CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 626

_id 046b
authors Martens, Bob
year 1999
title Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 761-769
summary The aim and object of this account is to elaborate on the role of eCAADe within the present worldwide "CAAD-activities". Each of the associations dedicated to the field of CAAD has taken its very own course of development, many cases of overlap and interaction have resulted, some of them, however, merely based on personal contacts. The purpose of eCAADe is to promote the sharing of ideas and collaboration in matters relating to Computer Aided Architectural Design. This, jointly drafted paper outlines these global aims within a worldwide context. The eCAADe umbrella covers both Europe and its periphery. Including the Middle East and North Africa. Though this does not apply as a kind of "territorial claim ", the primary affiliation of regions to at least one of the current international associations is sought. Historically, the early eighties are to be regarded as the period of first encounters with computers of larger proportions of people involved in architecture, simultaneously with the rise of personal computers. Thus various university sites acted as the forerunners in this field. Implementation of CAAD in teaching and research soon called for channeling the exchanges of experience via a suitable platform. The founding of ACADIA (the North American Organisation) in 1981, however, seems to have set the stage, as shortly thereafter the foundations for a European movement were laid.
series eCAADe
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http:www.ecaade.org
last changed 2001/02/11 19:38

_id 6476
authors Maver, T., Petric, J., Ennis, G. and Lindsay, M.
year 2000
title Visiting The Virtual City
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 135-139
summary In 1999, the city of Glasgow in Scotland, celebrated the honour of being the UK City of Architecture and Design. The same year saw the successful launch, on the Internet, of a fully interactive virtual experience of the city. This paper describes the evolution and functionality of vrglasgow over the last 10 years and anticipates its future development over the next 5 years. Currently the system comprises the VRML topography, the road network and the 3-D geometry of around 10,000 buildings within the city centre. The visitor to the virtual city to navigate and search under a range of headings for items of interest and experience some of Glasgow’s best architecture. Data from a number of information sources are interlinked and made accessible through VRML as well as through the conventional internet modes such as lists, tables and search engines. Consequently, the visitor can explore the city intuitively.
keywords 3D City modeling
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 473d
authors Maver, Tom and Petric, Jelena
year 1999
title Virtual Heritage: Is There a Future for the Past?
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 482-487
summary This paper attempts an overview of the contribution which emerging information technologies - viz CAD, Multimedia, Virtual Reality and the Internet - can make to the presentation, understanding and preservation of the rich architectural heritage which exists (pro-term) in almost every cultural context. In the UK, the growing interest in sites such as Stonehenge has, through the threat of greater physical presence, increasingly kept the public at bay - a curious paradox which Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to address. Virtual Reality (-an overly used and underly understood term-) is an information technology which can provide a convincing experience of environments which: i) exist, but are too remote, costly or hazardous, to visit. ii) don't yet exist but are planned, such as architectural designs or urban plans. iii) never will exist, other than in the imagination. iv) existed in the past and are now threatened or already lost. // This paper has its focus on the latter category, i.e. what is now becoming known as Virtual Heritage (VH), but it puts VH in the context of the broader spectrum of simulated experiences of past, present and future environments of cultural significance. The paper draws largely on the work of ABACUS, the Architecture and Building Aids Computer Unit, Strathclyde. The examples of the application of IT to VH include: i) a virtual reality experience of Historic Scotland's premier historical site: Skara Brae, the most complete neolithic settlement in Northern Europe. ii) a multimedia CD-ROM featuring some 50 of the most wonderful interiors of Glasgow's architectural treasures. iii) a computer based archive of rare and normally inaccessible 17C and 18C drawings of Scottish buildings from three seminal sources. iv) a massive 3-D model of Glasgow (some 10,000 buildings located on the hilly terrain of the city), which is now accessible on the Internet. // The paper concludes with conjectures based on the examples given of how emerging information technologies can help secure a future for the past.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id f9f7
authors Mullins, Michael
year 1999
title Forming, Planning, Imaging and Connecting
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 178-185
summary This paper sets out to define aspects of the architectural design process, using historical precedent and architectural theory, and tests the relationship of those aspects to the application of computers in architectural design, particularly in an educational context. The design process sub-sets are defined as: Forming, Planning, Imaging and Connecting. Historical precedents are uncovered in Classical, Modern, Postmodern and Contemporary architecture. The defined categories of the design process are related to current usages of computers in architectural education towards elucidating the strengths and weaknesses of digital media in those areas. Indications of their concurrent usage in digital design will be demonstrated in analysis of design studio programs presented at recent ACADIA conferences. An example of a current design studio programme set at the School of Architecture University of Natal, South Africa in which the above described categories give an underlying structure to the introduction of 3D digital modelling to undergraduates through design process. The definition of this set of design activities may offer a useful method for other educators in assessing existing and future design programs where digital tools are used.
