CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 617

_id ee8a
authors Porrúa, Marina and Rueda, Marta
year 1999
title Innovación Didáctica. Digitalización de un ejercicio práctico cuya problemática central es la organización de la forma en el espacio bidimensional y la introducción al diseño textil (Didactic Innovation. Digitalization of a practical exercises whose Central Issue is the Organization of Form in Bidimensional Space and the Introduction to the Textile Design)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 285-288
summary The projectual disciplines must respond with some grade of originality to a approached problem. In order to products of design be creative must be implemented a creative process of design and also from the teaching. The essence of creativity are the variations over a subject. A pedagogic way for this, is the one to recognise, individualise and represent the problem attributes, building upon them an "exploration space", to analyse and create new combinatorial alternatives or restructuring of the problem. The digital media incorporation as a new proyectual environment approaches the interactivity not only of the combinatorial variables, but, also to the hypermedia's. Both the digital documents, as the creative process, have a "no linear" or a "net" structure, that allows the construction of a himself way, self-managemented into this structure. The interactivity makes possible to work, as the divergent thought does, in a "polydirectional" field, that stimulates the fluency, the flexibility and the originality. The new- media's, used as didactic tool, open to "action", allow the students to convert them in "co- author", together professors, about themself learning process. >From this educational conception and its potential enrichment with the hypermedia, we are designing a project of digitising of an exercise to our didactic proposal and its later application into the course with our students.
series SIGRADI
email mlporrua@mdp.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id 13f7
authors QaQish, Ra'Ed K.
year 1999
title Evaluation as a Key Tool to Bridge CAAD and Architecture Education
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 279-285
summary This paper reports on the findings of a study carried out at Glasgow University which proposes a framework for the evaluation of architecture curriculum once integrated with CAAD. This study investigated the evaluation of CAAD teaching methods (CTM) and the effectiveness of CAAD integration (CI) and explored CAAD employment suitability in the design studio, and what influences does it have on the design process tuition using the Kirkpatrick model as a vehicle. The related CAAD evaluation variables investigated were: CAAD Tutor, Course Materials & Contents, Class Environment, Use of Media, Delivery Methodologies, Administrative Briefs, and Overall Effectiveness of CAAD event. Several other variables investigated were the levels of students' performance, attitudes, knowledge, new-stand, creativity and skills. The paper covered briefly some of the findings of the case studies acquired over two years at MSA; both observations and questionnaire surveys were used as methods of data collection. Evaluation deficiency postulates the weaknesses of CAAD in architecture schools. Evaluation of CAAD tuition should be a fundamental approach to address CAAD integration efficiency and problems, to achieve effectiveness and productivity amongst architecture schools.
keywords Evaluation, Integration, Effectiveness
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 3815
authors Qaqish, Ra’ed
year 2001
title VDS/DDS Practice Hinges on Interventions and Simplicity - A Case Study of Hard Realism vs. Distorted Idealism
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 249-255
summary This paper reports on a contemporary and laborious ongoing experimental work initiated during the establishment of a new Virtual/Digital design studio “VDS” in Sept. 1999 by CAAD tutors at University of Petra “UOP”. The new VDS/DDS now works as an experimental laboratory to explore several solutions to problems of efficiency in design teaching as a new digital design studio paradigm, in tandem with CAD/Design staff, DS environment, materials and facilities. Two groups of graduating level students participated as volunteers in this experiment. The first group was comprised of three fifth-year architectural design students while the second group was comprised of two fourth-year interior design students. The media currently in use are ArchiCAD 6.5 as a design tool along with CorelDraw 9 as a presentational tool, running on Pentium III computers. The series of experiments evaluated the impression on architectural design studio tuition requirements arising from the changes brought about by the implementation of the new CAD pedagogical approach (VDS/DDS) at UOP. The findings echo several important key issues in tandem with CAAD, such as: the changes brought about by the new design strategies, adaptation in problem solving decision-making techniques, studio employment in terms of environment, means and methods. Other issues are VDS/DDS integration schemes carried out by both students and staff as one team in design studio practice on one hand and the curriculum on the other. Finally, the paper discusses the negative impact of conventional design studio hardliner teaching advocates and students alike whose outlook and impressions undermine and deplete effective CAAD integration and obstruct, in many instances, the improvement of such experiments in a VDS environment.
