CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 590

_id 0280
authors Geva, Anat
year 2000
title New Media in Teaching and Learning History of Building Technology
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 5-8
summary Numerous scholars in the field of education established that relevance is one of the important instructional components that influence students’ interest and motivation to learn (Bergin, 1999; Frymier and Shulman, 1995; Schumm and Saumell, 1995). Relevance can be achieved by juxtaposing personal experiences with professional scientific principles (Pigford, 1995; Blanton, 1998). In addition to the relevancy of a course substance Blanton (1998) recommends that instructors should introduce the material in an organized system that is relevant to the learner’s life.
series ACADIA
email architectanatgeva@archone.tamu.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 933a
authors GVU
year 1999
title Conceptual Design Space Project
source Center Virtual Environments Group. GeorgiaTech,Virginia, USA
summary The Conceptual Design Space (CDS) is a real-time, interactive virtual environments application which attempts to address the issue of 3D design in general and immersive design in particular. We are researching innovative tools and interface elements for virtual worlds. The first application of these techniques is an architectural one. Graduate students from Georgia Tech's College of Architecture will be using CDS to create conceptual building designs. The students will not only be able to inspect and "inhabit" their buildings, but will also have the ability to modify them, add details, or create new designs, all while immersed in the virtual world.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 8d82
authors Hellgardt, Michael
year 1999
title User Defined Design Generators - A Grammar Extension of CAAD Systems
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 293-305
summary A command system for CAAD, +G, is proposed for the definition and application of design grammars. With an emphasis on Aalto and Scharoun is discussed how design observation can be transcribed into rules of a grammar, SAG (Spatium Array Grammar), that reflects space-between structures ubiquitous in the built environment.
series AVOCAAD
email 106555.1412@compuserve.com
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ba93
authors Hendricx, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 1999
title About Objects and Approaches - A Conceptual View on Building Models
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 133-148
summary Considering integrated CAAD environments for architectural design, a number of different approaches are possible. This paper presents the policy of the CADLAB at the KU Leuven University, where design support right from the first design phases is a basic consideration. After a short introduction on the theoretical framework and additional design tests, we will discuss the core object model that forms the cornerstone for the contemplated design environment. This object model describes all possible data, concepts and operations connected with the architectural design process. For its development, we used the object-oriented analysis method MERODE. The starting-points and main aspects of the model will be discussed, illustrated with examples of implemented prototypes. The architect's point of view and the specific nature of the architectural design process were always kept in mind, thus leading to a model that hopes to make a valuable contribution to the research area of integrated design environments.
keywords CAAD, Integrated Design Environment, Building Models, Conceptual Modelling, MERODE
series CAAD Futures
email Herman.Neuckermans@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 83b5
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title Time, equipment and encouragement - Travel requisites for the World-Wide Wanderstudent
source G. Van der Perre and P. Vandevelde (eds.), The Wanderstudent 2000: The Wanderstudent of 1425 revived in virtual reality in 2000? Towards a European Virtual University, Proceedings of the International Colloquium organised by EuroPACE at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, on October 20-21, 2000 Leuven University Press, Leuven (Belgium), 2000 (ISBN 90 5867 156 9), pp. 133-136
summary In Winter/Spring 1999, DYNAMO - a Web-based design assistant for student architects - received its baptism of fire in a 4th year design studio at our department. The paper describes the setting and procedure of the baptism, the participation of the studio teaching staff, and the students' reactions and appreciation. Based on students' responses to a questionnaire and observations of the tool in use, we investigated whether DYNAMO succeeded in engaging students and what factors stimulated/hampered this engagement. Although students were noticeably enthusiastic about the tool, three factors revealed themselves as major obstacles to student engagement: lack of time, of encouragement by the teachers and of studio equipment. The paper concludes with lessons learned for the future of DYNAMO and, more in general, of ICT in education.
series journal paper
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/11/14 07:38

_id c7f8
authors Hovestadt, V. and Hovestadt, L.