keywords Design-Process, Digital-Media, Design-Programmes
series eCAADe
email madura@iafrica.com
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id b127
authors Oliveira, A.L., Santiago, A.G. and Mittmann, R.
year 1999
title Digital Floripa - CD-ROM of the City
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 399-403
summary The graduation course of Architecture and Urbanism of the Federal University of Santa Catarina makes use of informatic tecnology in several teaching and research activities. This technology supports initial data proccessing, analysis, evaluations, simulations, and project development both in architecture and urban fields. Aiming to stimulate and improve the use of computer techniques in graduation courses, the INFOARQ group, belonging to the 'LABMICRO' developed the project 'Digital Floripa'. This project is an CD image data basis, with digital aerophotographs Florianópolis’ city taken, from the aerophotogrametric data of 1994. This project aims to facilitate image's access to teachers, students and researchers, to allow use of photos and scales, and to make possible the development of new alternatives interventions. A navegator program called 'DIGITAL INDEX'supports the user in the image's search and creates a same graphic interface. This project also acts as basis for research development wich aims to analyse and develop tutorial proceedures to access the utilization of the data images basis.
keywords Digital Patrimony, Digital Reconstruction, Virtual Worlds
series SIGRADI
email andrelim@arq.ufsc.br, alina@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id b2ff
authors Orev, Ruthie
year 1999
title Computerized Simulation of Urbanism Phenomena
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 143-155
summary Despite the complex forces that operate in urban development, a relatively small number of geometries and morphologies may be identified in urban maps. Do covert universal laws exist which are integral to the concept of the city and responsible for the geometry? May one formulate such laws and program a computer to produce maps on the basis thereof, thus exposing architectural reality to a scientific process of objective experimentation? In an effort to answer these questions, I wrote programs based on definitions, parameters and rules reflecting architectural phenomena. The creation process using the programs is based on a formalistic approach, drawing on a random mechanism, considerations of probability and numerous calculations. This "computerized planning" does not mimic or simulate human work processes. The programs enable a considerable measure of visual variety to be achieved, replicating familiar urban morphologies. One may isolate variables, starting conditions and growth processes, and examine the influence thereof on fabric, organization and order. The existence of a program such as this raises questions of principle concerning randommes and creation, the future role of architects, the creative capacities of computers, the connection between science and architecture, truth in virtual situations, etc.
series AVOCAAD
email rutiorev@netvision.net.il
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 2e50
authors Ozersay, Fevzi and Szalapaj, Peter
year 1999
title Theorising a Sustainable Computer Aided Architectural Education Model
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 186-195
summary The dogmatic structure of architectural education has meant that the production and application of new educational theories, leading to educational models that use computer technology as their central medium of education, is still a relatively under-explored area. Partial models cannot deliver the expected bigger steps, but only bits and pieces. Curricula developments, at many schools of architecture, have been carried out within the closed circuit manner of architectural education, through expanding the traditional curricula and integrating computers into them. There is still no agreed curriculum in schools of architecture, which defines, at least conceptually, the use of computers within it. Do we really know what we are doing? In the words of Aart Bijl; 'If I want to know what I am doing, I need a separate description of my doing it, a theory' [Bijl, 1989]. The word 'sustainability' is defined as understanding the past and responding to the present with concern for the future. Applying this definition to architectural education, this paper aims to outline the necessity and the principles for the construction of a theory of a sustainable computer aided architectural education model, which could lead to an architectural education that is lasting.
