CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id bacd
authors Abadí Abbo, Isaac
year 1999
title APPLICATION OF SPATIAL DESIGN ABILITY IN A POSTGRADUATE COURSE
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 75-82
summary Spatial Design Ability (SDA) has been defined by the author (1983) as the capacity to anticipate the effects (psychological impressions) that architectural spaces or its components produce in observers or users. This concept, which requires the evaluation of spaces by the people that uses it, was proposed as a guideline to a Masters Degree Course in Architectural Design at the Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes in Mexico. The theory and the exercises required for the experience needed a model that could simulate spaces in terms of all the variables involved. Full-scale modeling as has been tested in previous research, offered the most effective mean to experiment with space. A simple, primitive model was designed and built: an articulated ceiling that allows variation in height and shape, and a series of wooden panels for the walls and structure. Several exercises were carried out, mainly to experience cause -effect relationships between space and the psychological impressions they produce. Students researched into spatial taxonomy, intentional sequences of space and spatial character. Results showed that students achieved the expected anticipation of space and that full-scale modeling, even with a simple model, proved to be an effective tool for this purpose. The low cost of the model and the short time it took to be built, opens an important possibility for Institutions involved in architectural studies, both as a research and as a learning tool.
keywords Spatial Design Ability, Architectural Space, User Evaluation, Learning, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email iabadi@ceea.arq.ucv.ve
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:27

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e719
authors Achten, Henri and Turksma, Arthur
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in Early Design: the Design Studio Experiences
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 327-335
summary The Design Systems group of the Eindhoven University of Technology started a new kind of design studio teaching. With the use of high-end equipment, students use Virtual Reality from the very start of the design process. Virtual Reality technology up to now was primarily used for giving presentations. We use the same technology in the design process itself by means of reducing the time span in which one gets results in Virtual Reality. The method is based on a very brief cycle of modelling in AutoCAD, assigning materials in 3DStudio Viz, and then making a walkthrough in Virtual Reality in a standard landscape. Due to this cycle, which takes about 15 seconds, the student gets immediate feedback on design decisions which facilitates evaluation of the design in three dimensions much faster than usual. Usually the learning curve of this kind of software is quite steep, but with the use of templates the number of required steps to achieve results is reduced significantly. In this way, the potential of Virtual Reality is not only explored in research projects, but also in education. This paper discusses the general set-up of the design studio and shows how, via short workshops, students acquire knowledge of the cycle in a short time. The paper focuses on the added value of using Virtual Reality technology in this manner: improved spatial reasoning, translation from two-dimensional to three-dimensional representations, and VR feedback on design decisions. It discusses the needs for new design representations in this design environment, and shows how fast feedback in Virtual Reality can improve the spatial design at an early stage of the design process.
series AVOCAAD
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl, A.A.E.Turksma@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 6d88
authors Achten, Henri H. and Van Leeuwen, Jos P.
year 1999
title Feature-Based High Level Design Tools - A Classification
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 275-290
summary The VR-DIS project aims to provide design support in the early design stage using a Virtual Reality environment. The initial brief of the design system is based on an analysis of a design case. The paper describes the process of analysis and extraction of design knowledge and design concepts in terms of Features. It is demonstrated how the analysis has lead to a classification of design concepts. This classification forms one of the main specifications for the VR-based design aid system that is being developed in the VR-DIS programme. The paper concludes by discussing the particular approach used in the case analysis and discusses future work in the VR-DIS research programme.
keywords Features, Feature-Based modelling, Architectural Design, Design Process, Design Support
series CAAD Futures
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.n
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 36d3
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1999
title A CAVE-Interface in CAAD-Education?
