CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ab77
authors Iki, K., Shimoda, S., Kumadaki, N. and Homma, R.
year 1999
title Development and Use of Intranet-Based CAFM System
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 383-392
summary In the past CAFM system study, we proposed a system for supporting data-processing and plan-drafting, on the assumption that it is to be used in different stages of Building Construction, Interior Spatial Planning and Maintenance. By the above system, we have developed a CAFM system using the DBMS (Data Base Management System), CAD (Computer Aided Design) and Spread Sheet as the analysis tools. Management system with FM-related data editing functions such as 'Input', 'Modification', 'Deleting', etc, are proposed. To promote the FM business smoothly, information should be shared among departments concerned, and informative administrative framework should be organized. This time, we propose a prototype of CAFM system on INTRANET which is developed for general users that permits browsing and downloading of system database.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/01/13 11:29

_id 5f9c
authors Castello, Regina
year 1999
title GIS and the Investigation of the Environmental Heritage
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 219-224
summary This paper presents an investigation on the architectural, natural, and cultural resources in the southern part of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, according to their historical or environmental value, identifying natural and cultural elements known and valued by local communities, regardless their experts’ classification. Resources are identified by means of geographical information systems, combined with field information. The area comprises the coastal strip and the plains located in the last frontier of the Brazilian territory and the water system dominated by the lakes Patos, Mangueira and Mirim. The inventory of the environmental, sociocultural and economic heritage provides the necessary insight for issuing new development alternatives based on local resources. Research activities will include: the ellaboration of general and thematic maps, based on LANDSAT 5 [bands 3, 4 and 5] images; aerial photographs; DSG/SGE and municipal maps [scales 1:250.000, 1:50.000 and 1:25.000]; field work for the recognition of remarkable elements; interviews with residents for assessing their perception of local values; and community and institutional statements. These informations, comprising the elements valued by their architectural and urban quality, historical relevance and environmental significance, organised in a database, will provide contextual guidelines for the planning of a tourist route. This route, delineated by the preservation, recovery and use of representative local resources, valued as expressions of a native culture, evocates the initial occupation of the gaúcho territory, and may be touristically promoted as "The Gaúcho’s Way". The project also aims at showing the potential offered by GIS for identifying and evaluating specific spatial characteristics.
keywords Environmental Planning, Historical Preservation
series SIGRADI
email kastello@conex.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 6930
authors Cattoni, Edson Luis and Santiago, Alina Goncalves
year 1999
title Lagoa da Conceicao - Florianópolis - Ilha de Santa Catarina: Uma Paisagem em Transformacao II (Conceicao Lagoon - Florianópolis - Ilha of Santa Catarina Island: A Landscape in Transformation II)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 157-160
summary This work presents the study and applied assays (or simulation tests) about the ordination of urban space in the region of Lagoa da Conceição. In the region pressures placed by the growth of urban area and urban network system are in contact conflict with a fragile ecosystem, and with a sustainable development based on tourism. Analysis procedures exploited different forms of Space Syntax trying to examine effects of spatial structure in relation to movement patterns of pedestrians and vehicles. This methodology allowed the comprehension of relation between spatial configuration, transport and soil use, and reveled the interdependence and performance of built space within the restrict regional scale (Lagoa da Conceição) and the total urban structure of the island. This understanding is not limited to the present. Is also includes the study of historic urban evolution, and simulation of existing projects for the future, being an important tool to support project decision process. Consequently, the obtained results bring a new approach for the problem, which makes possible the synthesis of design proposals verifying its implications and consequences.
