selecting the themes.
keywords Architectural Information and Communication Technology (ICT), ICT-trends, Future Studies, Future Relevance
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email hannu.penttila@hut.fi
last changed 2009/06/04 05:02

_id a4e9
authors Petrovic, Igor and Svetel, Igor
year 1999
title From Number Cruncher to Digital Being: The Changing Role of Computer in CAAD
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 33-39
summary The paper reflects on a thirteen-year period of CAAD research and development by a small group of researchers and practitioners. Starting with simple algorithmic drafting programmes, the work transcended to expert systems and distributed artificial intelligence, using computers as tools. The research cycle is about to begin afresh; computers in the next century shall not be detached entities but the extensions of man. The computer shall be the medium that will enable a designer to be what he/she really is. This future has already begun.
keywords History of CAAD, CAAD Design Paradigms, CAADfuture
series eCAADe
email aivan@eunet.yu, isvetel@infosky.net
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id ddss2004_d-49
id ddss2004_d-49
authors Polidori, M. and R. Krafta
year 2004
title Environment – Urban Interface within Urban Growth
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 49-62
summary This work presents the synthesis of a model of urban growth dedicated to accomplish simulations of urban spatial dynamics, based on integrated urban and environmental factors and promoting simultaneity among external and internal growth. The city and surrounding environment are captured and modeled in computational ambient, by application of the centrality / potential model (Krafta, 1994 and 1999), with support of graph theory, cellular automata, GIS and geocomputation. The model assumes the city as a field of opportunities for obtaining income, mediated by the space, which is composed of urban and environmental attributes, that work as attractors or as resistances for the urban growth. The space configuration and the distribution of those attributes generate tensions that differentiate qualitatively and quantitatively the space, through the centrality measure (built with the support of graphs techniques), coming to provoke growth in places with larger potential of development (built with the help of techniques of CA – cellular automata). Growths above environmental thresholds are considered problems, generated and overcome in the same process of production of the urban space. Iterations of that process offer a dynamic behaviour to the model, allowing to observe the growth process along the time. The model presents several possibilities: a) urban - natural environment integration; b) internal and external growth integration; c) variety in the scale; d) GIS integration and geocomputation; e) user interface; f) calibration; g) theoretical possibilities; and h) practical possibilities.
keywords Environment, Urban Growth, Urban Morphology, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id 6285
authors Pratini, Edison
year 1999
title Esboçando com Gestos: O Projeto 3D SketchMaker (Sketching with Gestures: The 3D SketchMaker Project)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 141-144
summary The 3D SketchMaker Project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching interface in a computer system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more natural than using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections. The focus of this project is on the input interface, taking into consideration two factors: First, for many architects and designers, one of the main reasons for not using 3D modeling from the very beginning of the design process is that both current computer hardware and software are hardly appropriate to do the spontaneous and quick drawings that are used to assist in conceptualizing their objects. Second, three-dimensional modeling packages use two-and-three dimensional elements, in a 3D environment, but usually employ 2D input devices that are not appropriate to work in 3D environments, such as mice or pen-and-tablets. The 3D SketchMaker was conceived to take advantage of a natural tendency most people have in using gesture as an aid to language when trying to describe the shape, form or volume of objects. The system is intended to assist or replace the first 2D drawing steps in the design process, generating rough 3D sketches that can be refined later. It is, in essence, a 3D modeling system (a prototype, at this time) directed to do sketching with hand movements and gestures in a virtual reality environment.
series SIGRADI
email pratini@belasartes.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id d4a5
authors Pratini, Edison
year 1999
title Modeling with Gestures: The 3D Sketchmaker
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 10-11
summary The 3D SketchMaker Project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more naturalthan using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections. The focus of this project is on the input interface, taking into consideration two factors: First, for many architects and designers, one of the main reasons for not using 3D modeling from the very beginning of the design process is that both current hardware and software are hardly appropriate to do the spontaneous and quick drawings that are used to assist in conceptualizing their objects.
series ACADIA
email pratini@psu.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id ecaade2007_228
id ecaade2007_228
authors Pupo, Regiane; Celani, Gabriela
year 2007
title Trends in Graduate Research on IT & Architecture: a Qualitative Comparison of Tendencies in Brazil and abroad
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 431-437
summary Applications of information technology (IT) in the architectural profession have greatly increased in the past decades, ranging nowadays from concept design to automated construction. There are countless applications in the architecture practice that go well beyond representation, such as BIM software, generative design systems, and rapid prototyping and fabrication. For this reason, IT has been a frequent graduate research topic. In the present research academic graduate theses that dealt with IT in architecture since 1999 were surveyed and categorized, with the purpose of comparing the topics, applications and methods that are studied in Brazil and abroad. We hope that the differences found will help Brazilian architecture schools to update their IT curriculum, overcoming old prejudices against the use of computers in the creative phases of design.
keywords Information technology, architectural design, design process, design education, computational design, CAD
series eCAADe
email rpupo@fec.unicamp.br, celani@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id 3815
authors Qaqish, Ra’ed
year 2001
title VDS/DDS Practice Hinges on Interventions and Simplicity - A Case Study of Hard Realism vs. Distorted Idealism
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 249-255
summary This paper reports on a contemporary and laborious ongoing experimental work initiated during the establishment of a new Virtual/Digital design studio “VDS” in Sept. 1999 by CAAD tutors at University of Petra “UOP”. The new VDS/DDS now works as an experimental laboratory to explore several solutions to problems of efficiency in design teaching as a new digital design studio paradigm, in tandem with CAD/Design staff, DS environment, materials and facilities. Two groups of graduating level students participated as volunteers in this experiment. The first group was comprised of three fifth-year architectural design students while the second group was comprised of two fourth-year interior design students. The media currently in use are ArchiCAD 6.5 as a design tool along with CorelDraw 9 as a presentational tool, running on Pentium III computers. The series of experiments evaluated the impression on architectural design studio tuition requirements arising from the changes brought about by the implementation of the new CAD pedagogical approach (VDS/DDS) at UOP. The findings echo several important key issues in tandem with CAAD, such as: the changes brought about by the new design strategies, adaptation in problem solving decision-making techniques, studio employment in terms of environment, means and methods. Other issues are VDS/DDS integration schemes carried out by both students and staff as one team in design studio practice on one hand and the curriculum on the other. Finally, the paper discusses the negative impact of conventional design studio hardliner teaching advocates and students alike whose outlook and impressions undermine and deplete effective CAAD integration and obstruct, in many instances, the improvement of such experiments in a VDS environment.
keywords Design Studio Strategies, Problem Solving Decisions, Transformation And Integration Policies
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

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