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 313-323
summary The so called "CAVE-interface" is a very interesting and thrilling development for architects! It supports a better illusion of space by exposing almost a 270° view of a computer model than the 60° which can be viewed on an ordinary computer screen. At the Lund University we have got the possibility to experiment with a CAVE-installation, using it in research and the education of CAAD. The technique and three experiments are discribed. The possibilities are discussed and some problems and questions are put forward.
series CAADRIA
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 37c2
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 1999
title Visualisation of Design Using Animation for Virtual Prototyping
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 519-525
summary Although recent technology in time-based representation has vastly improved, animation in virtual prototype design field remains the same. Some designers invest a huge amount of money in the latest visualisation and multimedia technology and yet may create even worse animation. They often cramp sequences resulting in many viewers failing to interpret the design positively as they miss a lot of vital information that explains the design. This paper basically reports the importance of film-making understanding for producing good virtual prototype animation. It will be based on a part of a research project on the use of time-based media in architectural practices. It also includes an empirical analysis of several architectural-based documentary films (including an interview with the film director) and past and present computer animation. This paper then concludes with recommendations of good techniques for making animated visualisation relative to the stage at which the animation is produced for better design decision.
keywords Virtual Prototype, Animation, Time-Based, Film-Making
series eCAADe
email rafi@unitele.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 3cde
authors Alik, B.
year 1999
title A topology construction from line drawings using a uniform plane subdivision technique
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 31 (5) (1999) pp. 335-348
summary The paper describes an algorithm for constructing the topology from a set of line segments or polylines. The problem appears for example at land-maps that have been drawnby general-purpose drawing packages or captured from blue-prints by digitalisation. The solution comprises two steps; in the first step inconsistencies in the input data aredetected and removed, and in the second step the topology is constructed. The algorithm for topology construction consists of two phases: determination of a concave hull,and generation of polygons. It is shown that the running-time of the presented algorithm is better than O(n2), where n is the number of input points. Because of a largenumber of geometric elements being expected, the geometric search needed at the first step of the algorithm is speeded up by an acceleration techniquea uniform planesubdivision.
keywords Computational Geometry, Topology Construction, Uniform Space Subdivision
series journal paper
email zalik@uni-mb.si
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id f500
authors Almeida Sampaio, A.
year 1999
title Automation of Deck Bridge Representations
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 69-79
summary The bridge deck has a apparent simple shape, but it is the result of an adequate combination of two longitudinal geometric components: the deck shape evolution along de longitudinal section the layout of the road, that acts in simultaneous over a cross section, defining the deck exact shape. A geometric modelling computer programme was developed for box girder decks, allowing the generation of cross sections along the deck, defined with correct shape and location. In the elaboration of the deck plan drawings, the geometric information of the real deck shape is required. This information is not managed in an integrated and automatic way. On the creation of these drawings, directly executed over a graphic system, the time consumed is considerable and it is easy to comet errors. This paper describes the drawing module included in the computer program refereed. The deck plan projections are obtained, in DXF format drawing files, using the geometric information obtained from 3D-deck model. Using the drawing module it is possible to generate the usual deck drawings required in bridge design process. Then, his module is a great support for the design process within its geometric design stage.
series AVOCAAD
email zita@civil.ist.utl.pt
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4d95
authors Alvarado, Rodrigo Garcia and Maver, Tom
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in Architectural Education: Defining Possibilities
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 7-9
summary Introduction: virtual reality in architecture Virtual Reality (VR) is an emergent computer technology for full 3D-simulations, which has a natural application in the architectural work, due that activity involves the complete definition of buildings prior to its construction. Although the profession has a long tradition and expertise in the use of 2D-plans for the design of buildings, the increasing complexity of projects and social participation requires better media of representation. However, the technological promise of Virtual Reality involves many sophisticated software and hardware developments. It is based on techniques of 3D-modelling currently incorporated in the majority of drawing software used in architecture, and also there are several tools for rendering, animation and panoramic views, which provide visual realism. But other capabilities like interactivity and sense of immersion are still complex, expensive and under research. These require stereoscopic helmets, 3D pointers and trackers with complicated configurations and uncomfortable use. Most advanced installations of Virtual-Reality like CAVEs involve much hardware, building space and restrictions for users. Nevertheless, diverse developers are working in Virtual-Reality user-friendly techniques and there are many initial experiences of architectural walk-throughs showing advantages in the communication and development of designs. Then we may expect an increasing use of Virtual Reality in architecture.