series SIGRADI
email edson@arq.ufsc.br, alina@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 1b4d
authors Ding, Lan
year 1999
title An Evolutionary Model for Style Representation Emergence in Design
source University of Sydney, Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition
summary This thesis is concerned with the development of an evolutionary process model for style representation emergence in design. It explores issues involved in the interpretation of style, the concept and process of style representation emergence, an evolutionary approach based on genetic engineering, and its computational implementation. Style is a complex phenomenon in design. Interpreting and formulating design style is a difficult task. This thesis proposes a language model which interprets style space utilising hierarchical levels that map onto syntax and semantics. The style space is then formulated using a genetic description. Current studies have discussed shape semantics emergence in design, but none has been proposed for the emergence of style representation. This thesis provides the concept of style representation emergence with the emphasis on the interpretative aspect of style as well as the emergence process. It explores the emergence process of style representation through an evolutionary approach. Simulation of biological evolution appears to be very useful for design problems. This thesis develops style representation emergence through evolutionary simulation based on genetic engineering. A hierarchical evolutionary process encompassing competition as well as discovery and an evolutionary combination is proposed and developed. A computational representation of style can then be derived by the computer system through the use of this evolutionary process. This model of style representation emergence is applied to traditional Chinese architecture. An evolutionary system is implemented and presented with some examples of traditional Chinese architectural facades. The results from the implementation of the system are analysed and the utility of this model is investigated. The implementation is developed in a Unix environment using the C language. The AutoCAD package is used for the graphic representation.

series thesis:PhD
email Lan.Ding@csiro.au
last changed 2003/05/15 05:25

_id 5377
authors Frazer, J.H., Tang, M.X. and Jian, S.
year 1999
title Towards a Generative System for Intelligent Design Support
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 285-294
summary In the development of intelligent computer aided design systems, three important issues need to considered. These issues are: how to support the generation of product concepts using evolutionary computation techniques; how to use intelligent databases and constraint management systems for detailed exploration of product embodiment; and how to integrate rapid prototyping facilities for product evaluation. In this paper, we present a brief review of knowledge based design and evolutionary design and discuss ways of integrating both in the development of a generative design system. Based on this review, we present the model and its applications of a generative design system utilizing a number of AI and evolutionary computation techniques. This generative design model is intended to provide a generic computational framework for the development of intelligent design support systems.
series CAADRIA
email sdfrazer@polyu.edu.hk
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 39cb
authors Kelleners, Richard H.M.C.
year 1999
title Constraints in object-oriented graphics
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary In the area of interactive computer graphics, two important approaches to deal with the complexity of designing and implementing graphics systems are object-oriented programming and constraint-based programming. From literature, it appears that combination of these two has clear advantages but has also proven to be difficult. One of the main problems is that constraint programming infringes the information hiding principle of object-oriented programming. The goal of the research project is to combine these two approaches to benefit from the strengths of both. Two research groups at the Eindhoven University of Technology investigate the use of constraints on graphics objects. At the Architecture department, constraints are applied in a virtual reality design environment. At the Computer Science department, constraints aid in modeling 3D animations. For these two groups, a constraint system for 3D graphical objects was developed. A conceptual model, called CODE (Constraints on Objects via Data flows and Events), is presented that enables integration of constraints and objects by separating the object world from the constraint world. In the design of this model, the main aspect being considered is that the information hiding principle among objects may not be violated. Constraint solvers, however, should have direct access to an object’s internal data structure. Communication between the two worlds is done via a protocol orthogonal to the message passing mechanism of objects, namely, via events and data flows. This protocol ensures that the information hiding principle at the object-oriented programming level is not violated while constraints can directly access “hidden” data. Furthermore, CODE is built up of distinct elements, or entity types, like constraint, solver, event, data flow. This structure enables that several special purpose constraint solvers can be defined and made to cooperate to solve complex constraint problems. A prototype implementation was built to study the feasibility of CODE. Therefore, the implementation should correspond directly to the conceptual model. To this end, every entity (object, constraint, solver) of the conceptual model is represented by a separate process in the language MANIFOLD. The (concurrent) processes communicate by events and data flows. The implementation serves to validate the conceptual model and to demonstrate that it is a viable way of combining constraints and objects. After the feasibility study, the prototype was discarded. The gained experience was used to build an implementation of the conceptual model for the two research groups. This implementation encompassed a constraint system with multiple solvers and constraint types. The constraint system was built as an object-oriented library that can be linked to the applications in the respective research groups. Special constructs were designed to ensure information hiding among application objects while constraints and solvers have direct access to the object data. CODE manages the complexity of object-oriented constraint solving by defining a communication protocol to allow the two paradigms to cooperate. The prototype implementation demonstrates that CODE can be implemented into a working system. Finally, the implementation of an actual application shows that the model is suitable for the development of object-oriented software.
