CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 600e
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 1999
title Architecture of the Virtual Place
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 418-423
summary The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London (UCL), set up the first MSc in Virtual Environments in the UK in 1995. The course aims to synthesise and build on research work undertaken in the arts, architecture, computing and biological sciences in exploring the realms of the creation of digital and virtual immersive spaces. The MSc is concerned primarily with equipping students from design backgrounds with the skills, techniques and theories necessary in the production of virtual environments. The course examines both virtual worlds as prototypes for real urban or built form and, over the last few years, has also developed an increasing interest in the the practice of architecture in purely virtual contexts. The MSc course is embedded in the UK government sponsored Virtual Reality Centre for the Built Environment which is hosted by the Bartlett School of Architecture. This centre involves the UCL departments of architecture, computer science and geography and includes industrial partners from a number of areas concerned with the built environment including architectural practice, surveying and estate management as well as some software companies and the telecoms industry. The first cohort of students graduated in 1997 and predominantly found work in companies working in the new market area of digital media. This paper aims to outline the nature of the course as it stands, examines the new and ever increasing market for designers within digital media and proposes possible future directions for the course.
keywords Virtual Reality, Immersive Spaces, Digital Media, Education
series eCAADe
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
more http://www.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/ve/
last changed 2002/11/22 18:44

_id 933a
authors GVU
year 1999
title Conceptual Design Space Project
source Center Virtual Environments Group. GeorgiaTech,Virginia, USA
summary The Conceptual Design Space (CDS) is a real-time, interactive virtual environments application which attempts to address the issue of 3D design in general and immersive design in particular. We are researching innovative tools and interface elements for virtual worlds. The first application of these techniques is an architectural one. Graduate students from Georgia Tech's College of Architecture will be using CDS to create conceptual building designs. The students will not only be able to inspect and "inhabit" their buildings, but will also have the ability to modify them, add details, or create new designs, all while immersed in the virtual world.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id b989
authors Jahn, Gonzalo Vélez
year 1999
title Realidad Virtual en Arquitectura - Actualidad y Futuro (Virtual Reality in Architecture - The Present and the Future)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 79-82
summary During recent years, developments in the area of virtual reality and its applications in architecture have undergone a number of important transformations that point out the need of an updated revision and adjustment as regards its current situation status and also that which concerns its potentialities within a foreseeable future. This paper seeks to provide an ample vision about recent developments of VR in architectural applications and, also, about its potential developments within the settings provided by such imminent phenomena as the upcoming Internet II and its future impact on the three dimensional and multisensorial qualities of the information that will move within cyberspace in the next decades. The paper also comments on experiencies underway at the Laboratory of Advanced Techniques in Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Universidad Central de Venezuela in collaboration with the Laboratory of Computer Graphics, School of Computing, also at UCV, Caracas. Finally, a number of considerations and conjectures are dedicated to the new field of VR multi-access worlds and its potential to virtual architectural modeling in the Intenet-WWW.
series SIGRADI
email gvelez@reacciun.ve
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id f799
authors Lau, Kok Hong and Maher, Mary Lou
year 1999
title Architectural Design and Virtual Worlds
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 4-6
summary The combination of architectural design and virtual world design has lead to a rapidly expanding area of study and possibly the birth of a new profession. The potential as well as the uncertainty in the area of virtual architectural design are challenging to anyone who is concerned with our living environment, whether it is physical or virtual. Living in the virtual realm has raised the attention not only of architects, but also philosophers, social scientists and the wider academic and professional community. The discussion and debate on cyberspace will certainly remain an important branch of virtual architecture. In this paper we explore the potential and implications of architectural design in virtual worlds.
series ACADIA
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 9c3e
authors Maher, M.L., Skow, B. and Cicognani, A.
year 1999
title Designing the virtual campus
source Design Studies, 20, 319-342
summary Virtual Worlds are networked environments that look like the physical world, and create a sense of place for the person communicating, navigating, and doing things in the virtual world. Virtual worlds have traditionally been developed as games, in fact, most virtual worlds today are games. A virtual campus has been developed in the Architecture Faculty at the University of Sydney that is based on some of the concepts of virtual worlds. The virtual campus is a place on the internet where students can go to take courses, meet with academic staff, and communicate with other students. The development of the virtual campus has been influenced by research in design science and is based on the conceptual metaphor of architectural design. The design of the virtual campus is considered at three levels: the implementation level, the representation level, and the interface level. Identifying these levels provides a basis for the design of virtual worlds for professional and educational environments. The consideration of the representation level results in a consistent use of a conceptual metaphor so that a person in the virtual campus can make use of the facilities in an intuitive manner.
series journal paper
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 3389
authors Van Wijk, J. and De Vries, B.
