CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 497

_id f288
authors Bille, Pia
year 1999
title Integrating GIS and Electronic Networks In Urban Design and Planning
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 722-728
summary In 1998 I undertook an inquiry into the use of information technology in Urban Design and Planning in Danish municipalities and among planning consultants. The aim was to find out who was working with the IT and for what purposes it was used. In education there seems to be barriers to a full integration of the new media, and I wanted to find out if that was also the case in the practise of architects and planners. Surprisingly I discovered that there was a computer on almost every desk, - but there were big differences in the use of the technology. The investigation described here is based on interviews with planners in selected municipalities and with urban planning consultants, and the results have been summarised in a publication.
keywords Urban Planning, Electronic Collaboration, GIS, Data Bases
series eCAADe
email pia.bille@a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id fd25
authors Homma, R., Iki, K., Morozumi, M. and Morisaki, T.
year 1999
title Geographic Information Database for Landscape Evaluation
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 143-152
summary In a landscape evaluation of a large-scale facilities construction such as garbage disposal facilities, it is necessary to grasp landscape characteristics of the area that is able to observe object facilities. This landscape characteristic consists of both a geographical characteristic (landscape resources, public space, districts designated by various urban planing laws, etc.) and a visual characteristic (visibility / invisibility range, distance from the object). The facilities design with consideration for landscape requires a geographic information database for the landscape characteristic, which enable planners to share the geographic information in the area. Authors proposed Network-based Dynamic Evaluation Process for urban landscapes in CAADRIA98, and illustrated the need of the common place that shares geographic information in the process. The system has function to provide the information of the area with layered maps simply. However the system developed with HTML Layer Function, that has limited to update data and boolean operate of layers. For using the system for practical purposes, it should conduct a GIS lookup and report back, via HTML. On the other hand, at present, there are various analogue thematic maps, digital maps are not prepared enough for landscape evaluation. It causes that landscape design process is not efficient. Also, a potential (importance) of viewpoints for evaluating facilities design have been defined by qualitative analysis so far, therefore a quantitative comparison of viewpoints was not available. As a solution of those problems, authors are tackling the development of Geographic Information Database (GIDB) by using GIS. In this paper authors give an outline of GIDB composed of overlaying various digital thematic maps included visual characteristic of the facilities. As a case study, in construction of the garbage disposal facilities in Kumamoto city, the important viewpoints was extracted by GIDB.
series CAADRIA
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 89bb
authors Ataman, Osman and Richey, Thomas
year 1999
title ArchiDATA: A Hypermedia Tool for Architecture
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 496-500
summary Design is a cooperative activity at several levels. At one level, clients, architects, financiers, and construction engineers and contractors, all play important roles in creating the design for the building. At another level, the design team may contain architects, interior and landscape designers, lighting experts, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning experts, etc. At a third level, individual architects cooperate with computer-based design tools in creating portions of a complex design. This paper describes an ongoing project called ArchiDATA, in which we are developing a computational Case-Based Design Aid (CBDA) for architectural design. This project, which is collaboration between cognitive scientists and architectural researchers, builds on an artificial intelligence paradigm called case-based reasoning and work in post-occupancy evaluation and other case study research in architecture.
series SIGRADI
email ataman@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 165b
authors Brenner, C. and Haala, N.
year 1999
title Rapid Production of Virtual Reality City Models
source GIS - Geo-Informationssysteme 12(3), pp. 22–28
summary The growing demand for detailed city models has stimulated research on efficient 3D data acquisition. Over the past years, it has become evident that the automatic reconstruction of urban scenes is most promising if different types of data, possibly originating from different data sources are combined. In the approach presented in this paper the geometric reconstruction of urban areas is based on height data from airborne laser scanning and 2D GIS, which provides the ground plan geometry of buildings. Both data sources are used to estimate the type and parameter of basic primitives which in turn are combined to obtain complex building structures. The final output consists of 3D CAD models for the buildings. Using the reconstructed geometry, terrestrial images are mapped onto building facades to generate virtual city models.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7229
authors Brenner, C. and Haala, N.