series ACADIA
email rgarcia@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ga9925
id ga9925
authors Ambrosini, L., Longatti, M. and Miyajima, H.
year 1999
title Time sections, abstract machines
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary conditions a time-spatial discontinuity in the urban grid, ancient walls casually discovered in a substrate of the contemporary town needs a surplus of information to be understood and interfaced with their current condition. diagrams diverse chronological stages of the urban evolution are mapped on the area, in order to read the historical stratifications as a multiplicity of signs; this abstract approach leads to consider the roman space as guided by metrics, a system of measure superimposed on the landscape, vs. medioeval spatial continuity, where more fluid relations between the same urban elements create a completely different pattern.assemblage (time sections) a surface, automatically displaced from the medioeval diagram, moves along the z axis, the historical stratification direction, intersecting in various, unpredictable, manners a series of paths; these paths start as parallels, allowing an undifferentiated access to the area, and mutate along their developing direction, intertweening and blending each other; linear openings are cut on the surface, virtually connecting the two levels by light, following the roman grid in rhythm and measure. Projected on the lateral wall, the cadence of the vertical and horizontal elements becomes a temporal diagram of the design process.movement time takes part into the process through two kinds of movement: the first one, freezed when reaches the best results, in terms of complexity, is given by the surface intersecting the tubular paths; the second one is represented by multiple routes walking on which the project can be experienced (in absence of any objective, fixed, point of view, movement becomes the only way to understand relations). Thresholds between typical architectural categories (such as inside-outside, object-landscape etc.) are blurred in favour of a more supple condition, another kind of continuity (re)appears, as a new media, between the different historical layers of the city.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id f154
authors Amor, Robert and Newnham, Leonard
year 1999
title CAD Interfaces to the ARROW Manufactured Product Server
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 1-11
summary The UK national project ARROW (Advanced Reusable Reliable Objects Warehouse) provides an Internet based framework through which it is possible to identify any of a range of manufactured products meeting specific design criteria. This open framework (based upon the IAI's IFCs) provides a mechanism for users to search for products from any participating manufacturer or supplier based both on specific attributes of a product or on any of the textual descriptions of the product. The service returns the closest matching products and allows the user to navigate to related information including manufacturer, suppliers, CAD details, VR displays, installation instructions, certificates, health and safety information, promotional information, costings, etc. ARROW also provides a toolkit to enable manufacturers and suppliers to more easily map and publish their information in the format utilised by the ARROW system. As part of the ARROW project we have examined the ability to interface from a design tool through to ARROW to automatically retrieve information required by the tool. This paper describes the API developed to allow CAD and simulation tools to communicate directly with ARROW and identify appropriate manufactured information. The demonstration system enables CAD systems to identify the closest matching manufactured product to a designed product and replacing the designed product with the details supplied by the manufacturer for the manufactured product as well as pulling through product attributes utilised by the design application. This paper provides a description of the ARROW framework and issues faced in providing information based upon standards as well as containing information not currently modelled in public standards. The paper looks at issues of enabling manufacturers and suppliers to move from their current world-view of product information to a more data-rich and user accessible information repository (even though this enables a uniform comparison across a range of manufacturer's products). Finally the paper comments on the likely way forward for ARROW like systems in providing quality information to end users.
keywords Computer-aided Design, Product Retrieval
series CAAD Futures
email trebor@cs.auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 93a8
authors Anders, P.
year 1999
title Envisioning Cyberspace: Designing 3D Electronic Spaces
source McGraw-Hill, NY
summary Free of the constraints of physical form and limited only by imagination, new environments spring to life daily in a fantastic realm called cyberspace. The creators of this new virtual world may be programmers, designers, architects, even children. In this invigorating exploration of the juncture between cyberspace and the physical world, architect Peter Anders brings together leading-edge cyberspace art and architecture ... inspiring new techniques and technologies ... unexpected unions of reality and virtuality ... and visions of challenges and opportunities as yet unexplored. More than an invitation to tour fantastic realms and examine powerful tools, this book is a hard-eyed look at cyberspace's impact on physical, cultural, and social reality, and the human-centered principles of its design. This is a book that will set designers and architects thinkingNand a work of importance to anyone fascinated with the fast-closing space between the real and the virtual.