keywords Computer Graphics; Object Oriented Programming; Constraint Programming
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6810
authors Makkonen, Petri
year 1999
title On multi body systems simulation in product design
source KTH Stockholm
summary The aim of this thesis is to provide a basis for efficient modelling and software use in simulation driven product development. The capabilities of modern commercial computer software for design are analysed experimentally and qualitatively. An integrated simulation model for design of mechanical systems, based on four different "simulation views" is proposed: An integrated CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) model using Solid Geometry (CAD), Finite Element Modelling (FEM), Multi Body Systems Modelling (MBS) and Dynamic System Simulation utilising Block System Modelling tools is presented. A theoretical design process model for simulation driven design based on the theory of product chromosome is introduced. This thesis comprises a summary and six papers. Paper A presents the general framework and a distributed model for simulation based on CAD, FEM, MBS and Block Systems modelling. Paper B outlines a framework to integrate all these models into MBS simulation for performance prediction and optimisation of mechanical systems, using a modular approach. This methodology has been applied to design of industrial robots of parallel robot type. During the development process, from concept design to detail design, models have been refined from kinematic to dynamic and to elastodynamic models, finally including joint backlash. A method for analysing the kinematic Jacobian by using MBS simulation is presented. Motor torque requirements are studied by varying major robot geometry parameters, in dimensionless form for generality. The robot TCP (Tool Center Point) path in time space, predicted from elastodynamic model simulations, has been transformed to the frequency space by Fourier analysis. By comparison of this result with linear (modal) eigen frequency analysis from the elastodynamic MBS model, internal model validation is obtained. Paper C presents a study of joint backlash. An impact model for joint clearance, utilised in paper B, has been developed and compared to a simplified spring-damper model. The impact model was found to predict contact loss over a wider range of rotational speed than the spring-damper model. Increased joint bearing stiffness was found to widen the speed region of chaotic behaviour, due to loss of contact, while increased damping will reduce the chaotic range. The impact model was found to have stable under- and overcritical speed ranges, around the loss of contact region. The undercritical limit depends on the gravitational load on the clearance joint. Papers D and E give examples of the distributed simulation model approach proposed in paper A. Paper D presents simulation and optimisation of linear servo drives for a 3-axis gantry robot, using block systems modelling. The specified kinematic behaviour is simulated with multi body modelling, while drive systems and control system are modelled using a block system model for each drive. The block system model has been used for optimisation of the transmission and motor selection. Paper E presents an approach for re-using CAD geometry for multi body modelling of a rock drilling rig boom. Paper F presents synthesis methods for mechanical systems. Joint and part number synthesis is performed using the Grübler and Euler equations. The synthesis is continued by applying the theory of generative grammar, from which the grammatical rules of planar mechanisms have been formulated. An example of topological synthesis of mechanisms utilising this grammar is presented. Finally, dimensional synthesis of the mechanism is carried out by utilising non-linear programming with addition of a penalty function to avoid singularities.
keywords Simulation; Optimisation; Control Systems; Computer Aided Engineering; Multi Body Systems; Finite Element Method; Backslash; Clearance; Industrial Robots; Parallel Robots
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 504a
authors Rodrigo Alvarado, García
year 1999
title Design-Based on VR-Modeling of Environemntal Conditions
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 126-129
summary The research on CAD has been looking for a long time a creative contribution to architectural design, including recently the use of virtual-reality as an immersive modeling system, but without much practical results. However, contemporary architecture is increasingly including digital characteristics based more on cultural influences than on the use of electronic tools. This shows an evolution of the discipline in relation to digital media and apparently distant from environmental concerns. But the works and reflexions reveal a common convergence in the role of body in architecture as a pivot between virtual and local dimension of design. Based on that relationship we propose to take advantage of virtual-reality for modeling environmental conditions of the location in order to guide architectural design, using for example the potential of representing characteristics not visible in reality or to simulate time cycles. Sun displacement, wind direction, temperature ranges, topography and landscape are specific conditions in design that define energy consumption and human comfort. Such characteristics can establish optimal shapes crossing the different variables with timelines. VR-modeling and interactive control allow an spatial evaluation of environmentally efficient forms. That is showed through an exercise of housing in different locations of Chile. This merger between digital media and ecological concerns represents a crossing of contemporary cultural trends to motivate exploration of new geometries, supported on the potential of technology and on sustainable human development
series SIGRADI
email rgarcia@pegsasus.dci.ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 60c6
authors Wittenoom, R.