keywords Architectural Education, Educational Theories, Computers, Sustainable Models
series eCAADe
email F.Oversay@sheffield.ac.uk, p.szalapaj@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 9eb6
authors Peng C. and Blundell Jones, P.
year 1999
title Hypermedia Authoring and Contextual Modeling in Architecture and Urban Design: Collaborative Reconstructing Historical Sheffield
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 114-124
summary Studies of historical architecture and urban contexts in preparation for contemporary design interventions are inherently rich in information, demanding versatile and efficient methods of documentation and retrieval. We report on a developing program to establish a hypermedia authoring approach to collaborative contextual modeling in architecture and urban design. The paper begins with a description of a large-scale urban history study project in which 95 students jointly built a physical model of the city center of Sheffield as it stood in 1900, at a scale of 1:500. Continuing work on the Sheffield urban study project, it appears to us desirable to adopt a digital approach to archiving the material and in making it both indexible and accessible via multiple routes. In our review of digital models of cities, some interesting yet unexplored issues were identified. Given the issues and tasks elicited, we investigated hypermedia authoring in HTML and VRML as a designer-centered modeling methodology. Conceptual clarity of the methodology was considered, intending that an individual or members of design groups with reasonable computing skills could learn to operate it quickly. The methodology shows that it is practicable to build a digital contextual databank by a group of architecture/urban designers rather than by specialized modeling teams. Contextual modeling with or without computers can be a research activity on its own. However, we intend to investigate further how hypermedia-based contextual models can be interrelated to design development and communication. We discuss three aspects that can be explored in a design education setting.
series ACADIA
email c.peng@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id ecaade2007_228
id ecaade2007_228
authors Pupo, Regiane; Celani, Gabriela
year 2007
title Trends in Graduate Research on IT & Architecture: a Qualitative Comparison of Tendencies in Brazil and abroad
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 431-437
summary Applications of information technology (IT) in the architectural profession have greatly increased in the past decades, ranging nowadays from concept design to automated construction. There are countless applications in the architecture practice that go well beyond representation, such as BIM software, generative design systems, and rapid prototyping and fabrication. For this reason, IT has been a frequent graduate research topic. In the present research academic graduate theses that dealt with IT in architecture since 1999 were surveyed and categorized, with the purpose of comparing the topics, applications and methods that are studied in Brazil and abroad. We hope that the differences found will help Brazilian architecture schools to update their IT curriculum, overcoming old prejudices against the use of computers in the creative phases of design.
keywords Information technology, architectural design, design process, design education, computational design, CAD
series eCAADe
email rpupo@fec.unicamp.br, celani@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id 36dc
authors Reffat, Rabee M. and Gero, John S.
year 1999
title Situatedness: A New Dimension for Learning Systems in Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 252-261
summary In this paper we adopt the approach that designing is a series of situated acts, ie designing cannot be pre-planned to completion. This is based on ideas from situated cognition theory that claims that what people perceive, how they conceive and what they do develop together and are adapted to the environment. For a system to be useful for human designers it must have the ability to associate what is learned to its environment. In order for a system to do that such a system must be able to acquire knowledge of the environment that a design constructs. Therefore, acknowledging the notion of situatedness is of importance to provide a system with such capability and add on a new dimension to existing learning systems in design. We will call such a learning system within the design domain a Situated Learning Design System (SLDS). A SLDS should be able to create its own situational categories from its perceptual experiences and modify them if encountered again to link the learned knowledge to its corresponding situation. We have chosen architectural shapes as the vehicle to demonstrate our ideas and used multiple representations to build a platform for a SLDS to learn from. In this paper the notion of situatedness and its role in both designing and learning is discussed. The overall architecture of a SLDS is introduced and how the potential outcome of such a system will support human designers while designing is discussed.
keywords Designing, Situated Knowledge, Multiple Representations, Situated Learning
series eCAADe
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id dc01
authors Saleh Uddin, M.
