CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 579

_id 89bb
authors Ataman, Osman and Richey, Thomas
year 1999
title ArchiDATA: A Hypermedia Tool for Architecture
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 496-500
summary Design is a cooperative activity at several levels. At one level, clients, architects, financiers, and construction engineers and contractors, all play important roles in creating the design for the building. At another level, the design team may contain architects, interior and landscape designers, lighting experts, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning experts, etc. At a third level, individual architects cooperate with computer-based design tools in creating portions of a complex design. This paper describes an ongoing project called ArchiDATA, in which we are developing a computational Case-Based Design Aid (CBDA) for architectural design. This project, which is collaboration between cognitive scientists and architectural researchers, builds on an artificial intelligence paradigm called case-based reasoning and work in post-occupancy evaluation and other case study research in architecture.
series SIGRADI
email ataman@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 616c
authors Bentley, Peter J.
year 1999
title The Future of Evolutionary Design Research
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 349-350
summary The use of evolutionary algorithms to optimise designs is now well known, and well understood. The literature is overflowing with examples of designs that bear the hallmark of evolutionary optimisation: bridges, cranes, electricity pylons, electric motors, engine blocks, flywheels, satellite booms -the list is extensive and evergrowing. But although the optimisation of engineering designs is perhaps the most practical and commercially beneficial form of evolutionary design for industry, such applications do not take advantage of the full potential of evolutionary design. Current research is now exploring how the related areas of evolutionary design such as evolutionary art, music and the evolution of artificial life can aid in the creation of new designs. By employing techniques from these fields, researchers are now moving away from straight optimisation, and are beginning to experiment with explorative approaches. Instead of using evolution as an optimiser, evolution is now beginning to be seen as an aid to creativity -providing new forms, new structures and even new concepts for designers.
series AVOCAAD
email P.Bentley@cs.ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id b4d2
authors Caldas, Luisa G. and Norford, Leslie K.
year 1999
title A Genetic Algorithm Tool for Design Optimization
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 260-271
summary Much interest has been recently devoted to generative processes in design. Advances in computational tools for design applications, coupled with techniques from the field of artificial intelligence, have lead to new possibilities in the way computers can inform and actively interact with the design process. In this paper we use the concepts of generative and goal-oriented design to propose a computer tool that can help the designer to generate and evaluate certain aspects of a solution towards an optimized behavior of the final configuration. This work focuses mostly on those aspects related to the environmental performance of the building. Genetic Algorithms are applied as a generative and search procedure to look for optimized design solutions in terms of thermal and lighting performance in a building. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is first used to generate possible design solutions, which are then evaluated in terms of lighting and thermal behavior using a detailed thermal analysis program (DOE2.1E). The results from the simulations are subsequently used to further guide the GA search towards finding low-energy solutions to the problem under study. Solutions can be visualized using an AutoLisp routine. The specific problem addressed in this study is the placing and sizing of windows in an office building. The same method is applicable to a wide range of design problems like the choice of construction materials, design of shading elements, or sizing of lighting and mechanical systems for buildings.
series ACADIA
email lcaldas@mit.edu
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id 9cab
authors Coomans, M.K.D.