year 1999
title Automating realization of integrated project models
source Automation in Construction 8 (3) (1999) pp. 249-267
summary Integration of project information has been addressed by a number of groups using a combination of product data exchange standards and centralized project models to integrate the diverse systems of different project groups. Less interest has been shown in the automation of model realization processes in such an environment. Development and use in the author's firm of an object model-based system for engineering project design and documentation has shown that considerable advantage is possible by extension of simple parametric techniques to generalized solutions, when combined with an object system optimized to support the functional aspects of realization. To automate realization processes in a collaborative environment, it is necessary to exchange sub-models that are essentially parametric, with realization processes only partially completed. We examine the requirements of and constraints on such exchange and propose a framework based on the standardization of interfaces and functional capabilities needed to support the automation of realization processes.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id a291
authors Saboya, Renato and Santiago, Alina
year 1999
title A Construcao de um Sistema de Informacoes Geograficas para a Lagoa da Conceicao: Possibilidades e Desafios (The Construction of a Geographic Information System for the "Conceicao" Lagoon: Possibilities and Challenges)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 203-208
summary This work intends to present the construction process of a Geographic Information System – GIS, for the "Lagoa da Conceição", in Florianópolis city, which aims to map urban uses of this region of the Santa Catarina Island. The focus is placed over the following aspects: 1.) Adopted proceedings to avoid the difficulties placed by lack of actual cartographic data in large scales. This problem common to several Brazilian cities dictated the need of mixing several sources of information to construct a geographical data base; 2.) The analytic results already obtained in the actual investigation stage based on the elaborated thematic maps over urban uses, and more specifically over tourism uses. Deepening of these analysis with inclusion of new data, and its utilization as a tool to verify new territorial interventions are also explored; 3.) The spreading and utilization possibilities of the information generated by system by different social sectors through Intranet and Internet technologies. The use of the technologies open up new perspectives regarding the interaction between these sectors in the use of geografical information, giving way to the construction of an unique data basis which might favored integrated decision making process in diverse filds of knowledge.
keywords Geographic Information System, Territory Management Support
series SIGRADI
email edson@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 4d95
authors Alvarado, Rodrigo Garcia and Maver, Tom
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in Architectural Education: Defining Possibilities
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 7-9
summary Introduction: virtual reality in architecture Virtual Reality (VR) is an emergent computer technology for full 3D-simulations, which has a natural application in the architectural work, due that activity involves the complete definition of buildings prior to its construction. Although the profession has a long tradition and expertise in the use of 2D-plans for the design of buildings, the increasing complexity of projects and social participation requires better media of representation. However, the technological promise of Virtual Reality involves many sophisticated software and hardware developments. It is based on techniques of 3D-modelling currently incorporated in the majority of drawing software used in architecture, and also there are several tools for rendering, animation and panoramic views, which provide visual realism. But other capabilities like interactivity and sense of immersion are still complex, expensive and under research. These require stereoscopic helmets, 3D pointers and trackers with complicated configurations and uncomfortable use. Most advanced installations of Virtual-Reality like CAVEs involve much hardware, building space and restrictions for users. Nevertheless, diverse developers are working in Virtual-Reality user-friendly techniques and there are many initial experiences of architectural walk-throughs showing advantages in the communication and development of designs. Then we may expect an increasing use of Virtual Reality in architecture.