series other
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e78e
authors Anders, Peter
year 1999
title Anthropic Cyberspace: Defining Eletronic Space from First Principles
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 56-62
summary This paper proposes principles for the design of human-centered, anthropic cyberspaces. Starting with a brief examination of our cognitive use of space, it suggests that we address cyberspace as an extension of our mental space. The paper procedes with twelve concepts based on scientific and cultural observations with respect to individual cognition and social interaction. These concepts are general - not specific to any culture or technology in the accompanying arguments the author expands on these concepts illustrating them with examples taken from conventional and electronic media, space and cyberspace the author hopes with these conjectures to begin a discussion on the anthropology of space and its emulation.
keywords Cognition, Cyberspace, Design, Internet, Simulation, Space
series SIGRADI
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 5cba
authors Anders, Peter
year 1999
title Beyond Y2k: A Look at Acadia's Present and Future
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 10
summary The sky may not be falling, but it sure is getting closer. Where will you when the last three zeros of our millennial odometer click into place? Computer scientists tell us that Y2K will bring the world’s computer infrastructure to its knees. Maybe, maybe not. But it is interesting that Y2K is an issue at all. Speculating on the future is simultaneously a magnifying glass for examining our technologies and a looking glass for what we become through them. "The future" is nothing new. Orwell's vision of totalitarian mass media did come true, if only as Madison Avenue rather than Big Brother. Futureboosters of the '50s were convinced that each garage would house a private airplane by the year 2000. But world citizens of the 60's and 70's feared a nuclear catastrophe that would replace the earth with a smoking crater. Others - perhaps more optimistically -predicted that computers were going to drive all our activities by the year 2000. And, in fact, theymay not be far off... The year 2000 is symbolic marker, a point of reflection and assessment. And - as this date is approaching rapidly - this may be a good time to come to grips with who we are and where we want to be.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id d5c8
authors Angelo, C.V., Bueno, A.P., Ludvig, C., Reis, A.F. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Image and Shape: Two Distinct Approaches
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 410-415
summary This paper is the result of two researches done at the district of Campeche, Florianópolis, by the Grupo PET/ARQ/UFSC/CAPES. Different aspects and conceptual approaches were used to study the spatial attributes of this district located in the Southern part of Santa Catarina Island. The readings and analysis of two researches were based on graphic pistures builded with the use of Corel 7.0 e AutoCadR14. The first research – "Urban Development in the Island of Santa Catarina: Public Space Study"- examined the urban structures of Campeche based on the Spatial Syntax Theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) that relates form and social appropriation of public spaces. The second research – "Topoceptive Characterisation of Campeche: The Image of a Locality in Expansion in the Island of Santa Catarina" -, based on the methodology developed by Kohlsdorf (1996) and also on the visual analysis proposed by Lynch (1960), identified characteristics of this locality with the specific goal of selecting attributes that contributed to the ideas of the place its population held. The paper consists of an initial exercise of linking these two methods in order to test the complementarity of their analytical tools. Exemplifying the analytical procedures undertaken in the two approaches, the readings done - global (of the locality as a whole) and partial (from parts of the settlement) - are presented and compared.