year 1999
title A Virtual Reality User Interface for a Design Information System, CCAI: the Journal for the Integrated Study of Artificial Intelligence
source Cognitive Science and Applied Epistemology, Rijks Universiteit Gent
summary The computer is a tool, a complex artefact that is used to extend our reach. A computer system can provide several kinds of services, but against these services stands a supplementary task that the user must deal with: the communication with the computer system. We argued that Virtual Reality (VR) can fundamentally improve the user interface by rendering on the common experiential skills of all users. We present the theoretical basis for this, referring to Donald Norman's theory. We show that VR provides at least theoretically, the means to take a big step in the direction of an ideal user interface. As an example of a innovative application of VR in user interface design, we presented the VR-DIS system; an interdisciplinary design system for the building and construction industry. We discuss the issues underlying the design of its VR interface.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 70e3
authors Kim, Yong-Seong
year 1999
title Knowledge-Aided Design System for Intelligent Building Design
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 305-312
summary In the age of information technology, architectural design problems become increasingly complex, the finding of optimal solutions has become more difficult and obscure. Computer-aided design techniques have been applied to solve these ill-structured design problems; however, most of these applications have been used for graphical automation. Design improvement in quality has not been achieved using traditional computer programs. To handle the critical design decision problems, design systems need to be structured based on theoretical problem solving models. This would enable the design system to handle the problem solving design knowledge as well as the various technological aspects and geometrical representations. A theoretical model, knowledge-aided design, is proposed. Knowledge-aided design is a conceptual and theoretical model based on fundamental principles of design. It provides a problem-solving environment and a procedure for knowledge-based computer-aided architectural design based on cognitive science and artificial intelligence techniques. As a partial implementation of the theoretical model, the development of knowledge-aided design system for intelligent building design is described.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/01/13 11:20

_id 4a1a
authors Laird, J.E.
year 2001
title Using Computer Game to Develop Advanced AI
source Computer, 34 (7), July pp. 70-75
summary Although computer and video games have existed for fewer than 40 years, they are already serious business. Entertainment software, the entertainment industry's fastest growing segment, currently generates sales surpassing the film industry's gross revenues. Computer games have significantly affected personal computer sales, providing the initial application for CD-ROMs, driving advancements in graphics technology, and motivating the purchase of ever faster machines. Next-generation computer game consoles are extending this trend, with Sony and Toshiba spending $2 billion to develop the Playstation 2 and Microsoft planning to spend more than $500 million just to market its Xbox console [1]. These investments have paid off. In the past five years, the quality and complexity of computer games have advanced significantly. Computer graphics have shown the most noticeable improvement, with the number of polygons rendered in a scene increasing almost exponentially each year, significantly enhancing the games' realism. For example, the original Playstation, released in 1995, renders 300,000 polygons per second, while Sega's Dreamcast, released in 1999, renders 3 million polygons per second. The Playstation 2 sets the current standard, rendering 66 million polygons per second, while projections indicate the Xbox will render more than lOO million polygons per second. Thus, the images on today's $300 game consoles rival or surpass those available on the previous decade's $50,000 computers. The impact of these improvements is evident in the complexity and realism of the environments underlying today's games, from detailed indoor rooms and corridors to vast outdoor landscapes. These games populate the environments with both human and computer controlled characters, making them a rich laboratory for artificial intelligence research into developing intelligent and social autonomous agents. Indeed, computer games offer a fitting subject for serious academic study, undergraduate education, and graduate student and faculty research. Creating and efficiently rendering these environments touches on every topic in a computer science curriculum. The "Teaching Game Design " sidebar describes the benefits and challenges of developing computer game design courses, an increasingly popular field of study
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d8df
authors Naticchia, Berardo
year 1999
title Physical Knowledge in Patterns: Bayesian Network Models for Preliminary Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 611-619
summary Computer applications in design have pursued two main development directions: analytical modelling and information technology. The former line has produced a large number of tools for reality simulation (i.e. finite element models), the latter is producing an equally large amount of advances in conceptual design support (i.e. artificial intelligence tools). Nevertheless we can trace rare interactions between computation models related to those different approaches. This lack of integration is the main reason of the difficulty of CAAD application to the preliminary stage of design, where logical and quantitative reasoning are closely related in a process that we often call 'qualitative evaluation'. This paper briefly surveys the current development of qualitative physical models applied in design and propose a general approach for modelling physical behaviour by means of Bayesian network we are employing to develop a tutoring and coaching system for natural ventilation preliminary design of halls, called VENTPad. This tool explores the possibility of modelling the causal mechanism that operate in real systems in order to allow a number of integrated logical and quantitative inference about the fluid-dynamic behaviour of an hall. This application could be an interesting connection tool between logical and analytical procedures in preliminary design aiding, able to help students or unskilled architects, both to guide them through the analysis process of numerical data (i.e. obtained with sophisticate Computational Fluid Dynamics software) or experimental data (i.e. obtained with laboratory test models) and to suggest improvements to the design.