year 1999
title Towards Virtual Maps: On the Production of 3D City Models
source GeoInformatics 2(5), pp. 10–13
summary The growing demand for detailed city models has stimulated research on efficient 3D data acquisition. Over the past years, it has become evident that the automatic reconstruction of urban scenes is most promising if different types of data, possibly originating from different data sources are combined. In the approach presented in this paper the geometric reconstruction of urban areas is based on height data from airborne laser scanning and 2D GIS, which provides the ground plan geometry of buildings. Both data sources are used to estimate the type and parameter of basic primitives which in turn are combined to obtain complex building structures. The final output consists of 3D CAD models for the buildings. Using the reconstructed geometry, terrestrial images are mapped onto building facades to generate virtual city models.
keywords 3D City modeling
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c19d
authors Camara, Antonio S. and Raper, Jonathan (Ed.)
year 1999
title Spatial multimedia and virtual reality
source London: Taylor & Francis
summary The intersection of two disciplines and technologies which have become mature academic research topics in the 1990s was destined to be a dynamic area for collaboration and publication. However, until now no significant book-length treatment of the meeting of GIS and Virtual Reality has been available. This volume puts that situation to rights by bringing these together to cement some common understanding and principles in a potentially highly promising area for technological collaboration and cross-fertilisation. The result is a volume which ranges in subject matter from studies of a Virtual GIS Room to Spatial Agents, and from an Environmental Multimedia System to Computer-Assisted 3D Geographic Education. All the contributors are well-known international scientists, principally from the computational side of GIS. It will be a valuable resource for any GIS researcher or professional looking to understand the leading edge of this fertile field. ------------------------------------------------------------------------
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 5f9c
authors Castello, Regina
year 1999
title GIS and the Investigation of the Environmental Heritage
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 219-224
summary This paper presents an investigation on the architectural, natural, and cultural resources in the southern part of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, according to their historical or environmental value, identifying natural and cultural elements known and valued by local communities, regardless their experts’ classification. Resources are identified by means of geographical information systems, combined with field information. The area comprises the coastal strip and the plains located in the last frontier of the Brazilian territory and the water system dominated by the lakes Patos, Mangueira and Mirim. The inventory of the environmental, sociocultural and economic heritage provides the necessary insight for issuing new development alternatives based on local resources. Research activities will include: the ellaboration of general and thematic maps, based on LANDSAT 5 [bands 3, 4 and 5] images; aerial photographs; DSG/SGE and municipal maps [scales 1:250.000, 1:50.000 and 1:25.000]; field work for the recognition of remarkable elements; interviews with residents for assessing their perception of local values; and community and institutional statements. These informations, comprising the elements valued by their architectural and urban quality, historical relevance and environmental significance, organised in a database, will provide contextual guidelines for the planning of a tourist route. This route, delineated by the preservation, recovery and use of representative local resources, valued as expressions of a native culture, evocates the initial occupation of the gaúcho territory, and may be touristically promoted as "The Gaúcho’s Way". The project also aims at showing the potential offered by GIS for identifying and evaluating specific spatial characteristics.
keywords Environmental Planning, Historical Preservation
series SIGRADI
email kastello@conex.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 3db8
authors Clarke, Keith
year 1999
title Getting Started with GIS
source 2nd ed., Prentice Hall Series in Geographic Information Science, ed. Kieth Clarke. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999, 2-3
summary This best-selling non-technical, reader-friendly introduction to GIS makes the complexity of this rapidly growing high-tech field accessible to beginners. It uses a "learn-by-seeing" approach that features clear, simple explanations, an abundance of illustrations and photos, and generic practice labs for use with any GIS software. What Is a GIS? GIS's Roots in Cartography. Maps as Numbers. Getting the Map into the Computer. What Is Where? Why Is It There? Making Maps with GIS. How to Pick a GIS. GIS in Action. The Future of GIS. For anyone interested in a hands-on introduction to Geographic Information Systems.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 5fee
authors Corso Pereira, Gilberto
year 1999
title Visualizacao de Informacoes Urbanas atraves de Multimidia (Visualization of Urban Information by Means of Multimedia)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 239-243
summary Visualization is a tool that can aid understanding of phenomenon, process and spatial structures. Another important function is communication, in urban applications case, between planners, technicians, administrators, researchers and citizens. Recent technological development applied to visualization area increments analyze and interpretation capacity. The word visualization used here, is related with the use of computation for data exploration in a visual form, helping comprehension. It is a process of transformation of raw data in images, in information and visual communication. GIS and cartography precede computers. In it development GIS benefited from information technologies development and in this process emphasis goes from treatment of great amount of data to analyze of that data. Computer graphics make possible process and present visually great volume of data, thing that was not possible by conventional methods. Digital data are the key for the plain utilization of potential already available with geoprocessing technologies. Information that interest urban planners came from several sources and information technologies beside integration and manipulation permit visual analyze of spatial data in diverse aspects, from witch the most evident but not less effective a map, tool that let us correlate a great variety of qualitative and quantitative data, for organization, interpretation, presentation and communication. In digital cartographic basic elements of cartographic science were preserved, but through new products, each one execute one of the roles that traditional map plays in different ways. Database replace paper map as way of geographical information storage and cartographic visualization replaces a second role - understanding and explanation - that was satisfied by printed maps. Salvador is one of the most important brazilians metropolis. The project that we discuss have as targets construction of salvador database to permit understanding of urban space through use of thematic cartography. Several steps of project include data acquisition, database formation using data conversion and results visualization through interactive, hypermedia and thematic cartography.
