CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 977d
authors Van Zutphen, R.H.M., Turksma, A., Achten, H.H. and Af Klercker, J.
year 1999
title AVOCAAD, Teaching CAAD on the Internet
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 345-354
summary The Leonardo da Vinci pilot project AVOCAAD (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design), aims to innovate the use of computers in architecture. It tries to achieve this through the development of new course material, which will be used in the education of architectural students as well as for post-graduate education, continuous education and training-on-the-job of architects working in a practice. Besides the development of new course materials, a new framework was developed to give structure to the huge amount of different topics within the CAAD-curriculum and to improve dissemination and learning facilities using the Internet. In this paper, we describe the AVOCAAD project in general, give some examples of concrete course materials, and focus on the general framework, which we called the Vienna Scheme. The paper also focuses on the implementation, and use of the Vienna Scheme on the Internet is also discussed. The project is funded by the European Community under grant B/96/2/0539/PI/II.1.1.c/CONT.
series eCAADe
email rob.van.zutphen@logicacmg.com
more http://www.avocaad.org
last changed 2005/09/09 08:46

_id 108f
authors Vassigh, Shahin
year 1999
title Structures E-Book
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 15-15
summary Although understanding structures is central to the education of the architect, the engineering-based instructional materials currently in use are fundamentally inappropriate for the vast majority of architecture students. The teaching of structures is constrained by content, teaching methods and texts, which are increasingly ineffective in the classroom. Nonengineering (especially architecture) faculty and their student’s struggle with an aging, engineering-based approach to instruction, which is inappropriately quantitative, abstract and unrelated to the practical and creative aspects of design. The consequences of using this pedagogy are that many architecture students fail to master basic structural concepts, much less the more demanding aspects of practical application.
series ACADIA
email vassigh@ap.buffalo.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id d267
authors Verbeke, J. Provoost, T., Verleye, J., Nys, K., Van Zutphen, R., Achten, H., Turksma, A., Pittioni, G., Asanowicz, A., Jakimowicz A. and Af Klercker, J.
year 1999
title AVOCAAD, The Experience
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 244-251
summary The Leonardo da Vinci project AVOCAAD (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design) aims at stimulating creative and experimental use of computers in the field of Architecture and Construction by the use of new technologies. For this purpose, a large set of exercises and exercise materials was developed and is now available through an interactive web-site. This allows regular students as well as architects in practice to continuously seek for a more interesting and inspiring use of computers and IC-technology, adding value in their own field of interest and work. The interactive web-site generates a virtual forum for exchange of ideas. The AVOCAAD partners as well as the newly joined partners are currently using and testing the available teaching materials (exercises, foreground and background information) with students. Moreover a small design exercise in the context of the project has been the theme of a workshop held at the AVOCAAD 1999 conference. Students and architects were asked to create a design in a predefined space based on experimental architectural music. This paper intends to report on the experiences we gained in using the interactive web-site, the exercises and also doing the workshop. We will address the pedagogical implications of issues like learning environment, continuous and distance learning, and focus on their impact towards CAAD curricula. Examples and results will illustrate the general framework.
keywords AVOCAAD, CAAD, Creativity, LLL, ODL
series eCAADe
email info@avocaad.org
more http://www.avocaad.org
last changed 2005/09/09 08:46