series SIGRADI
email caludvig@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id b73a
authors Angelo,C.V., Bins Ely, V.H.M., Bueno,A.P., Ludvig C. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Space Syntax and the New Transportation System in the Santa Catarina Island
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 434-437
summary The paper reports an on-going research that aims at describing and analysing some of the syntactic characteristics of the urban space of Santa Catarina Island, in an attempt to evaluate its performance, more specifically its social and spatial integration and segregation. The research has been conducted with the aid of the Aximagic software, still in exam stage and not yet released to the public, a tool being developed by a group of researches of the Rio Grande do Sul Federal University and given up by Prof. Doctor Benamy Turkienicz. The software is part of a larger georeferenced program called CityZoom wich includes others tools to the comprehention of the urban morphology. This program works with graphic pictures in the inlet of data and also in the acquisition of results. The syntactic study of the Santa Catarina Island as a whole aims to obtain the comprehension of its global structure, relating it to the integrated public transportation system proposed to Florianópolis. These studies should allow an understanding of the impact the developments will have upon the urban morphology, and the new public transportation system.
series SIGRADI
email caludvig@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ga9922
id ga9922
authors Annunziato, M. and Pierucci, P.
year 1999
title The Art of Emergence
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Since several years, the term emergence is mentioned in the paradigm of chaos and complexity. Following this approach, complex system constituted by multitude of individual develop global behavioral properties on the base of local chaotic interactions (self-organization). These theories, developed in scientific and philosophical milieus are rapidly spreading as a "way of thinking" in the several fields of cognitive activities. According to this "way of thinking" it is possible revise some fundamental themes as the economic systems, the cultural systems, the scientific paths, the communication nets under a new approach where nothing is pre-determined, but the global evolution is determined by specific mechanisms of interaction and fundamental events (bifurcation). With a jump in scale of the life, also other basic concepts related to the individuals as intelligence, consciousness, psyche can be revised as self-organizing phenomena. Such a conceptual fertility has been the base for the revision of the artistic activities as flexible instruments for the investigation of imaginary worlds, metaphor of related real worlds. In this sense we claim to the artist a role of "researcher". Through the free exploration of new concepts, he can evoke qualities, configurations and hypothesis which have an esthetical and expressive value and in the most significant cases, they can induce nucleation of cultural and scientific bifurcation. Our vision of the art-science relation is of cooperative type instead of the conflict of the past decades. In this paper we describe some of the most significant realized artworks in order to make explicit the concepts and basic themes. One of the fundamental topics is the way to generate and think to the artwork. Our characterization is to see the artwork not as a static finished product, but as an instance or a dynamic sequence of instances of a creative process which continuously evolves. In this sense, the attention is focused on the "generative idea" which constitutes the envelop of the artworks generable by the process. In this approach the role of technology (computers, synthesizers) is fundamental to create the dimension of the generative environment. Another characterizing aspect of our artworks is derived by the previous approach and specifically related to the interactive installations. The classical relation between artist, artwork and observers is viewed as an unidirectional flux of messages from the artist to the observer through the artwork. In our approach artist, artwork and observer are autonomous entities provided with own personality which jointly intervene to determine the creative paths. The artist which generate the environment in not longer the "owner" of the artwork; simply he dialectically bring the generative environment (provided by a certain degree of autonomy) towards cultural and creative "void" spaces (not still discovered). The observers start from these platforms to generate other creative paths, sometimes absolutely unexpected , developing their new dialectical relations with the artwork itself. The results derived by these positions characterize the expressive elements of the artworks (images, sequences and sounds) as the outcomes of emergent behavior or dynamics both in the sense of esthetical shapes emergent from fertile generative environments, either in terms of emergent relations between artist, artwork and observer, either in terms of concepts which emerge by the metaphor of artificial worlds to produce imaginary hypothesis for the real worlds.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga9926
id ga9926
authors Antonini, Riccardo
year 1999
title Let's Improvise Together