year 1999
title Towards an Understanding 3D VR Architectural Design System
source Nijholt, A. and Donk, O. and Dijk, B. van eds., 1999, Interactions in Virtual Worlds: Proceedings Twente Workshop on Language Technology 15, p. 219-224
summary Current systems for Computer Aided Architectural Design are of limited use for the early phase of a design. We give a speci cation of a new sys- tem, in which we strive for a more natural and intuitive interaction. A key element is geometric analysis. From the input of the user, implicit geo- metric and structural relations are derived, which are used during subsequent interaction.
series other
email b.d.vries@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 53a4
authors Vélez Jahn, Gonzalo
year 1999
title The MUMOVIAR (Museum for Modeling Virtual Architecture) - A Proposal for a Research Theme (The Mumoviar (For Museum Virtual Modeling Architecture) - to for Proposal to Research Theme)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 379-383
summary One of the most interesting areas in the forefront of non-immersive virtual reality (VRML) applications to architecture is the one that concerns the design, construction and exploration of on-line multi-access worlds using the Internet-WWW. However, and despite the great proliferation of earlier single-access models built on VRML, attempts to collect, classify and provide accesibility that type of models has proved almost nil. On the other side, one of the architectural typologies that promises the greatest transformation potential in the virtual architecture area in cyberspace is the one that concerns virtual museums and galleries. This paper seeks to provide a bridge between the two aforementioned approaches by formulating a conceptual basis for the creation of a virtual, on-line, multi-access museum intended to house collections of VRML building models. Such models, initially shown at a conventional model scale, would be accessed by visitors through an interface intended to transport those visitors into the models’ environments, where changes in scale could provide navigation access to interior and exterior view of the building . Accordingly, the museum would act as a sort of "spaceport” toward different routes of exploration. This modelistic cascading seems to offer interesting possibilities as regards future virtual architecture applications.
series SIGRADI
email gvelez@reacciun.ve
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id 88d0
authors Wijk, J.J. van and Vries, B. de and Overveld, C. van
year 1999
title Towards an understanding 3D VR architectural design system
source A. Nijholt and O. Donk and B. van Dijk (eds), Interactions in Virtual Worlds, pp. 219-224
summary Current systems for Computer Aided Architectural Design are of limited use for the early phase of a design. We give a speci cation of a new sys- tem, in which we strive for a more natural and intuitive interaction. A key element is geometric analysis. From the input of the user, implicit geo- metric and structural relations are derived, which are used during subsequent interaction.
series other
email b.d.vries@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 6d88
authors Achten, Henri H. and Van Leeuwen, Jos P.
year 1999
title Feature-Based High Level Design Tools - A Classification
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 275-290
summary The VR-DIS project aims to provide design support in the early design stage using a Virtual Reality environment. The initial brief of the design system is based on an analysis of a design case. The paper describes the process of analysis and extraction of design knowledge and design concepts in terms of Features. It is demonstrated how the analysis has lead to a classification of design concepts. This classification forms one of the main specifications for the VR-based design aid system that is being developed in the VR-DIS programme. The paper concludes by discussing the particular approach used in the case analysis and discusses future work in the VR-DIS research programme.
keywords Features, Feature-Based modelling, Architectural Design, Design Process, Design Support
series CAAD Futures
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.n
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 37c2
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 1999
title Visualisation of Design Using Animation for Virtual Prototyping
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 519-525
summary Although recent technology in time-based representation has vastly improved, animation in virtual prototype design field remains the same. Some designers invest a huge amount of money in the latest visualisation and multimedia technology and yet may create even worse animation. They often cramp sequences resulting in many viewers failing to interpret the design positively as they miss a lot of vital information that explains the design. This paper basically reports the importance of film-making understanding for producing good virtual prototype animation. It will be based on a part of a research project on the use of time-based media in architectural practices. It also includes an empirical analysis of several architectural-based documentary films (including an interview with the film director) and past and present computer animation. This paper then concludes with recommendations of good techniques for making animated visualisation relative to the stage at which the animation is produced for better design decision.
keywords Virtual Prototype, Animation, Time-Based, Film-Making
series eCAADe
email rafi@unitele.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id alqawasmi
id alqawasmi
authors Al-Qawasmi, J., Clayton, M.J., Tassinary, L.G. and Johnson, R..
year 1999
title Observations on Collaborative Design and Multimedia Usage in Virtual Design Studio
source J. Woosely and T. Adair (eds.), Learning virtually: Proceedings of the 6th annual distance education conference, San Antonio, Texas, pp. 1-9
summary The virtual design studio (VDS) points to a new way of practicing and teaching architectural design. As a new phenomenon, little research has been done to evaluate design collaboration and multimedia usage in a distributed workplace like the virtual design studio. Our research provides empirical data on how students actually use multiple media during architectural collaborative design.