year 1999
title The ARMILLA project
source Automation in Construction 8 (3) (1999) pp. 325-337
summary ARMILLA describes a major agenda for a variety of different CAAD research projects at the Institute for Industrial Building Production (IFIB) at the University of Karlsruhe. This paper provides an overview of the research and development of ARMILLA over the past 10 years. A discussion of the ongoing implementation efforts is included with a summary of current research.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 7717
authors Huang, Jeffrey
year 1999
title How Do Distributed Design Organizations Act Together to Create a Meaningful Design? Towards a Process Model for Design Coordination
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 99-115
summary This paper describes the results of a longer-term research project that looked at CAAD as an enabler of completely new collaborative processes rather than as a support for existing collaborative processes. In order to question existing design processes and invent new collaborative processes systematically, we applied a process modeling methodology that employed recent developments in coordination theory. The methodology contained four steps: (1) Decomposition, (2) Dependency Analysis, (3) Process Substitution, and (4) Recomposition. In this paper, we describe how this approach was used to redesign a sample collaborative design process in building design, and present the resulting process coordination model. We describe the implications of this model for the development of collaborative environments, and illustrate its practical application in a case study. We conclude by reiterating the contributions made.
keywords Distributed Design, Coordination Theory, Process Modeling, Process Redesign, Collaborative Design Environments
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 0b68
authors Ibáñez, José Enrique and Santos, Laura
year 1999
title Utilización de un programa didáctico para la formación de desarrolladores, arquitectos, ingenieros y diseñadores (Use of a Didactic Program for the Training of Developers, Architects, Engineers and Designers)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 352-356
summary For those questions of the specialisation, the Informaitc engineers develop applications of digital graphic destined to designers, users that, in general, ignore with the chore of developing applications. Also, most of the designers have to fight with applications that do not contemplate their necessities neither translates their expressive intentions with clarity. This reciprocal discussion may find an adequate solution in interdisciplinary work. The fecundity, and until the possibility, of the internal dialogue of these teams will depend, between other looks, of the quantity of common concepts that they possess. In this sense, we focused our educational task opposite the future engineers. We understand that, at the same time, the actual education of the designer, in whatever of their multiple looks, should contemplate the basic training (not instrumental but if conceptual) in questions related with the code of the applications that they use. This intellectual effort would enable the digital designer to investigate the topics of personalising their user applications (AutoCAD, CorelDraw, etc.). In this ground, we should greet the admission of the languages of visual code (Delphi, Visual [basic], etc.) that they permit a friendlier development of applications. Its goal is qualify them in order to develop applications of digital graphic, providing them concepts of space understanding and visual training for the production of IT applications of digital graphic.
series SIGRADI
email estdce@ciudad.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id b8b4
authors Igarashi, T., Matsuoka, S. and Tanaka, H.
year 1999
title Teddy: A Sketching Interface for 3D Freeform Design
source SIGGRAPH 99 Conference Proceedings, 109-126. ACM
summary Teddy is a sketching interface for quickly and easily design freeform models such as stuffed animals and other rotund objects. The user draws several 2D freeform strokes interactively on the screen and the system automatically constructs plausible 3D polygonal surfaces. Our system supports several modeling operations, including the operation to construct a 3D polygonal surface from a 2D silhouette drawn by the user: it inflates the region surrounded by the silhouette making wide area fat, and narrow area thin. Teddy, our prototype system, is implemented as a Java program, and the mesh construction is done in real-time on a standard PC. I will give a live demonstration of modeling operations and describe its algorithms in detail.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ae38
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1999
title Integrating Databases, Objects and the World-Wide Web for Collaboration in Architectural Design
source Proceedings of the focus symposium: World Wide Web as Framework for Collaboration in conjunction with the 11th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, The International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research
summary Architectural design requires specialized vertical knowledge that goes beyond the sharing of marks on paper or the multi-casting of video images. This paper briefly surveys the state-ofthe- art in groupware and outlines the need for vertical and integrated support of synchronous and asynchronous design collaboration. The paper also describes a software prototype (WebOutliner) under development that uses a three-tier persistent object-oriented, web-based technology for a richer representation of hierarchical architectural artifacts using Apple’s WebObjects technology. The prototype contributes to earlier work that defined a framework for a shared workspace consisting of Participants, Tasks, Proposals, and Artifacts. These four elements have been found through observation and analysis to be adequate representations of the essential components of collaborative architectural design. These components are also hierarchical which allows users to filter information, copy completed solutions to other parts of the program, analyze and compare design parameters and aggregate hierarchical amounts. Given its object orientation, the represented artifacts have built-in data and methods that allow them to respond to user actions and manage their own sub-artifacts. In addition, the prototype integrates this technology with Java tools for ubiquitous synchronous web-based access. The prototype uses architectural programming (defining the spatial program of a building) and early conceptual design as examples of seamlessly integrated groupware applications.