keywords Design Studio Strategies, Problem Solving Decisions, Transformation And Integration Policies
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga9911
id ga9911
authors Riley, Howard
year 1999
title Semiotics and Generative Art
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The paper begins with a brief explanation of David Marr’s computational theory of visual perception, and his key terms. Marr argued that vision consists in the algorithmic transformation of retinal images so as to produce output of viewer-centred and object-centred representations from an input at the retinae. Those two kinds of output, the viewer-centred and the object-centred representations, enable us to negotiate the physical world. The paper goes on to suggest that the activity of Drawing is comparable as a process of transformation: a picture is a transformation from either viewer-centred, or object-centred descriptions, or a combination of both types of representation, to a two-dimensional drawn representation. These pictures may be described as resulting from algorithmic transformations since picture-making utilises specific geometric procedures for transforming input (our perceptions) into output (our drawings). However, a key point is made about such algorithms: they are culturally-determined. They may be defined in terms of the procedure of selecting and combining choices from the matrix of semiotic systems available within a particular social context. These systems are presented in the paper as a Chart, and are further correlated with the social functions of a communication system such as Drawing. Thus, the paper proposes a systemic-functional semiotics of Drawing, within which algorithms operate to realise specific cultural values in material form. Familiar algorithms are illustrated, such as those governing the transformation of the physics of an array of light at the eye into the set of representations known as perspective projection systems; and also illustrated in the paper are less familiar algorithms devised by artists such as Kenneth Martin and Sol LeWitt.
series other
email howard.riley@sihe.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id a291
authors Saboya, Renato and Santiago, Alina
year 1999
title A Construcao de um Sistema de Informacoes Geograficas para a Lagoa da Conceicao: Possibilidades e Desafios (The Construction of a Geographic Information System for the "Conceicao" Lagoon: Possibilities and Challenges)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 203-208
summary This work intends to present the construction process of a Geographic Information System – GIS, for the "Lagoa da Conceição", in Florianópolis city, which aims to map urban uses of this region of the Santa Catarina Island. The focus is placed over the following aspects: 1.) Adopted proceedings to avoid the difficulties placed by lack of actual cartographic data in large scales. This problem common to several Brazilian cities dictated the need of mixing several sources of information to construct a geographical data base; 2.) The analytic results already obtained in the actual investigation stage based on the elaborated thematic maps over urban uses, and more specifically over tourism uses. Deepening of these analysis with inclusion of new data, and its utilization as a tool to verify new territorial interventions are also explored; 3.) The spreading and utilization possibilities of the information generated by system by different social sectors through Intranet and Internet technologies. The use of the technologies open up new perspectives regarding the interaction between these sectors in the use of geografical information, giving way to the construction of an unique data basis which might favored integrated decision making process in diverse filds of knowledge.
keywords Geographic Information System, Territory Management Support
series SIGRADI
email edson@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 3d23
authors Sellgren, Ulf
year 1999
title Simulation-driven Design
source KTH Stockholm
summary Efficiency and innovative problem solving are contradictory requirements for product development (PD), and both requirements must be satisfied in companies that strive to remain or to become competitive. Efficiency is strongly related to ”doing things right”, whereas innovative problem solving and creativity is focused on ”doing the right things”. Engineering design, which is a sub-process within PD, can be viewed as problem solving or a decision-making process. New technologies in computer science and new software tools open the way to new approaches for the solution of mechanical problems. Product data management (PDM) technology and tools can enable concurrent engineering (CE) by managing the formal product data, the relations between the individual data objects, and their relation to the PD process. Many engineering activities deal with the relation between behavior and shape. Modern CAD systems are highly productive tools for concept embodiment and detailing. The finite element (FE) method is a general tool used to study the physical behavior of objects with arbitrary shapes. Since a modern CAD technology enables design modification and change, it can support the innovative dimension of engineering as well as the verification of physical properties and behavior. Concepts and detailed solutions have traditionally been evaluated and verified with physical testing. Numerical modeling and simulation is in many cases a far more time efficient method than testing to verify the properties of an artifact. Numerical modeling can also support the innovative dimension of problem solving by enabling parameter studies and observations of real and synthetic behavior. Simulation-driven design is defined as a design process where decisions related to the behavior and performance of the artifact are significantly supported by computer-based product modeling and simulation. A framework for product modeling, that is based on a modern CAD system with fully integrated FE modeling and simulation functionality provides the engineer with tools capable of supporting a number of engineering steps in all life-cycle phases of a product. Such a conceptual framework, that is based on a moderately coupled approach to integrate commercial PDM, CAD, and FE software, is presented. An object model and a supporting modular modeling methodology are also presented. Two industrial cases are used to illustrate the possibilities and some of the opportunities given by simulation-driven design with the presented methodology and framework.