series other
email jamalq@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2003/12/06 08:55

_id 4d95
authors Alvarado, Rodrigo Garcia and Maver, Tom
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in Architectural Education: Defining Possibilities
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 7-9
summary Introduction: virtual reality in architecture Virtual Reality (VR) is an emergent computer technology for full 3D-simulations, which has a natural application in the architectural work, due that activity involves the complete definition of buildings prior to its construction. Although the profession has a long tradition and expertise in the use of 2D-plans for the design of buildings, the increasing complexity of projects and social participation requires better media of representation. However, the technological promise of Virtual Reality involves many sophisticated software and hardware developments. It is based on techniques of 3D-modelling currently incorporated in the majority of drawing software used in architecture, and also there are several tools for rendering, animation and panoramic views, which provide visual realism. But other capabilities like interactivity and sense of immersion are still complex, expensive and under research. These require stereoscopic helmets, 3D pointers and trackers with complicated configurations and uncomfortable use. Most advanced installations of Virtual-Reality like CAVEs involve much hardware, building space and restrictions for users. Nevertheless, diverse developers are working in Virtual-Reality user-friendly techniques and there are many initial experiences of architectural walk-throughs showing advantages in the communication and development of designs. Then we may expect an increasing use of Virtual Reality in architecture.
series ACADIA
email rgarcia@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2c4a
authors Aroztegui, Carmen
year 1999
title The Architect's Use of the Internet - Study of the Architectural Presentation Possibilities
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 363-368
summary The Internet media is opening new horizons in communication and representation in architecture. However, its use today is superficial, limited, and without creativity. This study will explore theories, methods and examples of how the virtual space of the Internet can be used in its full potential. That means to present ways of observing, understanding, interacting, and communicating the space without precedents in architecture. The existent presentations made by architects in the Internet are in general poor and static. Through the comparative analysis of two presentations of the same architectural space in the Internet and the use of state of the art technology in the Internet, this study will show innovations that will make the exploration of the architectural space more attractive, dynamic and interactive. The main issues will be on one hand, the improvement in the communication of the design through the use of the Internet, and on the other hand, the rise of the standards in the quality of the architectural presentations. This work will project possible implications of the Internet in architecture.
series SIGRADI
email arozteguic@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 6480
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1999
title Computer in Creation of Architectural Form
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999,pp. 131-142
summary This paper considers graphic methods of presentation of ideas 'in the creation of architectural forms' and evolution of these methods, determined by the implementations of information technology. Drawings have been the main medium of expression since Leonardo da Vinci to the present-day. Graphic communication has always been treated as a main design tool, both - at the ending stage of design and at the early design stage. Implementation of computers in design doe not change this situation. The entire design process proceeds in a traditional way. While searching for the idea we use hand sketches and, after this, technical drawings are draught on a plotter, which replaces a drawing pen. Using computers at the early design stages encounters serious difficulties. The main thesis of this paper is that hardware and software inadequacy is not the problem, the problem is in the inadequacy of the design methods. This problem is to be reconceived as what a person can do with a program, rather than what is the capacity of a program. Contemporary computer techniques allow us to put an equation mark between the searching for idea, visualisation and its realisation in virtual space. This paper presents Sketching by scanning - an experimental method of using computer hardware and software for stimulating of searching of architectural's form.
series AVOCAAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4805
authors Bentley, P.
year 1999
title Evolutionary Design by Computers Morgan Kaufmann
source San Francisco, CA
summary Computers can only do what we tell them to do. They are our blind, unconscious digital slaves, bound to us by the unbreakable chains of our programs. These programs instruct computers what to do, when to do it, and how it should be done. But what happens when we loosen these chains? What happens when we tell a computer to use a process that we do not fully understand, in order to achieve something we do not fully understand? What happens when we tell a computer to evolve designs? As this book will show, what happens is that the computer gains almost human-like qualities of autonomy, innovative flair, and even creativity. These 'skills'which evolution so mysteriously endows upon our computers open up a whole new way of using computers in design. Today our former 'glorified typewriters' or 'overcomplicated drawing boards' can do everything from generating new ideas and concepts in design, to improving the performance of designs well beyond the abilities of even the most skilled human designer. Evolving designs on computers now enables us to employ computers in every stage of the design process. This is no longer computer aided design - this is becoming computer design. The pages of this book testify to the ability of today's evolutionary computer techniques in design. Flick through them and you will see designs of satellite booms, load cells, flywheels, computer networks, artistic images, sculptures, virtual creatures, house and hospital architectural plans, bridges, cranes, analogue circuits and even coffee tables. Out of all of the designs in the world, the collection you see in this book have a unique history: they were all evolved by computer, not designed by humans.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 7674
authors Bourdakis, Vassilis and Charitos, Dimitrios
year 1999
title Virtual Environment Design - Defining a New Direction for Architectural Education
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 403-409
summary This paper considers the design and development of virtual environments (VEs) and the way that it relates to traditional architectural education and practice. The need for practitioners who will contribute to the design of 3D content for multimedia and virtual reality applications is identified. The design of space in a VE is seen as being partly an architectural problem. Therefore, architectural design should play an important role in educating VE designers. Other disciplines, intrinsically related to the issue of VE design, are also identified. Finally, this paper aims at pointing out the need for a new direction within architectural education, which will lead towards a generation of VE architects.