keywords Qualitative Physical Modelling, Preliminary Design, Bayesian Networks
series eCAADe
email Naticchia@idau.unian.it
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga9908
id ga9908
authors Senagala, Mahesh
year 1999
title Artistic Process, Cybernetics of Self and the Epistemology of Digital Technology
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary From the viewpoint of Batesonian cybernetics, ‘conscious purpose’ and artistic process are distinct ends of a spectrum of the functioning of self. Artistic activities— by which I mean art, poetry, play, design, etc.— involve processes that are beneath the stratum of consciousness. By definition, consciousness is selective awareness and is linear in execution and limited in its capability to synthesize complex parameters. As Heidegger pointed out, technology is a special form of knowledge (episteme). A machine is a manifestation of such a knowledge. A machine is a result of conscious purpose and is normally task-driven to accomplish a specific purpose(s). The questions this paper raises are to do with the connections between conscious purpose, artistic process and digital technology. One of the central questions of the paper is "if artistic process requires an abandonment or relinquishment of conscious purpose at the time of the generation of the work of art, and if the artistic process is a result of vast number of ‘unconscious’ forces and impulses, then could we say that the computer would ever be able to ‘generate’ or ‘create’ a work of art?" In what capacity and what role would the computer be a part of the generative process of art? Would a computer be able to ‘generate’ and ‘know’ a work of art, which, according to Bateson, requires the abandonment of conscious purpose? The ultimate goal of the paper is to unearth and examine the potential of the computers to be a part of the generative process of what Bateson has called "total self as a cybernetic model". On another plane of discourse, Deleuze and Guattari have added a critical dimension to the discourse of cybernetics and models of human mind and the global computer networks. Their notion of ‘rhizome’ has its roots in Batesonian cybernetics and the cybernetic couplings between the ‘complex systems’ such as human mind, biological and computational systems. Deleuze and Guattari call such systems as human brain and the neural networks as rhizomatic. Given the fact that the computer is the first known cybernetic machine to lay claims to artificial intelligence, the aforementioned questions become even more significant. The paper will explore how, cybernetically, the computer could be ‘coupled’ with ‘self’ and the artistic process — the ultimate expression of human condition. These philosophical and artistic explorations will take place through a series of generative artistic projects (See the figure below for an example) that aim at understanding the couplings and ‘ecology’ of digital technology and the cybernetics of self.
series other
email msenagala@iname.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id c041
authors Vakalo, E., Malkawi, A.M. and Emdanat, S.S.
year 1999
title An AI-based shell for linking thermal and form-making considerations
source Automation in Construction 8 (4) (1999) pp. 455-462
summary Over the past few years, our team has developed several computer-based models in the areas of architectural form-making and thermal analysis. These programs were designed to deal with specific problems and use a range of techniques including machine vision, knowledge-based systems, and artificial intelligence techniques. Recently, a project that integrates these systems was initiated. Its objective is to design an intelligent computer shell that forms the basis for this integration in the domain of architecture. The paper discusses the development of the shell and its use to analyze and study architectural form and its determinants. The shell accommodates modules that link the morphological structure of architectural design with more of its determinants (e.g., structural, acoustical, and lighting considerations, as well as code requirements). The paper presents and discusses the background of the shell, its structure, its methods of knowledge representation, and an example of its use.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id ga9922
id ga9922
authors Annunziato, M. and Pierucci, P.