keywords Computer Supported Collaborative Design, WebObjects, Synchronous and Asynchronous Collaboration, Java Applets, Application Server, Web-based Interface
series other
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2002/03/05 18:55

_id 1873
authors Ji, Guohua and Feng, Jinlong
year 1999
title Structural Approach to the Organization of Information: A Teaching Experiment at SEU
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 153-159
summary Design studio still plays a very important role in architectural design education today since teachers and students can exchange their thinking directly. In the whole teaching/learning process, there are a lot of information to be exchanged between the teachers and the students. How to organize the information and record the whole teaching/learning process is very interesting to us. The increasing use of CAD raises some problems with its advantages when the amount of compute-files becomes very big and they are in different formats. In the third year design studio teaching in the academic year 1998/99 at Department of Architecture in Southeast University, we try to use WWW techniques and features to organise the design information. We try to integrate the teaching programme, the project information, the reference material and the students' work together, to record and monitor the teaching process. Since the teaching programme is clearly organised, we could use some strategies and ideas to control the organisation of file storage and presentation. It creates the basis for the further development of applying network to aid the studio teaching.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/09/05 07:21

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id a70b
authors Jung, Th., Do, E.Y.-L. and Gross, M.D.
year 1999
title Immersive Redlining and Annotation of 3D Design Models on the Web
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 81-98
summary The Web now enables people in different places to view three-dimensional models of buildings and places in a collaborative design discussion. Already design firms with offices around the world are exploiting this capability. In a typical application, design drawings and models are posted by one party for review by others, and a dialogue is carried out either synchronously using on line streamed video and audio, or asynchronously using email, chat room, and bulletin board software. However, most of these systems do not allow designers to embed annotations and proposed design changes in the threedimensional design model under discussion. We present a working prototype of a system that has these capabilities and describe the configuration of Web technologies we used to construct it.
keywords VRML, Immersive Environment, Virtual Annotation, Computer-aided Design, Building Models
series CAAD Futures
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ecb2
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1999
title The Future of CAAD: From Computer-Aided Design to Computer-Aided Collaboration
source Llavaneras S., Gustavo J. and Negrón P., Enssa (eds.), 1ra Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Caracas (Venezuela) 1-3 december 1999, pp. 19-28
summary The primary uses of computers in the construction industry have been shifting, over the past four decades, from the evaluation of proposed design solutions, to their graphical (and other) representation, and more recently to facilitating collaboration among the various professionals who are involved in the design process. This paper argues that what may appear to be shifts in emphasis actually represents convergence on a single, original goal: the use of computers to help designers (and others who are involved in the design decision making process) to assess the quality, desirability, and the implications of their creations. Such assistance requires representation, communication, and analysis. The paper goes on to show how these individual parts can be joined into an integrated collaborative design environment, where they build upon and strengthen each other. Moreover, the paper argues that this convergence represents the future of CAAD research and development.