series ACADIA
email rgarcia@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id d5c8
authors Angelo, C.V., Bueno, A.P., Ludvig, C., Reis, A.F. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Image and Shape: Two Distinct Approaches
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 410-415
summary This paper is the result of two researches done at the district of Campeche, Florianópolis, by the Grupo PET/ARQ/UFSC/CAPES. Different aspects and conceptual approaches were used to study the spatial attributes of this district located in the Southern part of Santa Catarina Island. The readings and analysis of two researches were based on graphic pistures builded with the use of Corel 7.0 e AutoCadR14. The first research – "Urban Development in the Island of Santa Catarina: Public Space Study"- examined the urban structures of Campeche based on the Spatial Syntax Theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) that relates form and social appropriation of public spaces. The second research – "Topoceptive Characterisation of Campeche: The Image of a Locality in Expansion in the Island of Santa Catarina" -, based on the methodology developed by Kohlsdorf (1996) and also on the visual analysis proposed by Lynch (1960), identified characteristics of this locality with the specific goal of selecting attributes that contributed to the ideas of the place its population held. The paper consists of an initial exercise of linking these two methods in order to test the complementarity of their analytical tools. Exemplifying the analytical procedures undertaken in the two approaches, the readings done - global (of the locality as a whole) and partial (from parts of the settlement) - are presented and compared.
series SIGRADI
email caludvig@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id a35a
authors Arponen, Matti
year 2002
title From 2D Base Map To 3D City Model
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.17-I.28
summary Since 1997 Helsinki City Survey Division has proceeded in experimenting and in developing the methods for converting and supplementing current digital 2D base maps in the scale 1:500 to a 3D city model. Actually since 1986 project areas have been produced in 3D for city planning and construction projects, but working with the whole map database started in 1997 because of customer demands and competitive 3D projects. 3D map database needs new data modelling and structures, map update processes need new working orders and the draftsmen need to learn a new profession; the 3D modeller. Laser-scanning and digital photogrammetry have been used in collecting 3D information on the map objects. During the years 1999-2000 laser-scanning experiments covering 45 km2 have been carried out utilizing the Swedish TopEye system. Simultaneous digital photography produces material for orto photo mosaics. These have been applied in mapping out dated map features and in vectorizing 3D buildings manually, semi automatically and automatically. In modelling we use TerraScan, TerraPhoto and TerraModeler sw, which are developed in Finland. The 3D city model project is at the same time partially a software development project. An accuracy and feasibility study was also completed and will be shortly presented. The three scales of 3D models are also presented in this paper. Some new 3D products and some usage of 3D city models in practice will be demonstrated in the actual presentation.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email matti.arponen@hel.fi
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8171
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1999
title Facilitating Conceptual Change: Computers, Cognitive Processes and Architecture
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 275-279
summary Computers have gained universal acceptance as tools that designers use. However, computers are often not used to advance the design process but just to make drawings. Many architectural schools still focus on a production orientation which puts the highest value on information management, precise representations and drafting enhancements. Mostly, computer education is limited with button pushing and training manuals. It is the contention of the author that students in Design Studio courses can benefit greatly from computer based educational pedagogy designed to provide them with experiences they currently do not possess. In particular, little time in the computer courses (outside lectures) is spent applying concepts and features of digital tools in design studio environment. In architecture, computers cannot be simply defined as a presentation and production tools. As a cognitive tool, computers provide designers with intelligible and effective representational tools of thought and communication, changes the syntactic structure of design. Consequently, the conceptual structure of computers impacts the conceptual structure of the design project, fosters the analytical processes and facilitates conceptual changes. This paper describes the use of computers in a first year architectural design studio. It attempts to address the importance of developing a design process that is redefined by the use of computing, integrating concept and perception. Furthermore, it describes the theoretical foundations and the underlying cognitive processes that contribute designers' conceptual development.
series SIGRADI
email ataman@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id e8dc
authors Chase, Scott C.
year 1999
title Issues for User Interaction Models: Grammar Based Design:
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 198-210
summary Grammar based production systems are considered potentially powerful design tools by their ability to generate sets of designs adhering to user specified constraints. However, development of such tools has been slow, partly because of the lack of good interaction between user and system. This paper describes modes of user interaction and control possible with grammar based design systems and presents issues to be examined in the development of models that represent the locus of interactions possible with such systems. The examination of existing grammar based systems provides empirical evidence to support the validity of such models.