_id 168e
authors Verbeke, J., Provoost, T., Verleye, J., Nys, K., Van Zutphen, R., Achten, H., Turksma, A., Pittioni, G., Asanowicz, A., Jakimowicz, A. and Af Klercker, J.
year 1999
title AVOCAAD
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 9-24
summary The Leonardo da Vinci pilot project AVOCAAD (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design) aims to innovate the use of computers in architecture. Hereto, new course materials and structures are developed. Focus is on new unusual ways to use software in Architecture. In this paper, we first describe the context using the general AVOCAAD statement. In order to give structure to the developed materials, a scheme was developed. This AVOCAAD scheme is given and described. In order to innovate in the architectural curriculum as well as in design offices, exercise materials will be available through the Internet. Hereto, a web- structure for the exercises was developed.
keywords Creativity, Innovation, Exercise Materials, WWW
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 20ab
authors Yakeley, Megan
year 2000
title Digitally Mediated Design: Using Computer Programming to Develop a Personal Design Process
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Architecture
summary This thesis is based on the proposal that the current system of architectural design education confuses product and process. Students are assessed through, and therefore concentrate on, the former whilst the latter is left in many cases to chance. This thesis describes a new course taught by the author at MIT for the last three years whose aim is to teach the design process away from the complexities inherent in the studio system. This course draws a parallel between the design process and the Constructionist view of learning, and asserts that the design process is a constant learning activity. Therefore, learning about the design process necessarily involves learning the cognitive skills of this theoretical approach to education. These include concrete thinking and the creation of external artifacts to develop of ideas through iterative, experimental, incremental exploration. The course mimics the Constructionist model of using the computer programming environment LOGO to teach mathematics. It uses computer programming in a CAD environment, and specifically the development of a generative system, to teach the design process. The efficacy of such an approach to architectural design education has been studied using methodologies from educational research. The research design used an emergent qualitative model, employing Maykut and Morehouses interpretive descriptive approach (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994) and Glaser and Strausss Constant Comparative Method of data analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Six students joined the course in the Spring 1999 semester. The experience of these students, what and how they learned, and whether this understanding was transferred to other areas of their educational process, were studied. The findings demonstrated that computer programming in a particular pedagogical framework, can help transform the way in which students understand the process of designing. The following changes were observed in the students during the course of the year: Development of understanding of a personalized design process; move from using computer programming to solve quantifiable problems to using it to support qualitative design decisions; change in understanding of the paradigm for computers in the design process; awareness of the importance of intrapersonal and interpersonal communication skills; change in expectations of, their sense of control over, and appropriation of, the computer in the design process; evidence of transference of cognitive skills; change from a Behaviourist to a Constructionist model of learning Thesis Supervisor: William J. Mitchell Title: Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and Planning
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id d43d
authors Yu, Dazhong
year 1999
title Public Participation in Urban Design Based on Information Technology
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 393-402
summary For years, lack of public participation has affected the quality of design and planning. The developing cities constantly face the anti-development sentiments on the part of local residents because of controversial decision of development. Rapid development of information technology provides us with a chance to mend the delay of communication with the public in design procedure. It makes it possible to get the resident's reaction to a new project. Unlike a purely CAD-based environment, computer application to urban design is based on a blend of computer-aided design, spatial information system, and interactive multimedia. It is the combination of geometric, geographic, and annotated information and the need of data integration by collaboration and meanwhile it provides opportunities of participation. Due to the position at the crossover of architecture, landscape architecture, and planning, urban design attempts to control the proceeding in both design improvisations and socio-economic policies. In this proceeding, public participation plays an important role in exchanging opinions with the masses. In the situation of participation in China, we can synthesize some useful methods of public participation in the urban design by means of computer simulation, computer communication, and diverse software and tools, etc.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/09/05 07:17