year 1999
title Digital Architecture
source McGraw-Hill
summary Digital Architecture is the only guide that shows you how to create accomplished computer drawings by displaying and explaining the work of many of today's most justly celebrated design professionals. It gives you the foundation to understand how these international masters so deftly exploited computers, by providing a clear overview of the hardware, software, and input and output devices involved in digital media. It then showcases the conceptual studies, desktop formats, 3D renderings, digital hybrids, and animation of more than 50 top designers and firms. Each project comes with a succinct explanation of the design concept, drawing techniques, hardware and software used, and output media involved. Featuring an easy-to-use, loose-leaf format, Digital Architecture will be your ongoing reference on hybrid digital representation and an endless source of ideas and inspiration.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id db35
authors Schmitt, G.
year 1999
title Information Architecture: Basics of CAAD and its future
source Basel: Birkhaeuser
summary With increasing intensity, CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) is determining the daily work of today's architectural offices. Computers allow complex designs to be visualised and altered with great speed and accuracy; three-dimensional models can be created with simulation and animation possibilities, and links to the World Wide Web provide access to a flow of information. The author develops his thesis that these aspects do not just enable the creative process to be optimised in a quantitative sense but also qualitatively. Alongside the spatial and time dimensions, the new electronic possibilities provide a fifth dimension in architecture.
series other
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e679
authors Seichter, H., Donath, D. and Petzold, F.
year 2002
title TAP – The Architectural Playground - C++ framework for scalable distributed collaborative architectural virtual environments
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 422-426
summary Architecture is built information (Schmitt, 1999). Architects have the task of restructuring and translating information into buildable designs. The beginning of the design process where the briefing is transformed into an idea is a crucial phase in the design process. It is where the architect makes decisions which influence the rest of the design development process (Vries et al., 1998). It is at this stage where most information is unstructured but has to be integrated into a broad context. This is where TAP is positioned – to support the architect in finding solutions through the creation of spatially structured information sets without impairing thereby the creative development. We want to enrich the inspiration of an architect with a new kind of information design. A further aspect is workflow in a distributed process where the architect’s work becomes one aspect of a decentralised working patterns. The software supports collaborative work with models, sketches and text messages within an uniform surface. The representations of the various media are connected and combined with each other and the user is free to combine them according to his or her needs.
series eCAADe
email hartmut.seichter@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id ga9923
id ga9923
authors Simondetti, Alvise
year 1999
title Experiments in Rule Based Design and Computer Generated Physical Prototypes
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper explores some of the opportunities offered by computer aided design to architects, interior designers and industrial designers. It differs from much of the research in the field in the sense that, it expands out of the boundaries of the computer screen by making computer generated physical prototypes using several different Rapid Prototyping technologies.This paper surveys the author's work at the Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and more recently the work of his research team at the School of Design, Hong Kong Polytechnic University. The aim of the research is to explore the designer's advantages and limitations using rule based design and rapid prototyping techniques and searching for novel research questions. For each of the experiments proposed I will describe (1) the set up of the experiment (2) the methodology used to conduct the experiments, (3) highlights its advantages and limitations and (4) proposes further possible research questions. Throughout the paper I will focus especially on the unexpected outcomes.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 151f
authors Sonia, A.L., Burgos, I. and Szentpaly, I.
year 1999
title Un Producto Estratégico para la Gestión Territorial: Sigit Tamare (A Strategic Product for the Territorial Management: Sigit Tamare)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 235-238
summary Beyond its proposed objectives, implementing the Tamare Geographical and Territorial Information System represents a strategic experience for the involved institutions: Zulia´s University Architecture and Design Faculty, PDVSA the State owned petroleum Company; and municipal authorities from the East Coast. These project with participation the petroleum industry and Zulia University, highlights the significance of close interinstitutional and intergovernmental collaboration. The presentation, after a brief reference to objectives, describes characteristics and theoretical development of the system, and emphasizes the implementation phase, designed in three steps, and the participation of each one of the involved institutions. The conclusions establish the reasons why this project is considered to be a strategic product resulting from the joint effort and coordination of different organizations. The benefits obtained by each, including the Tamare Urban Community, represent an achievement for local urban management, within the Venezuelan decentralization process, that widely justifies the joint effort and continuity of this project.