year 1999
title The Art of Emergence
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Since several years, the term emergence is mentioned in the paradigm of chaos and complexity. Following this approach, complex system constituted by multitude of individual develop global behavioral properties on the base of local chaotic interactions (self-organization). These theories, developed in scientific and philosophical milieus are rapidly spreading as a "way of thinking" in the several fields of cognitive activities. According to this "way of thinking" it is possible revise some fundamental themes as the economic systems, the cultural systems, the scientific paths, the communication nets under a new approach where nothing is pre-determined, but the global evolution is determined by specific mechanisms of interaction and fundamental events (bifurcation). With a jump in scale of the life, also other basic concepts related to the individuals as intelligence, consciousness, psyche can be revised as self-organizing phenomena. Such a conceptual fertility has been the base for the revision of the artistic activities as flexible instruments for the investigation of imaginary worlds, metaphor of related real worlds. In this sense we claim to the artist a role of "researcher". Through the free exploration of new concepts, he can evoke qualities, configurations and hypothesis which have an esthetical and expressive value and in the most significant cases, they can induce nucleation of cultural and scientific bifurcation. Our vision of the art-science relation is of cooperative type instead of the conflict of the past decades. In this paper we describe some of the most significant realized artworks in order to make explicit the concepts and basic themes. One of the fundamental topics is the way to generate and think to the artwork. Our characterization is to see the artwork not as a static finished product, but as an instance or a dynamic sequence of instances of a creative process which continuously evolves. In this sense, the attention is focused on the "generative idea" which constitutes the envelop of the artworks generable by the process. In this approach the role of technology (computers, synthesizers) is fundamental to create the dimension of the generative environment. Another characterizing aspect of our artworks is derived by the previous approach and specifically related to the interactive installations. The classical relation between artist, artwork and observers is viewed as an unidirectional flux of messages from the artist to the observer through the artwork. In our approach artist, artwork and observer are autonomous entities provided with own personality which jointly intervene to determine the creative paths. The artist which generate the environment in not longer the "owner" of the artwork; simply he dialectically bring the generative environment (provided by a certain degree of autonomy) towards cultural and creative "void" spaces (not still discovered). The observers start from these platforms to generate other creative paths, sometimes absolutely unexpected , developing their new dialectical relations with the artwork itself. The results derived by these positions characterize the expressive elements of the artworks (images, sequences and sounds) as the outcomes of emergent behavior or dynamics both in the sense of esthetical shapes emergent from fertile generative environments, either in terms of emergent relations between artist, artwork and observer, either in terms of concepts which emerge by the metaphor of artificial worlds to produce imaginary hypothesis for the real worlds.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id e15c
authors Bartenbach, Christian and Witting, Walter
year 1999
title VDU WORK IN DIFFERENT LIGHTING CONDITIONS
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 7-28
summary In order to avoid the disadvantages of purely subjective methods in a technical evaluation of daylight and artificial light systems, the Bartenbach LichtLabor developed new test methods which can determine objectively and quantitatively the visual or psycho-physiological stress connected with VDU work [1], depending on different lighting conditions. Daylight and artificial lighting systems were tested with these methods and compared by using the performances achieved by the test subjects. Some highly significant differences in performance done under the individual lighting systems became apparent and demonstrated that the visual stress or the physical or physiological fatigue from an ergonomic viewpoint depends largely on the lighting conditions at the workplace. This holds true for daylight systems (glare protection, re-directing lamellae, clear window as a control condition) as well as for purely artificial lighting systems where especially the choice of color temperature of the light and the used control gear (conventional or electronic) determine the resulting performance. Optimized lighting also positively affects the productivity and economicy for the design of workplaces that take the human factor into account.