series SIGRADI
email corso@ufba.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id ddss2004_d-49
id ddss2004_d-49
authors Polidori, M. and R. Krafta
year 2004
title Environment – Urban Interface within Urban Growth
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 49-62
summary This work presents the synthesis of a model of urban growth dedicated to accomplish simulations of urban spatial dynamics, based on integrated urban and environmental factors and promoting simultaneity among external and internal growth. The city and surrounding environment are captured and modeled in computational ambient, by application of the centrality / potential model (Krafta, 1994 and 1999), with support of graph theory, cellular automata, GIS and geocomputation. The model assumes the city as a field of opportunities for obtaining income, mediated by the space, which is composed of urban and environmental attributes, that work as attractors or as resistances for the urban growth. The space configuration and the distribution of those attributes generate tensions that differentiate qualitatively and quantitatively the space, through the centrality measure (built with the support of graphs techniques), coming to provoke growth in places with larger potential of development (built with the help of techniques of CA – cellular automata). Growths above environmental thresholds are considered problems, generated and overcome in the same process of production of the urban space. Iterations of that process offer a dynamic behaviour to the model, allowing to observe the growth process along the time. The model presents several possibilities: a) urban - natural environment integration; b) internal and external growth integration; c) variety in the scale; d) GIS integration and geocomputation; e) user interface; f) calibration; g) theoretical possibilities; and h) practical possibilities.
keywords Environment, Urban Growth, Urban Morphology, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id a291
authors Saboya, Renato and Santiago, Alina
year 1999
title A Construcao de um Sistema de Informacoes Geograficas para a Lagoa da Conceicao: Possibilidades e Desafios (The Construction of a Geographic Information System for the "Conceicao" Lagoon: Possibilities and Challenges)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 203-208
summary This work intends to present the construction process of a Geographic Information System – GIS, for the "Lagoa da Conceição", in Florianópolis city, which aims to map urban uses of this region of the Santa Catarina Island. The focus is placed over the following aspects: 1.) Adopted proceedings to avoid the difficulties placed by lack of actual cartographic data in large scales. This problem common to several Brazilian cities dictated the need of mixing several sources of information to construct a geographical data base; 2.) The analytic results already obtained in the actual investigation stage based on the elaborated thematic maps over urban uses, and more specifically over tourism uses. Deepening of these analysis with inclusion of new data, and its utilization as a tool to verify new territorial interventions are also explored; 3.) The spreading and utilization possibilities of the information generated by system by different social sectors through Intranet and Internet technologies. The use of the technologies open up new perspectives regarding the interaction between these sectors in the use of geografical information, giving way to the construction of an unique data basis which might favored integrated decision making process in diverse filds of knowledge.
keywords Geographic Information System, Territory Management Support
series SIGRADI
email edson@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 2fd9
authors Siniacoff, Martha
year 1999
title The Cadastral Information System and its Objectives
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 213-218
summary The solutions that allow us to attend the potential exigencies planned for a territorial administration, oblige us to establish an informatizated step, performed with a group of logical tools, supported in the corresponding data bases. This means to establish an Information System who integrates basic data to activities and own resources, being a fundamental aspect of these Systems their capacity to synthetisize the dinamic of phenomena that reflect and several parameters that are the base to analyse this. Urban and Rural real estates (cadastral register) are elementary territorial unities whose integration, complemented with structural elements of a localization area, constitute the continuous of spatial information with the most degree of resolution. Trying as "variables” all physical, economical and juridical circunstances, this continuous of information in transformed in an extraordinary and interesting product, which can be potentiate if we include the Geographic Information System (GIS) concept, resulting of adding digital cartographic data bases to attributes and literal characteristics of elements stored in alphanumeric ones. The reason of this article is to divulge the Territorial Information System set up in the Cadastral Office of the City Hall of Montevideo, based on GIS technology, emphatizying the utility it produces in so large applications as: to investigate land occupation and property distribution, to planify and optimize resources and services, to act as a fundamental support to elaborate thematic cartographies, to serve as a detailed and precise support for urbanism, service flows and territorial ordenation and all other products issued for the own implantation philosofy, constituted with an open structure where the mentioned Office isn’t the only user.