keywords Information System, Geographical Information System, Territorial Information System, Strategic Product, System Implementation
series SIGRADI
email fmayor@iamnet.com
last changed 2016/03/10 09:00

_id ascaad2007_025
id ascaad2007_025
authors Speed, C.
year 2007
title A Social Dimension to Digital Architectural Practice
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 291-304
summary In 1995 the first in a series of three books were published by Academy Editions, that have since become a vivid handbook that documents how designers responded to the development of architectural drawing applications and the growth of the internet, to establish a form of digital architecture. Offering dramatic images and emotive texts, many of the architects and designers featured in these books deeply affected the perception of digital architecture’s mission by students and elements of the design community. Concentrating upon how to resolve the view that time and space are separate dimensions, and the immersive and dematerial potentials of cyberspace, the developments of this ‘cyberromanticism’ (Coyne 1999) ultimately were not used to sustain digital architectural activity. This paper uses the Academy Editions series to understand how such a vivid aspect of digital architecture failed to fulfil its aspirations. The paper begins by establishing the premise for digital architecture through a link with mainstream architectures interest in the concept of shelter. Through a summary of the practical and theoretical methods outlined by the early designers within the series of publications, the paper demonstrates the critical potential of the field. However a summary of how the proliferation of early imagery fuelled a visual mannerism traces how the third Architects in Cyberspace publication represented a crisis in both identity and practice. The paper then identifies an opportunity for recovering the theoretical imperatives within digital architecture by reflecting upon the emergence of ‘interactive architectures’ use of a ‘social’ dimension that was previously hindered by the use of computer applications in early digital architecture. The paper closes with a reference to two of the authors practical projects that use social data to inform the generation of digital architecture.
series ASCAAD
email c.speed@plymouth.ac.uk
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id 732d
authors Uddin, M. Saleh
year 1999
title Digital Architecture
source McGraw-Hill, New York
summary Digital Architecture is the only guide that shows you how to create accomplished computer drawings by displaying and explaining the work of many of today's most justly celebrated design professionals. It gives you the foundation to understand how these international masters so deftly exploited computers, by providing a clear overview of the hardware, software, and input and output devices involved in digital media. It then showcases the conceptual studies, desktop formats, 3D renderings, digital hybrids, and animation of more than 50 top designers and firms. Each project comes with a succinct explanation of the design concept, drawing techniques, hardware and software used, and output media involved. Featuring an easy-to-use, loose-leaf format, Digital Architecture will be your ongoing reference on hybrid digital representation and an endless source of ideas and inspiration.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 53df
authors Uddin, M.S.
year 1999
title Hybrid Drawing Techniques by Contemporary Architects and Designers
source John Wiley, New York,
summary The complete hybrid drawing sourcebook Hybrid drawings offer limitless possibilities for the fusion and superimposition of ideas, media, and techniques-powerful creative tools for effective and innovative architectural graphic presentation. This unique guide offers a dynamic introduction to these drawings and how they are created, with a stunning color portfolio of presentation-quality examples that give full visual expression to the power and potential of hybrid drawing techniques. Featuring the work of dozens of internationally recognized architects and firms, including Takefumi Aida, Helmut Jahn of Murphy/Jahn Architects, Morphosis, Eric Owen Moss, NBBJ Sports & Entertainment, Smith-Miller & Hawkinson, and Bernard Tschumi Architects, the book's visual examples are accompanied by descriptive and analytical commentary that gives valuable practical insight into the background of each project, along with essential information on the design concept and the drawing process. Combining all of the best features of an idea resource and a how-to guide, Hybrid Drawing Techniques by Contemporary Architects and Designers is an important creative tool for students and professionals in architecture, design, illustration, and related areas
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c041
authors Vakalo, E., Malkawi, A.M. and Emdanat, S.S.