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 5cba
authors Anders, Peter
year 1999
title Beyond Y2k: A Look at Acadia's Present and Future
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 10
summary The sky may not be falling, but it sure is getting closer. Where will you when the last three zeros of our millennial odometer click into place? Computer scientists tell us that Y2K will bring the world’s computer infrastructure to its knees. Maybe, maybe not. But it is interesting that Y2K is an issue at all. Speculating on the future is simultaneously a magnifying glass for examining our technologies and a looking glass for what we become through them. "The future" is nothing new. Orwell's vision of totalitarian mass media did come true, if only as Madison Avenue rather than Big Brother. Futureboosters of the '50s were convinced that each garage would house a private airplane by the year 2000. But world citizens of the 60's and 70's feared a nuclear catastrophe that would replace the earth with a smoking crater. Others - perhaps more optimistically -predicted that computers were going to drive all our activities by the year 2000. And, in fact, theymay not be far off... The year 2000 is symbolic marker, a point of reflection and assessment. And - as this date is approaching rapidly - this may be a good time to come to grips with who we are and where we want to be.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 6480
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1999
title Computer in Creation of Architectural Form
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999,pp. 131-142
summary This paper considers graphic methods of presentation of ideas 'in the creation of architectural forms' and evolution of these methods, determined by the implementations of information technology. Drawings have been the main medium of expression since Leonardo da Vinci to the present-day. Graphic communication has always been treated as a main design tool, both - at the ending stage of design and at the early design stage. Implementation of computers in design doe not change this situation. The entire design process proceeds in a traditional way. While searching for the idea we use hand sketches and, after this, technical drawings are draught on a plotter, which replaces a drawing pen. Using computers at the early design stages encounters serious difficulties. The main thesis of this paper is that hardware and software inadequacy is not the problem, the problem is in the inadequacy of the design methods. This problem is to be reconceived as what a person can do with a program, rather than what is the capacity of a program. Contemporary computer techniques allow us to put an equation mark between the searching for idea, visualisation and its realisation in virtual space. This paper presents Sketching by scanning - an experimental method of using computer hardware and software for stimulating of searching of architectural's form.
series AVOCAAD
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e531
authors Berk, Michael
year 1999
title CYBERjack
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 10
summary Using a limited "kit of parts" [two 8 ft. 2x4's and one sheet of 1/2" birch plywood] students in teams of two are to design and construct an "interface" which joins the physical world to the virtual world of the web. The location for this piece of furniture [the CYBERjack] will be a local library in Okolona, Mississippi, where existing web computers are to be housed. The students modeled the design using formZ, then plotted full-size templates to be used in cutting the actual parts out of wood in the shop. The device was supposed to join the Body to the Machine. The project lasted 2 weeks and was part of a 4th year studio which participated in the ACADIA Library Competition last year.
series ACADIA
email mberk@sarc.msstate.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 5bce
authors Ceccato, Cristiano
year 1999
title Evolutionary Design Tools for Mass-Customisation
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 152-156
summary This paper describes an instance of the author’s ongoing research in the field of Generative Design. The work is based on the premise that computer-aided design (CAD) should evolve beyond its current limitation of one-way interaction, and become a dynamic, intelligent, multi-user environment that encourages creativity and actively supports the evolution of individual, mass-customised designs which exhibit common features. The understanding of fundamental shape-forming processes in nature inspires us to move beyond the existing CAD paradigms and re-examine the way we can benefit from the computers in design. We can use this knowledge to create a new generation of computer-based design tools which use evolutionary search algorithms to generate create a common family of individual designs optimised according to particular criteria, while supporting our design intuition. The author explores this idea by illustrating a research project between the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Deakin University (Australia). The project implements a multi-user oriented design tool for evolutionary design, which was tailored to produce a simple object such as door handle. The paper first gives a short historical and philosophical to the work, then describes the technical and algorithmic requirements, and implementation of the system. It concludes by describing an experiment in which the system was used on a "live" test group of people to generate individual, mass-customised designs.
series SIGRADI
email sdchris@polyu.edu.hk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 26e4
authors Da Rosa Sampaio, Andrea
year 1999
title Design Thinking Proces and New Paradigms of Graphic Expression (Design Thinking Proces and New Paradigms of Graphic Expression)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 68-73
summary It is undeniable that infotechnology has brought significant changes into architectural representation. Whether these changes has altered design conception proccess or are only media matters, is a discussion concerned with the role of graphic expression in architects designs. Is it just a language, or a design thinking tool, fully engaged with the formal solution? Thus, the investigation of the role of represententional systems in the design thinking proccess and the analysis of their intrinsic relationship will approach traditional methods facing the widespread use of Computer Aided Design. There are polemics about the issue: on the one hand, seductive simulations and a plethora of rendering choices available, on the other hand, impersonal expression, to name a few arguments for and against CAD use. Computers have not replaced the straight reciprocity between the acts of conceiving and drawing, between mind and image, which results in manual sketches, quite effective in embodying a design idea. Yet, we have to admit that manipulating complex forms such as Gehry's Guggenheim Museum quickly would not be feasible before CAD advent. We have been faced with new paradigms challenging the graphic expression of architects and urban designers. Besides the consequences of this new reality to design thinking, a crucial point to be stressed at this discussion is the possibility of achieving a balance between the cherished mind-hand intimacy and the available technological resources.
keywords Traditional Representation, Design Thinking, CAD
series SIGRADI
email asampaio@trip.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id f51a