series SIGRADI
email im1595916@piso1.imm.gub.uy
last changed 2016/03/10 09:00

_id e719
authors Achten, Henri and Turksma, Arthur
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in Early Design: the Design Studio Experiences
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 327-335
summary The Design Systems group of the Eindhoven University of Technology started a new kind of design studio teaching. With the use of high-end equipment, students use Virtual Reality from the very start of the design process. Virtual Reality technology up to now was primarily used for giving presentations. We use the same technology in the design process itself by means of reducing the time span in which one gets results in Virtual Reality. The method is based on a very brief cycle of modelling in AutoCAD, assigning materials in 3DStudio Viz, and then making a walkthrough in Virtual Reality in a standard landscape. Due to this cycle, which takes about 15 seconds, the student gets immediate feedback on design decisions which facilitates evaluation of the design in three dimensions much faster than usual. Usually the learning curve of this kind of software is quite steep, but with the use of templates the number of required steps to achieve results is reduced significantly. In this way, the potential of Virtual Reality is not only explored in research projects, but also in education. This paper discusses the general set-up of the design studio and shows how, via short workshops, students acquire knowledge of the cycle in a short time. The paper focuses on the added value of using Virtual Reality technology in this manner: improved spatial reasoning, translation from two-dimensional to three-dimensional representations, and VR feedback on design decisions. It discusses the needs for new design representations in this design environment, and shows how fast feedback in Virtual Reality can improve the spatial design at an early stage of the design process.
series AVOCAAD
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl, A.A.E.Turksma@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 36d3
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1999
title A CAVE-Interface in CAAD-Education?
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 313-323
summary The so called "CAVE-interface" is a very interesting and thrilling development for architects! It supports a better illusion of space by exposing almost a 270° view of a computer model than the 60° which can be viewed on an ordinary computer screen. At the Lund University we have got the possibility to experiment with a CAVE-installation, using it in research and the education of CAAD. The technique and three experiments are discribed. The possibilities are discussed and some problems and questions are put forward.
series CAADRIA
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ecc5
authors Bassanino, May Nahab
year 1999
title The perception of computer generated architectural images
source Liverpool University
summary The broad aim of the research is to examine the role of computer generated architectural images on the way different people perceive architecture, and within this field of interest I have established a list of specific tasks to define the specific points of interest to examine. The following list of the main research objectives served as a guide in designing the experimental tests undertaken as part of this research: (*) Study the effect of both representation techniques and the used media on perceiving architecture. (*) Establish the differences (if there are any) of perception between different groups of people; principally architects and non-architects, but also subsets of each of these two groups. (*) To suggest the appropriate technique for presenting architecture for a particular group in a particular stage in the design process. (*) To investigate the influence of CAAD in architectural education on the students’ perception for architectural images.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9f35
authors Bhavnani, S. K., Garrett, J.H., Flemming, U. and Shaw, D.S.
year 1999
title Towards Active Assistance
source Bridging the Generations. The Future of Computer-Aided Engineering (eds. J. H. Garrett and D. R. Rehak) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (1999), 199-203
summary The exploding functionality of current computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems has provided today’s users with a vast, but under-utilized collection of tools and options. For example, MicroStation, a popular CAE system sold by Intergraph, offers more than 1000 commands including 16 ways to construct a line (in different contexts) and 28 ways to manipulate elements using a “fence”. This complex array of functionalities is bewildering and hardly exploited to its full extent even by frequent, experienced users. In a recent site visit to a federal design office, we observed ten architects and three draftsmen using MicroStation.