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The creators of ‘Let's-Improvise-Together’ adhere to the idea that while there is a multitude of online games now available in cyberspace, it appears that relatively few are focused on providing a positive, friendly and productive experience for the user. Producing this kind of experience is one the goals of our Amusement Project.To this end, the creation of ‘Let's Improvise Together’ has been guided by dedication to the importance of three themes:* the importance of cooperation,* the importance of creativity, and* the importance of emotion.Description of the GameThe avatar arrives in a certain area where there are many sound-blocks/objects. Or he may add sound "property" to existing ones. He can add new objects at will. Each object may represents a different sound, they do not have to though. The avatar walks around and chooses which objects he likes. Makes copies of these and add sounds or change the sounds on existing ones, then with all of the sound-blocks combined make his personalized "instrument". Now any player can make sounds on the instrument by approaching or bumping into a sound-block. The way that the avatar makes sounds on the instrument can vary. At the end of the improvising session, the ‘composition’ will be saved on the instrument site, along with the personalized instrument. In this way, each user of the Amusement Center will leave behind him a unique instrumental creation, that others who visit the Center later will be able to play on and listen to. The fully creative experience of making a new instrument can be obtained connecting to Active Worlds world ‘Amuse’ and ‘Amuse2’.Animated colorful sounding objects can be assembled by the user in the Virtual Environment as a sort of sounding instrument. We refrain here deliberately from using the word musical instrument, because the level of control we have on the sound in terms of rythm and melody, among other parameters, is very limited. It resembles instead, very closely, to the primitive instruments used by humans in some civilizations or to the experience made by children making sound out of ordinary objects. The dimension of cooperation is of paramount importance in the process of building and using the virtual sounding instrument. The instrument can be built on ones own effort but preferably by a team of cooperating users. The cooperation has as an important corolary: the sharing of the experience. The shared experience finds its permanence in the collective memory of the sounding instruments built. The sounding instrument can be seen also as a virtual sculpture, indeed this sculpture is a multimedial one. The objects have properties that ranges from video animation to sound to virtual physical properties like solidity. The role of the user representation in the Virtual World, called avatar, is important because it conveys, among other things, the user’s emotions. It is worth pointing out that the Avatar has no emotions on its own but it simply expresses the emotions of the user behind it. In a way it could be considered a sort of actor performing the script that the user gives it in real-time while playing.The other important element of the integration is related to the memory of the experience left by the user into the Virtual World. The new layout is explored and experienced. The layout is a permanent editable memory. The generative aspects of Let's improvise together are the following.The multi-media virtual sculpture left behind any participating avatar is not the creation of a single author/artist. The outcome of the sinergic interaction of various authors is not deterministic, nor predictable. The authors can indeed use generative algorythm in order to create the texture to be used on the objects. Usually, in our experience, the visitors of the Amuse worlds use shareware programs in order to generate their texture. In most cases the shareware programs are simple fractals generators. In principle, it is possible to generate also the shape of the object in a generative way. Taking into account the usual audience of our world, we expected visitors to use very simple algorythm that could generate shapes as .rwx files. Indeed, noone has attempted to do so insofar. As far as the music is concerned, the availability of shareware programs that allow simple generation of sounds sequences has made possible, for some users, to generate sounds sequences to be put in our world. In conclusion, the Let's improvise section of the Amuse worlds could be open for experimentation on generative art as a very simple entry point platform. We will be very happy to help anybody that for educational purposes would try to use our platform in order to create and exhibit generative forms of art.
series other
email Riccardo.Antonini@UniRoma2.it
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id edf5
authors Arnold, J.A., Teicholz, P. and Kunz, J.
year 1999
title An approach for the interoperation of web-distributed applications with a design model
source Automation in Construction 8 (3) (1999) pp. 291-303
summary This paper defines the data and inference requirements for the integration of analysis applications with a product model described by a CAD/CAE application. Application input conditions often require sets of complex data that may be considered views of a product model database. We introduce a method that is compatible with the STEP and PLIB product description standards to define an intermediate model that selects, extracts, and validates views of information from a product model to serve as input for an engineering CAD/CAE application. The intermediate model framework was built and tested in a software prototype, the Internet Broker for Engineering Services (IBES). The first research case for IBES integrates applications that specify certain components, for example pumps and valves, with a CAD/CAE application. This paper therefore explores a sub-set of the general problem of integrating product data semantics between various engineering applications. The IBES integration method provides support for a general set of services that effectively assist interpretation and validate information from a product model for an engineering purpose. Such methods can enable application interoperation for the automation of typical engineering tasks, such as component specification and procurement.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

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