keywords Virtual Environments, Architectural Design, Architectural Education
series eCAADe
email V.Bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aef9
authors Brown, A., Knight, M. and Berridge, P. (Eds.)
year 1999
title Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7 / Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, 773 p.
summary The core theme of this book is the idea of looking forward to where research and development in Computer Aided Architectural Design might be heading. The contention is that we can do so most effectively by using the developments that have taken place over the past three or four decades in Computing and Architectural Computing as our reference point; the past informing the future. The genesis of this theme is the fact that a new millennium is about to arrive. If we are ruthlessly objective the year 2000 holds no more significance than any other year; perhaps we should, instead, be preparing for the year 2048 (2k). In fact, whatever the justification, it is now timely to review where we stand in terms of the development of Architectural Computing. This book aims to do that. It is salutary to look back at what writers and researchers have said in the past about where they thought that the developments in computing were taking us. One of the common themes picked up in the sections of this book is the developments that have been spawned by the global linkup that the worldwide web offers us. In the past decade the scale and application of this new medium of communication has grown at a remarkable rate. There are few technological developments that have become so ubiquitous, so quickly. As a consequence there are particular sections in this book on Communication and the Virtual Design Studio which reflect the prominence of this new area, but examples of its application are scattered throughout the book. In 'Computer-Aided Architectural Design' (1977), Bill Mitchell did suggest that computer network accessibility from expensive centralised locations to affordable common, decentralised computing facilities would become more commonplace. But most pundits have been taken by surprise by just how powerful the explosive cocktail of networks, email and hypertext has proven to be. Each of the ingredients is interesting in its own right but together they have presented us with genuinely new ways of working. Perhaps, with foresight we can see what the next new explosive cocktail might be.
series eCAADe
email andygbp@liv.ac.uk, mknight@liv.ac.uk, p.berridge@liverpool.ac.uk
more http://www.ecaade.org
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 9cf4
authors Chan, C., Hill, L. and Cruz-Neira, C.
year 1999
title Is it Possible to Design in Full Scale? A CAD Tool in a Synthetic Environment
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 43-52
summary This project developed a Virtual Architectural Design Tool (VADeT) executed in the C2 Virtual Reality (VR) space. C2 is a synthetic CAVE environment providing a full-scale setting for image projection and perception. Applying this tool for design offers four advantages over other CAD systems. First, it enables navigation performing in full scale to create the sense of immersion and reflection of the seeing-as. Second, it allows the creation, modification, and editing of three-dimensional objects in a virtual space. Third, designs can be modified and viewed simultaneously inside or outside of the generated model to obtain the best design products. Fourth, the entire design process can be recorded and played back. Collectively, this tool serves the purposes of: (1) a three-dimensional sketching tool for manipulating 3-D objects, (2) a design study tool for transparently displaying the design processes, and (3) a design teaching tool to demonstrate the processes by which designers do design. Thus, design in a full-scale representation not only is possible but also is a new and unconventional mode that will heavily influence design thinking.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/09/11 07:39

_id 69f5
authors Chan, C., Maves, J. and Cruz-Neira, C.
year 1999
title An Electronic Library for Teaching Architectural History
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 335-344
summary This research project developed an electronic library of significant buildings chosen to represent seven selected periods of Western architectural history: Egyptian (Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut), Greek (Parthenon), Roman (Pantheon), Romanesque (Speyer Cathedral), Gothic (Notre Dame Cathedral), Renaissance (Tempietto), and Modern (Des Moines Art Center). All buildings were reconstructed in their original or intended forms based on plans, drawings, photographs, and historical texts. Two products were generated by this project: (1) materials to be displayed on the World Wide Web, including rendered still images for perception, movies for a visual guide, and Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) models for user navigation; and (2) virtual reality (VR) models to be displayed in the C2 (an improved version of the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment or CAVE facility). The benefits of these VR models displayed on the Web and in the C2 are their easy accessibility at any time from various geographic locations and the immersive experience that enhances viewersÌ understanding of the effects of spatial proportions on form and of colors on materials.
series CAADRIA
more http://archvr.design.iastate.edu/miller
last changed 2000/01/13 11:23

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