keywords VDU, Optimized Lighting, Performance Test, Lighting System, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:27

_id ga9907
id ga9907
authors Ciao, Quinsan
year 1999
title Breeds of Artificial Design: Design Thinking in Computing Creation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary There are many different paradigms or breeds of artificial design schemes. They each address artificial design from a different perspective. For instance, design by optimization emphasizes the iterative "trial-and-error" process of alternating generation and evaluation. Design by argumentation addresses the need of objectifying and communicating design thinking. Design by rues attempts to summary design knowledge into recipes. Design by simulation and electronic media offers a forum for design trial evaluation. Case-based design emphasizes experience-based design thinking. Fuzzy reasoning system provides a computing media to model and execute design reasoning. Although different, all of these paradigms are related and complement each other. Unification or collaboration of these different paradigms may lie ahead of future research and practice of artificial design.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga9921
id ga9921
authors Coates, P.S. and Hazarika, L.
year 1999
title The use of genetic programming for applications in the field of spatial composition
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Architectural design teaching using computers has been a preoccupation of CECA since 1991. All design tutors provide their students with a set of models and ways to form, and we have explored a set of approaches including cellular automata, genetic programming ,agent based modelling and shape grammars as additional tools with which to explore architectural ( and architectonic) ideas.This paper discusses the use of genetic programming (G.P.) for applications in the field of spatial composition. CECA has been developing the use of Genetic Programming for some time ( see references ) and has covered the evolution of L-Systems production rules( coates 1997, 1999b), and the evolution of generative grammars of form (Coates 1998 1999a). The G.P. was used to generate three-dimensional spatial forms from a set of geometrical structures .The approach uses genetic programming with a Genetic Library (G.Lib) .G.P. provides a way to genetically breed a computer program to solve a problem.G. Lib. enables genetic programming to define potentially useful subroutines dynamically during a run .* Exploring a shape grammar consisting of simple solid primitives and transformations. * Applying a simple fitness function to the solid breeding G.P.* Exploring a shape grammar of composite surface objects. * Developing grammarsfor existing buildings, and creating hybrids. * Exploring the shape grammar of abuilding within a G.P.We will report on new work using a range of different morphologies ( boolean operations, surface operations and grammars of style ) and describe the use of objective functions ( natural selection) and the "eyeball test" ( artificial selection) as ways of controlling and exploring the design spaces thus defined.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 7546
authors Coyne, R.
year 1999
title Technoromanticism - digital narrative, holism, and the romance of the real
source MIT Press
summary It's no secret that contemporary culture romanticizes digital technologies. In books, articles, and movies about virtual community, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, artificial life, and other wonders of the digital age, breathless anticipation of vast and thrilling changes has become a running theme. But as Richard Coyne makes clear in Technoromanticism: Digital Narrative, Holism, and the Romance of the Real, a dense but rewarding piece of academic criticism, we also get romantic about the new technologies in a more rigorous sense of the word. Whether heralding an electronic return to village communalism or celebrating cyberspace as a realm of pure mind, today's utopian thinking about the digital, Coyne argues, essentially replays the 18th- and 19th-century cultural movement called Romanticism, with its powerful yearnings for transcendence and wholeness. And this apparently is not a good thing. Romanticism, like the more sober Enlightenment rationalism against which it rebelled, has outlived its usefulness as a way of understanding the world, Coyne argues. And so he spends the duration of the book bombarding both the romantic and the rationalist tendencies in cyberculture with every weapon in the arsenal of 20th-century critical theory: poststructuralism, Freudianism, postmodern pragmatism, Heideggerian phenomenology, surrealism--Coyne uses each in turn to whack away at conventional wisdoms about digital tech. Whether the conventional wisdoms remain standing at the end is an open question, but Coyne's tour of the contemporary intellectual landscape is a tour de force, and never before has digital technology's place in that landscape been mapped so thoroughly. --
series other
email Richard.Coyne@ed.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ga0015
id ga0015
authors Daru, R., Vreedenburgh, E. and Scha, R.