series other
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7674
authors Bourdakis, Vassilis and Charitos, Dimitrios
year 1999
title Virtual Environment Design - Defining a New Direction for Architectural Education
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 403-409
summary This paper considers the design and development of virtual environments (VEs) and the way that it relates to traditional architectural education and practice. The need for practitioners who will contribute to the design of 3D content for multimedia and virtual reality applications is identified. The design of space in a VE is seen as being partly an architectural problem. Therefore, architectural design should play an important role in educating VE designers. Other disciplines, intrinsically related to the issue of VE design, are also identified. Finally, this paper aims at pointing out the need for a new direction within architectural education, which will lead towards a generation of VE architects.
keywords Virtual Environments, Architectural Design, Architectural Education
series eCAADe
email V.Bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7921
authors Carp, John
year 1999
title Discovering Theory
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 347-348
summary This abstract describes a course in design theory and methods for students in architecture. It deals with the principles of Morphogenetic Design, in a didactical setting. The course is special in the way that theory and methods are not being taught formally, but discovered by the students themselves. The mechanism for acquiring this knowledge is by means of a series of exercises the students have to carry out. Each exercise is put before the students with a minimum of explanation. The purpose of the exercise is explained afterwards, making maximal use of group discussions on the results of the exercise. The discussion is being focused on comparing the similarities and differences in the variants the students have produced. The aim of the discussion is firstly to discover the structural properties of these variants (the theory) and secondly to discover the most appropriate way of establishing these structural properties (the methods). The variants have come on the table by means of the group effort. The habitual reluctance of architects, when required to produce variants, is thus being overcome. Morphogenetic themes like creation, evaluation and selection are being dealt with in a natural way.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 2c1d
authors Castañé, D., Tessier, C., Álvarez, J. and Deho, C.
year 1999
title Patterns for Volumetric Recognition - Guidelines for the Creation of 3D-Models
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 171-175
summary This piece proposes new strategies and pedagogic methodologies applied to the recognition and study of the subjacent measurements of the architectural projects to be created. This proposal is the product of pedagogic experience, which stems from this instructional team of the department of tri-dimensional models of electronic models. This program constitutes an elective track for the architectural major at the college of architecture, design, and urbanism of the University of Buenos Aires and housed at the CAO center. One of the requirements that the students must complete, after doing research and analytical experimentation through the knowledge that they acquired through this course, is to practice the attained skills through exercises proposed by the department in this case, the student would be required to virtually rebuild a paradigmatic architectonic piece of several sample architects. Usually at this point, students experience some difficulties when they analyze the existing documents on the plants, views, picture, details, texts, etc., That they have obtained from magazines, books, and other sources. Afterwards, when they digitally begin to generate basic measurements of the architectural work to be modeled, they realize that there are great limitations in the comprehension of the tri-dimensional understanding of the work. This issue has brought us to investigate and develop proposals of volumetric understanding of patterns through examples of work already analyzed and digitalized tri-dimensionally in the department. Through a careful study of the existent documentation for that particular work, it is evaluated which would be the paths and basis to adopt through utilizing alternative technologies to arrive at a clear reconstruction of the projected architectural work, the study gets completed by implementing the proposal at the internet site http://www.datarq.fadu.uba.ar/catedra/dorcas
series SIGRADI
email dorcas@fadu.uba.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 6930
authors Cattoni, Edson Luis and Santiago, Alina Goncalves
year 1999
title Lagoa da Conceicao - Florianópolis - Ilha de Santa Catarina: Uma Paisagem em Transformacao II (Conceicao Lagoon - Florianópolis - Ilha of Santa Catarina Island: A Landscape in Transformation II)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 157-160
summary This work presents the study and applied assays (or simulation tests) about the ordination of urban space in the region of Lagoa da Conceição. In the region pressures placed by the growth of urban area and urban network system are in contact conflict with a fragile ecosystem, and with a sustainable development based on tourism. Analysis procedures exploited different forms of Space Syntax trying to examine effects of spatial structure in relation to movement patterns of pedestrians and vehicles. This methodology allowed the comprehension of relation between spatial configuration, transport and soil use, and reveled the interdependence and performance of built space within the restrict regional scale (Lagoa da Conceição) and the total urban structure of the island. This understanding is not limited to the present. Is also includes the study of historic urban evolution, and simulation of existing projects for the future, being an important tool to support project decision process. Consequently, the obtained results bring a new approach for the problem, which makes possible the synthesis of design proposals verifying its implications and consequences.
series SIGRADI
email edson@arq.ufsc.br, alina@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

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