authors Del Pup, Claudio
year 1999
title Carbon Pencil, Brush and Mouse, Three Tools in the Learning Process of New University Art Designers
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 420-425
summary This article develops the introduction of computer technologies in the fine arts environment the use of these new tools, sharing the process of creation and interacting at the same level with older technics, breaks the myth of technology and tries to reach the right place according to current or modern advances. As an introduction, it explains the insertion in the current courses of study of the "computer languages area", its implementation, present situation and future stages. An important point we have developed is the teaching methodology, to solve the transition of those who, challenging their investigations in different areas, like fire arts, graphic arts, film or video, need the support of computers. The first steps consist in designing sample courses, which allow the measurement of results, the definition of concepts like extension, capacities, teaching hours and the most important, a methodology to share the enthusiasm of creation with the difficulties of learning a new technique it is necessary to discover limits, to avoid easy results as a creative tool one of the most important problems we have faced is the necessity of coordinating the process of creation with the individual time of a plastic artist, finding the right way that allows the integration of all the group, minimizing desertion and losing of motivation. Two years later, the first results in the field of digital image investigations and assistance in form design. Volume as a challenge and solutions supported in techniques of modeling in 3D (experiences of modeling a virtual volume from a revolution profile, its particular facts and the parallelism with potter's lathe the handling of image as the most important element, as an work of art itself, but also as a support in the transmission of knowledge (design of a CD as a tool for the department of embryology of medical school with the participation of people from the medical school, engineering school and school of fine arts). Time as a variable, movement, animation and its techniques, multimedia (design of short videos for the 150th anniversary of the Republic University). Conclusions, good hits, adjustments, new areas to include, problems to solve, the way of facing a constantly evolving technology.
series SIGRADI
email claudio.delpup@quanam.com.uy
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id 750e
authors Ferziger, Joel H. and Peric, Milovan
year 1999
title Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics
source Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag
summary The book offers an overview of the techniques used to solve problems in fluid mechanics on computers and describes in detail those most often used in practice. Included are advanced techniques in computational fluid dynamics, like direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulence, multigrid methods, parallel computing, moving grids, structured, block-structured and unstructured boundary-fitted grids, free surface flows. The book shows common roots and basic principles for many apparently different methods. The book also contains a great deal of practical advice for code developers and users, it is designed to be equally useful to beginners and experts. All computer codes can be accessed from the publisher's server ftp.springer.de on the internet. This second edition is updated throughout and new material has been added, especially on turbulent flows.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c9db
authors Juhasz, Peter, Kiss, Zsolt and Szoboszlai, Mihaly
year 1999
title Drawing's Dimensions
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 498-502
summary Traditional methods used for 3-dimensional visualisation are rediscovered is many fields. Architects and designers have sought appropriate and useful computer-based techniques that they can describe spatial relation with. This paper considers the significant opportunity that is now available in education to help understanding of 3-dimensional space with stereo-equipment powered by computers.
keywords 3D Visualisation, CAAD, 3-D Modeling, Stereoscopy
series eCAADe
email caadgroup@arch.bme.hu
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 4a1a
authors Laird, J.E.
year 2001
title Using Computer Game to Develop Advanced AI
source Computer, 34 (7), July pp. 70-75
summary Although computer and video games have existed for fewer than 40 years, they are already serious business. Entertainment software, the entertainment industry's fastest growing segment, currently generates sales surpassing the film industry's gross revenues. Computer games have significantly affected personal computer sales, providing the initial application for CD-ROMs, driving advancements in graphics technology, and motivating the purchase of ever faster machines. Next-generation computer game consoles are extending this trend, with Sony and Toshiba spending $2 billion to develop the Playstation 2 and Microsoft planning to spend more than $500 million just to market its Xbox console [1]. These investments have paid off. In the past five years, the quality and complexity of computer games have advanced significantly. Computer graphics have shown the most noticeable improvement, with the number of polygons rendered in a scene increasing almost exponentially each year, significantly enhancing the games' realism. For example, the original Playstation, released in 1995, renders 300,000 polygons per second, while Sega's Dreamcast, released in 1999, renders 3 million polygons per second. The Playstation 2 sets the current standard, rendering 66 million polygons per second, while projections indicate the Xbox will render more than lOO million polygons per second. Thus, the images on today's $300 game consoles rival or surpass those available on the previous decade's $50,000 computers. The impact of these improvements is evident in the complexity and realism of the environments underlying today's games, from detailed indoor rooms and corridors to vast outdoor landscapes. These games populate the environments with both human and computer controlled characters, making them a rich laboratory for artificial intelligence research into developing intelligent and social autonomous agents. Indeed, computer games offer a fitting subject for serious academic study, undergraduate education, and graduate student and faculty research. Creating and efficiently rendering these environments touches on every topic in a computer science curriculum. The "Teaching Game Design " sidebar describes the benefits and challenges of developing computer game design courses, an increasingly popular field of study
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d2b4
authors Maver, Tom and Petric, Jelena
year 1999
title Media in Mediation: Prospects for Computer Assisted Design Participation
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 138-147
summary One of the most consistent, powerful and philosophical ideas which has run like a silk thread through the short and erratic history of the development of computer aided architectural design is that of user participation in the design decision-making process. It is not an idea with which the architectural profession is particularly comfortable but it is, the authors claim, one which is central to the professional ethic and, therefore, to its ultimate survival.