year 1999
title An AI-based shell for linking thermal and form-making considerations
source Automation in Construction 8 (4) (1999) pp. 455-462
summary Over the past few years, our team has developed several computer-based models in the areas of architectural form-making and thermal analysis. These programs were designed to deal with specific problems and use a range of techniques including machine vision, knowledge-based systems, and artificial intelligence techniques. Recently, a project that integrates these systems was initiated. Its objective is to design an intelligent computer shell that forms the basis for this integration in the domain of architecture. The paper discusses the development of the shell and its use to analyze and study architectural form and its determinants. The shell accommodates modules that link the morphological structure of architectural design with more of its determinants (e.g., structural, acoustical, and lighting considerations, as well as code requirements). The paper presents and discusses the background of the shell, its structure, its methods of knowledge representation, and an example of its use.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 44c0
authors Van Leeuwen, Jos P.
year 1999
title Modelling architectural design information by features : an approach to dynamic product modelling for application in architectural design
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary Architectural design, like many other human activities, benefits more and more from the ongoing development of information and communication technologies. The traditional paper documents for the representation and communication of design are now replaced by digital media. CAD systems have replaced the drawing board and knowledge systems are used to integrate expert knowledge in the design process. Product modelling is one of the most promising approaches in the developments of the last two decades, aiming in the architectural context at the representation and communication of the information related to a building in all its aspects and during its complete life-cycle. However, after studying both the characteristics of the product modelling approach and the characteristics of architectural design, it is concluded in this research project that product modelling does not suffice for support of architectural design. Architectural design is characterised mainly as a problem solving process, involving illdefined problems that require a very dynamic way of dealing with information that concerns both the problem and emerging solutions. Furthermore, architectural design is in many ways an evolutionary process. In short term this is because of the incremental approach to problem solving in design projects; and in long term because of the stylistic development of designers and the continuous developments in the building and construction industry in general. The requirements that are posed by architectural design are concentrated in the keywords extensibility and flexibility of the design informationmodels. Extensibility means that designers can extend conceptual models with definitions that best suit the design concepts they wish to utilise. Flexibility means that information in design models can be structured in a way that accurately represents the design rationale. This includes the modelling of incidental characteristics and relationships of the entities in the model that are not necessarily predefined in a conceptual model. In general, product modelling does not adequately support this dynamic nature of design. Therefore, this research project has studied the concepts developed in the technology of Feature-based modelling, which originates from the area of mechanical engineering. These concepts include the usage of Features as the primitives for defining and reasoning about a product. Features have an autonomous function in the information model, which, as a result, constitutes a flexible network of relationships between Features that are established during the design process. The definition of Features can be specified by designers to formalise new design concepts. This allows the design tools to be adapted to the specific needs of the individual designer, enlarging the library of available resources for design. In addition to these key-concepts in Feature-based modelling as it is developed in the mechanical engineering context, the project has determined the following principles for a Feature-based approach in the architectural context. Features in mechanical engineering are used mainly to describe the lowest level of detail in a product's design, namely the characteristics of its parts. In architecture the design process does not normally follow a strictly hierarchical approach and therefore requires that the building be modelled as a whole. This implies that multiple levels of abstraction are modelled and that Features are used to describe information at the various abstraction levels. Furthermore, architectural design involves concepts that are non-physical as well as physical; Features are to be used for modelling both kinds. The term Feature is defined in this research project to reflect the above key-concepts for this modelling approach. A Feature is an autonomous, coherent collection of information, with semantic meaning to a designer and possibly emerging during design, that is defined to formalise a design concept at any level of abstraction, either physical or non-physical, as part of a building model. Feature models are built up entirely of Features and are structured in the form of a directed graph. The nodes in the graph are the Features, whereas the arcs are the relationships between the Features. Features can be of user-defined types and incidental relationships can be added that are not defined at the typological level. An inventory in this project of what kind of information is involved in the practice of modelling architectural design is based on the analysis of a selection of sources of architectural design information. This inventory is deepened by a case study and results in the proposition of a categorisation of architectural Feature types.
keywords Automated Management Information Systems; Computer Aided Architectural Design; Information Systems; Modelling
series thesis:PhD
email j.p.v.leeuwen@bwk.tue.nl
more http://www.ds.arch.tue.nl/jos/thesis/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

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