series other
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2002/12/23 13:11

_id 1121
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1999
title The Future of CAAD: From Computer-aided Design to Computer-aided Collaboration
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 14-30
summary The primary uses of computers in the construction industry have been shifting, over the past four decades, from the evaluation of proposed design solutions, to their graphical (and other) representation, and more recently to facilitating collaboration among the various professionals who are involved in the design process. The paper argues that what may appear to be shifts in emphasis actually represents convergence on a single, original goal: the use of computers to help designers assess the quality, desirability, and the implications of their creations. The paper shows how the formerly independent components can be joined into an integrated collaborative design environment, where they build upon and strengthen each other. Moreover, the paper argues that this convergence represents the future of CAAD research and development, providing the appropriate answer to the upcoming needs of the construction industry, whose products have become too complex and must abide by too many requirements for any one professional to handle all by himself. The paper argues that further improvements in the overall quality of the products, and the process of their design, will only accrue when the heretofore separate solutions are considered together, as integral parts of an overall solution. The paper describes the efforts that have been made by the CAD Research Group in Berkeley over the past six years in developing an integrated collaborative design environment that can facilitate multidisciplinary, a- synchronous design of buildings. The environment includes several semantically-rich, shared product representations, a network of distributed evaluators, and graphically enhanced collaboration and negotiation tools.
keywords Collaborative Design, Distributed Design Environment, Product Modeling, Performance Modeling, Process Modeling, Negotiation, Integration
series CAAD Futures
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 2f05
authors Kashiwagi, D.T.
year 1999
title The construction delivery system of the information age
source Automation in Construction 8 (4) (1999) pp. 417-425
summary The Performance Based Studies Research Group (PBSRG) at the Del E. Webb School of Construction, has developed a methodology to process data into information to reduce facility system life-cycle cost and risk of nonperformance. The methodology reshapes the current construction industry model from a `low-bid', `all the same' industry into a `value added' performance based industry. The performance information regulated industry changes roles, partnerships, and communication methods between the construction industry and facility owners. The PBSRG research effort (US$1000K, 1994–present) includes the design and improvement of the Performance Based Procurement System (PBPS), performance data collection on general, mechanical, electrical, landscaping and janitorial services, and design services in the public and private commercial sectors, the identification of performance levels in the industrial sector, and the design of a performance based structure for a manufacturer of construction systems, as well as the education of the facility owners and the construction industry.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id d5b3
authors Knight, Michael and Brown, Andre
year 1999
title Working in Virtual Environments through appropriate Physical Interfaces
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 431-436
summary The work described here is aimed at contributing towards the debate and development relating to the construction of interfaces to explore buildings and their environs through virtual worlds. We describe a particular hardware and software configuration which is derived by the use of low cost games software to create the Virtual Environment. The Physical Interface responds to the work of other researchers, in this area, in particular Shaw (1994) and Vasquez de Velasco & Trigo (1997). Virtual Evironments might have the potential to be "a magical window into other worlds, from molecules to minds" (Rheingold, 1992), but what is the nature of that window? Currently it is often a translucent opening which gives a hazy and distorted (disembodied) view. And many versions of such openings are relatively expensive. We consider ways towards clearing the haze without too much expense, adapting techniques proposed by developers of low cost virtual reality systems (Hollands, 1995) for use in an architectural setting.
keywords Virtual Environments, Games Software
series eCAADe
email mknight@liv.ac.uk
last changed 2002/11/22 17:33

_id fb37
authors Knight, T.