year 2000
title Architectural Innovation as an evolutionary process
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Traditionally in art and architectural history, innovation is treated as a history of ideas of individuals (pioneers), movements and schools. The monograph is in that context one of the most used forms of scientific exercise. History of architecture is then mostly seen as a succession of dominant architectural paradigms imposed by great architectural creators fighting at the beginning against mainstream establishment until they themselves come to be recognised. However, there have been attempts to place architectural innovation and creativity in an evolutionary perspective. Charles Jencks for example, has described the evolution of architectural and art movements according to a diagram inspired by ecological models. Philip Steadman, in his book "The Evolution of Designs. Biological analogy in architecture and the applied arts" (1979), sketches the history of various biological analogies and their impact on architectural theory: the organic, classificatory, anatomical, ecological and Darwinian or evolutionary analogies. This last analogy "explains the design of useful objects and buildings, particularly in primitive society and in the craft tradition, in terms of a sequence of repeated copyings (corresponding to inheritance), with small changes made at each stage ('variations'), which are then subjected to a testing process when the object is put into use ('selection')." However, Steadman has confined his study to a literature survey as the basis of a history of ideas. Since this pioneering work, new developments like Dawkins' concept of memes allow further steps in the field of cultural evolution of architectural innovation. The application of the concept of memes to architectural design has been put forward in a preceding "Generative Art" conference (Daru, 1999), showing its application in a pilot study on the analysis of projects of and by architectural students. This first empirical study is now followed by a study of 'real life' architectural practice. The case taken has a double implication for the evolutionary analogy. It takes a specific architectural innovative concept as a 'meme' and develops the analysis of the trajectory of this meme in the individual context of the designer and at large. At the same time, the architect involved (Eric Vreedenburgh, Archipel Ontwerpers) is knowledgeable about the theory of memetic evolution and is applying a computer tool (called 'Artificial') together with Remko Scha, the authoring computer scientist of the program who collaborates frequently with artists and architects. This case study (the penthouse in Dutch town planning and the application of 'Artificial') shall be discussed in the paper as presented. The theoretical and methodological problems of various models of diffusion of memes shall be discussed and a preliminary model shall be presented as a framework to account for not only Darwinian but also Lamarckian processes, and for individual as well as collective transmission, consumption and creative transformation of memes.
keywords evolutionary design, architectural innovation, memetic diffusion, CAAD, penthouses, Dutch design, creativity, Darwinian and Lamarckian processes
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id groot_ddssar0221
id groot_ddssar0221
authors De Groot, E.H.
year 1999
title Integrated Lighting System Assistant
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary The aim of the design project described in this thesis is to design a tool to support the building design process. Developing a design is considered to be a wicked problem because it goes beyond reasonable or predictable limits. Consequently, in this design project we address two wicked problems simultaneously: a double wicked problem. The two wicked problems concerned are the design of Design Decision Support System [DDSS] and the conceptual design of office lighting systems. To get a handle on the first wicked problem, two workshops were organised to meet the possible future users and to create a common basis for the tool to be developed. To tackle the wickedness of the second problem, an office lighting model and performance evaluation method were developed and implemented in a new prototype computer system: Integrated Lighting System Assistant [ILSA]. The workshops have proven to be a good source of feedback and an essential link to daily practice. The ILSA prototype shows that it is possible to implement the lighting model and evaluation method into a working prototype that can support architects in making decisions for the early design stage in the field of integrating daylight and artificial lighting.
series thesis:PhD
more http://www.bwk.tue.nl/fago/AIO/ellie/
last changed 2003/12/16 06:16

_id 5007
authors Elezkurtaj, Tomor and Franck, Georg
year 1999
title Genetic Algorithms in Support of Creative Architectural Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 645-651
summary The functions supported by commercial CAAD software are drawing, construction and presentation. Up to now few programs supporting the creative part of architectural problem solving have become available. The grand hopes of symbolic AI to program creative architectural design have been disappointing. In the meantime, methods called referred to as New AI have become available. Such methods includegenetic algorithms (GA). But GA, though successfully applied in other fields of engineering, still waits to be applied broadly in architectural design. A main problem lies in defining function in architecture. It is much harder to define the function of a building than that of a machine. Without specifying the function of the artifact, the fitness function of the design variants participating in the survival game of artificial evolution remains undetermined. It is impossible to fully specify the fitness function of architecture. The approach presented is one of circumventing a full specification through dividing labor between the GA software and its user. The fitness function of architectural ground plans is typically defined in terms only of the proportions of the room to be accommodated and certain topological relations between them. The rest is left to the human designer who interactively intervenes in the evolution game as displayed on the screen.