Design decision-making is, if addressed properly, a hugely, complex multi-variety, multi-person process on which precious little serious research has been focused. In the late 1960's the Design Methods Group in the USA and the Design Research Society in the UK formulated paper-based models of the design process and anticipated, in some regards with un-nerving accuracy, the way in which the application of information technologies would impinge beneficially on the process of design decision-making and, therefore, on the quality of the built environment.

One concept expressed at that time was as follows: (•) the application of computers to the modeling and prediction of the cost and performance behavior of alternative design solutions allows subjective value judgements to be better informed and more explicitly audited, and that (•) such subjective value judgements should be made by those most affected by them, i.e. the future owners and users of buildings. //

This paper is devoted to the critical re-examination of this concept, on the seminal research and development which has kept the notion alive over 30 years, and, most importantly in the context of the theme of ACADIA 1999, how the current advances in multimedia, virtual reality and internet access are not yet making its ubiquitous adoption inevitable: in short, a plea for Media in Mediation.

series ACADIA
email jean.dick@strath.ac.uk
last changed 1999/12/02 07:51

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id b8c3
authors Rosenman, M.A. and Gero, J.S.
year 1999
title Evolving designs by generating useful complex gene structures
source P. Bentley (Ed.), Evolutionary Design by Computers, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, pp. 345-364
summary This chapter presents two examples of work for evolving designs by generating useful complex gene structures. where the first example uses a genetic engineering approach whereas the other uses a growth model of form. Both examples have as their motivation to overcome the combinatorial effect of large design spaces by focussing the search in useful areas. This focussing is achieved by starting with design spaces defined by low-level basic genes and creating design spaces defined by increasingly more complex gene structures. In both cases the low-level basic genes represent simple design actions which when executed produce parts of design solutions. Both works are exemplified in the domain of architectural floor plans.
keywords Evolutionary Systems, Genetic Engineering
series other
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/06 07:22

_id ga9908
id ga9908
authors Senagala, Mahesh
year 1999
title Artistic Process, Cybernetics of Self and the Epistemology of Digital Technology
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary From the viewpoint of Batesonian cybernetics, ‘conscious purpose’ and artistic process are distinct ends of a spectrum of the functioning of self. Artistic activities— by which I mean art, poetry, play, design, etc.— involve processes that are beneath the stratum of consciousness. By definition, consciousness is selective awareness and is linear in execution and limited in its capability to synthesize complex parameters. As Heidegger pointed out, technology is a special form of knowledge (episteme). A machine is a manifestation of such a knowledge. A machine is a result of conscious purpose and is normally task-driven to accomplish a specific purpose(s). The questions this paper raises are to do with the connections between conscious purpose, artistic process and digital technology. One of the central questions of the paper is "if artistic process requires an abandonment or relinquishment of conscious purpose at the time of the generation of the work of art, and if the artistic process is a result of vast number of ‘unconscious’ forces and impulses, then could we say that the computer would ever be able to ‘generate’ or ‘create’ a work of art?" In what capacity and what role would the computer be a part of the generative process of art? Would a computer be able to ‘generate’ and ‘know’ a work of art, which, according to Bateson, requires the abandonment of conscious purpose? The ultimate goal of the paper is to unearth and examine the potential of the computers to be a part of the generative process of what Bateson has called "total self as a cybernetic model". On another plane of discourse, Deleuze and Guattari have added a critical dimension to the discourse of cybernetics and models of human mind and the global computer networks. Their notion of ‘rhizome’ has its roots in Batesonian cybernetics and the cybernetic couplings between the ‘complex systems’ such as human mind, biological and computational systems. Deleuze and Guattari call such systems as human brain and the neural networks as rhizomatic. Given the fact that the computer is the first known cybernetic machine to lay claims to artificial intelligence, the aforementioned questions become even more significant. The paper will explore how, cybernetically, the computer could be ‘coupled’ with ‘self’ and the artistic process — the ultimate expression of human condition. These philosophical and artistic explorations will take place through a series of generative artistic projects (See the figure below for an example) that aim at understanding the couplings and ‘ecology’ of digital technology and the cybernetics of self.
series other
email msenagala@iname.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

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