year 1999
title Applications in architectural design and education and practice
source Report for the NSF/MIT Workshop on Shape Computation, Cambridge, Mass., 25-26 April 1999
summary Shortly after shape grammars were invented by Stiny and Gips, a two part project for shape grammars was outlined by Stiny. In a 1976 paper,1 Stiny described "two exercises in formal composition". These simple exercises became the foundation for the many applications of shape grammars that followed, and suggested the potential of such applications in education and practice. The first exercise showed how shape grammars could be used in original composition, that is, the creation of new design languages or styles from scratch. The second exercise showed how shape grammars could be used to analyze known or existing design languages. Both exercises illustrated the unique characteristics of the shape grammar formalism that helped motivate a quarter century (almost!) of shape grammar work. General but simple, formal yet intuitive: qualities that continue to make shape grammar disciples and confound skeptics. The history of shape grammar applications in architecture and the arts for the two complementary purposes of synthesis and analysis, as well as for a third, joint purpose is sketched in the first section of this report. These three categories of applications do not have rigid boundaries. They are used in this report mostly as a framework for discussion. An overview of the roles of shape grammar applications in education and practice is given in the second section. New and ongoing issues concerning shape grammars in education and practice are discussed in the last section.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 65b4
authors Kos, Jose Ripper
year 1999
title Architecture and Hyperdocument: Data Shaping Space
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 462-465
summary The computer interface can't convey the hole experience of walking through a city or a building. Nevertheless, the complexity of all the aspects involved in those threedimensional spaces can be better understood through the non-linearity of the hyperdocument. Each dweller of a city and a building has many layers of relationship with both. The sequence and the extent each observer explores the space is unique. It’s not totally apprehended in a first visit. As the observer knows better that space, his experience changes. A similar situation takes place in a multimedia application. Hence, it's possible to build an analogy between the architectonic or urban structure and a hyperdocument navigation structure. We can also state that the computer is critical to create paths of architectural information through space and time. The 3D model of a city is a powerful basis to structure the hyperdocument navigation. The city can be viewed in separate parts or layers of information. One investigates the city through different aspects of its configuration and explores it in different scales and levels of detail. The images generated from this 3D model can be combined with video, photo, sound and text, organizing the information which gives form to the city. The navigation through this information, addresses the citty by its economy, housing, religion, politics, leisure, projects, symbolic buildings, and other aspects. This paper will discuss these issues through the experiments of the research done at the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. The research group at the "Laboratory of Urban Analysis and Digital Representation" in PROURB (Graduate Program of Urbanism) analyses the city and its buildings using CD-ROMs and websites.
keywords 3D City Modeling, Hyperdocument, Multimedia, Architecture, Urbanism
series SIGRADI
email josekos@pobox.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id 4a1a
authors Laird, J.E.
year 2001
title Using Computer Game to Develop Advanced AI
source Computer, 34 (7), July pp. 70-75
summary Although computer and video games have existed for fewer than 40 years, they are already serious business. Entertainment software, the entertainment industry's fastest growing segment, currently generates sales surpassing the film industry's gross revenues. Computer games have significantly affected personal computer sales, providing the initial application for CD-ROMs, driving advancements in graphics technology, and motivating the purchase of ever faster machines. Next-generation computer game consoles are extending this trend, with Sony and Toshiba spending $2 billion to develop the Playstation 2 and Microsoft planning to spend more than $500 million just to market its Xbox console [1]. These investments have paid off. In the past five years, the quality and complexity of computer games have advanced significantly. Computer graphics have shown the most noticeable improvement, with the number of polygons rendered in a scene increasing almost exponentially each year, significantly enhancing the games' realism. For example, the original Playstation, released in 1995, renders 300,000 polygons per second, while Sega's Dreamcast, released in 1999, renders 3 million polygons per second. The Playstation 2 sets the current standard, rendering 66 million polygons per second, while projections indicate the Xbox will render more than lOO million polygons per second. Thus, the images on today's $300 game consoles rival or surpass those available on the previous decade's $50,000 computers. The impact of these improvements is evident in the complexity and realism of the environments underlying today's games, from detailed indoor rooms and corridors to vast outdoor landscapes. These games populate the environments with both human and computer controlled characters, making them a rich laboratory for artificial intelligence research into developing intelligent and social autonomous agents. Indeed, computer games offer a fitting subject for serious academic study, undergraduate education, and graduate student and faculty research. Creating and efficiently rendering these environments touches on every topic in a computer science curriculum. The "Teaching Game Design " sidebar describes the benefits and challenges of developing computer game design courses, an increasingly popular field of study
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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