keywords Genetic Algorithms, Creative Architectural Design
series eCAADe
email tomor@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at, franck@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id ga9916
id ga9916
authors Elzenga, R. Neal and Pontecorvo, Michael S.
year 1999
title Arties: Meta-Design as Evolving Colonies of Artistic Agents
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Meta-design, the act of designing a system or species of design instead of a design instance, is an important concept in modern design practice and in the generative design paradigm. For meta-design to be a useful tool, the designer must have more formal support for both design species definition/expression and the abstract attributes which the designer is attempting to embody within a design. Arties is an exploration of one possible avenue for supporting meta-design. Arties is an artistic system emphasizing the co-evolution of colonies of Artificial Life design or artistic agents (called arties) and the environment they inhabit. Generative design systems have concentrated on biological genetics metaphors where a population of design instances are evolved directly from a set of ‘parent’ designs in a succession of generations. In Arties, the a-life agent which is evolved, produces the design instance as a byproduct of interacting with its environment. Arties utilize an attraction potential curve as their primary dynamic. They sense the relative attraction of entities in their environment, using multiple sensory channels. Arties then associate an attractiveness score to each entity. This attractiveness score is combined with a 'taste' function built into the artie that is sensitized to that observation channel, entity, and distance by a transfer function. Arties use this attraction to guide decisions and behaviors. A community of arties, with independent evolving attraction criteria can pass collective judgement on each point in an art space. As the Artie moves within this space it modifies the environment in reaction to what it senses. Arties support for Meta-design is in (A) the process of evolving arties, breeding their attraction potential curve parameters using a genetic algorithm and (B) their use of sensory channels to support abstract attributes geometries. Adjustment of these parameters tunes the attraction of the artie along various sensing channels. The multi-agent co-evolution of Arties is one approach to creating a system for supporting meta-design. Arties is part of an on-going exploration of how to support meta-design in computer augmented design systems. Our future work with Arties-like systems will be concerned with applications in areas such as modeling adaptive directives in Architecture, Object Structure Design, spatio-temporal behaviors design (for games and simulations), virtual ambient spaces, and representation and computation of abstract design attributes.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id de8c
authors Martens, Bob
year 1999
title MAKING LIGHT TANGIBLE: SIMULATION OF LIGHT DESIGN WITHIN ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 1-6
summary In times where computer-assisted representations dominate the “market” of visual simulation, the major strongholds of simulation in true size in conveying (artificial) light configurations have been observed. Though light cannot be “touched” due to its material absence the human eye reacts extremely sensitively to differing constellations. In matters of seconds differences are perceived and classified. Opening up a rift between the various simulation techniques, however, would not prove wise. The normal procedure still consists of trial positioning of lighting objects on site (i.e.: 1:1 simulation at building site). Regarding the effort this causes attempts as to gaining similar results by means of (partial) computer representations are worth considering. The degree of abstraction, however, might be too significant to make for conclusive decisions. In other words: Can the gap between imagination and translation thereof into reality be bridged? This contribution deals with the experimental implementation of artificial light in the full-scale lab and its possibilities regarding the 1:1 simulation at the Vienna University of Technology, with special attention to the didactic aspects related thereto.
keywords Lighting Design, Full-scale Modeling, Architectural Education, Simulation Dome, Visual Simulation, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2004/05/04 09:28

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