series ACADIA
email scott@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id b78f
authors Clayton, M.J., Warden, Robert B., Parker, Th.W.
year 1999
title Virtual Construction of Architecture Using 3D CAD and Simulation
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 316-324
summary 3D modeling and computer simulations provide new ways for architecture students to study the relationship between the design and construction of buildings. Digital media help to integrate and expand the content of courses in drafting, construction and design. This paper describes computer-based exercises that intensify the students’ experience of construction in several courses from sophomore to senior level. The courses integrate content from drafting and design communication, construction, CAD, and design. Several techniques are used to strengthen students’ awareness and ability in construction. These include: · Virtual design - build projects in which students construct 3D CAD models that include all elements that are used in construction. · Virtual office in which several students must collaborate under the supervision of a student acting as project architect to create a 3D CAD model and design development documents. · Virtual sub-contracting in which each student builds a trade specific 3D CAD model of a building and all of the trade specific models must be combined into a single model. · Construction simulations (4D CAD) in which students build 3D CAD models showing all components and then animate them to illustrate the assembly process. · Cost estimating using spreadsheets. These techniques are applied and reapplied at several points in the curriculum in both technical laboratory courses and design studios. This paper compares virtual construction methods to physical design – build projects and provides our pedagogical arguments for the use of digital media for understanding construction.
series ACADIA
email wardenr@archone.tamu.edu, mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 1999/12/02 07:59

_id 4b48
authors Dourish, P.
year 1999
title Where the Footprints Lead: Tracking down other roles for social navigation
source Social Navigation of Information Space, eds. A. Munro, K. H. and D Benyon. London: Springer-Verlag, pp 15-34
summary Collaborative Filtering was proposed in the early 1990's as a means of managing access to large information spaces by capturing and exploiting aspects of the experiences of previous users of the same information. Social navigation is a more general form of this style of interaction, and with the widening scope of the Internet as an information provider, systems of this sort have rapidly moved from early research prototypes to deployed services in everyday use. On the other hand, to most of the HCI community, the term social navigation" is largely synonymous with "recommendation systems": systems that match your interests to those of others and, on that basis, provide recommendations about such things as music, books, articles and films that you might enjoy. The challenge for social navigation, as an area of research and development endeavour, is to move beyond this rather limited view of the role of social navigation; and to do this, we must try to take a broader view of both our remit and our opportunities. This chapter will revisit the original motivations, and chart something of the path that recent developments have taken. Based on reflections on the original concerns that motivated research into social navigation, it will explore some new avenues of research. In particular, it will focus on two. The first is social navigation within the framework of "awareness" provisions in collaborative systems generally; and the second is the relationship of social navigation systems to spatial models and the ideas of "space" and "place" in collaborative settings. By exploring these two ideas, two related goals can be achieved. The first is to draw attention to ways in which current research into social navigation can be made relevant to other areas of research endeavour; and the second is to re-motivate the idea of "social navigation" as a fundamental model for collaboration in information-seeking."
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 54a6
authors Eastman, C. and Jeng, T.S.
year 1999
title A database supporting evolutionary product model development for design
source Automation in Construction 8 (3) (1999) pp. 305-323
summary This paper presents the facilities in the EDM-2 product modeling and database language that support model evolution. It reviews the need for model evolution as a system and/or language requirement to support product modeling. Four types of model evolution are considered: (1) translation between distinct models, (2) deriving views from a central model, (3) modification of an existing model, and (4) model evolution based on writable views associated with each application. While the facilities described support all for types of evolution, the last type is emphasized. The language based modeling capabilities described in EDM-2 include: (a) mapping facilities for defining derivations and views within a single model or between different models; (b) procedural language capabilities supporting model addition, deletion and modification; (c) support for object instance migration so as to partition the set of class instances into multiple classes; (d) support for managing practical deletion of portions of a model; (e) explicit specification and automatic management of integrity between a building model and various views. The rationale and language features, and in some cases, the implementation strategy for the features, are presented.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

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