keywords CAE; FE Method; Metamodel; Object Model; PDM; Physical Behavior, System
series thesis:PhD
email ulfs@md.kth.se
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 2cf4
authors Shih, Naai-Jung and Huang, Yen-Shih
year 1999
title An Analysis and Simulation of Curtain Wall Reflection Glare
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 744-750
summary This paper presents a computer-aided visualization on the influence of reflected sunbeams from curtain wall buildings. A survey was made to local buildings and it was discovered that reflected glare is a significant urban problem. Based on survey findings, a simulation was conducted to compare with actual occurrences in order to increase the comprehension of the consequences of window orientation and angles in the design stage. The simulation enabled design evaluation with an inspection above normal eye level and in a broader area, than that which normally could be achieved in a site survey at a pedestrian's or a driver's level. The computer simulation verified the influence of reflection on the urban environment by using a time-based record. In order to provide design solutions, the simulation used a 10x10x10 cube in referencing the horizontal area that would receive reflections. Due to the symmetric shape of the cube, a butterfly shaped boundary of reflection area (BRA) was concluded. BRA is smaller on the summer solstice than on the spring or autumnal equinox. In order to reduce BRA, a passive design approach was applied by tilting or rotating walls to evaluate how the tilted angles or orientation of the façade could affect reflected glare.
keywords Reflection Glare, Visualization
series eCAADe
email shihnj@mail.ntust.edu.tw
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 7b68
authors Shounai, Y., Morozumi, M., Homma , R. and Murakami, Y.
year 1999
title On the Development of Group Work CAD for Network PC: GW-CAD III
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 473-481
summary The number of Virtual Design Studio experiments that use a Digital Pin-up Board (WWW) and video conferencing tools is rapidly increasing. As we see that several schools have introduced group-ware to support asynchronous communication of their projects, it is possible to regard that techniques for asynchronous communication have already been developed to some extent. However, participants of those projects still have difficulty with synchronous communication. For example, though designers often desire to exchange models among members to get critical feedback and achieve fast problem solving while working at their desks, there are few CADs that can support concurrent synchronous design communication among members. The first half of this paper discusses a model of synchronous design communication that uses CAD models, and then proposes a prototype of tools that use Microsoft NetMeeting and AutoCAD R14: GW-CAD III. In the middle, a user interface system that enables designers to conveniently model and exchange separate sets of models necessary to elaborate different aspects of design is proposed: "Network Clipboard" "Modeling Space", "Plan Face", and "Section Face". Finally, this paper discusses the results of several experiments that used the prototype.
keywords Synchronous Collaboration, Internet, CAD, Prototype, Schematic Design
series eCAADe
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 2fd9
authors Siniacoff, Martha
year 1999
title The Cadastral Information System and its Objectives
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 213-218
summary The solutions that allow us to attend the potential exigencies planned for a territorial administration, oblige us to establish an informatizated step, performed with a group of logical tools, supported in the corresponding data bases. This means to establish an Information System who integrates basic data to activities and own resources, being a fundamental aspect of these Systems their capacity to synthetisize the dinamic of phenomena that reflect and several parameters that are the base to analyse this. Urban and Rural real estates (cadastral register) are elementary territorial unities whose integration, complemented with structural elements of a localization area, constitute the continuous of spatial information with the most degree of resolution. Trying as "variables” all physical, economical and juridical circunstances, this continuous of information in transformed in an extraordinary and interesting product, which can be potentiate if we include the Geographic Information System (GIS) concept, resulting of adding digital cartographic data bases to attributes and literal characteristics of elements stored in alphanumeric ones. The reason of this article is to divulge the Territorial Information System set up in the Cadastral Office of the City Hall of Montevideo, based on GIS technology, emphatizying the utility it produces in so large applications as: to investigate land occupation and property distribution, to planify and optimize resources and services, to act as a fundamental support to elaborate thematic cartographies, to serve as a detailed and precise support for urbanism, service flows and territorial ordenation and all other products issued for the own implantation philosofy, constituted with an open structure where the mentioned Office isn’t the only user.
series SIGRADI
email im1595916@piso1.imm.gub.uy
last changed 2016/03/10 09:00

_id c0c4
authors Smith, Timothy M.
year 1999
title Suisse Telekom Headquarters Norton, Virginia
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, p. 6
summary The design problem called for a mixed-use facility housing a bookstore, a secure telecommunications relay facility with training and conference areas, and a private employee fitness center. The site is at the end of the main street in Norton just off the main highway, and is where a four-story hotel project was abandoned twenty years prior. The structural steel frame for the hotel was erected and construction halted at this stage, leaving the skeletal frame and an empty lot at the end of the axis of the main street in Norton. Norton began as a coalmining town but has recently gained attention as a telecommunications hub after a national telecommunications firm located their TDD headquarters in Norton, making use of the fiber optic lines available in the area.
series ACADIA
email tsmith16@utk.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 09:05

_id b5a1
authors Snijder, H.P.S. and Daru, R.
year 1999
title Representing Floorplans for Interactive Evolutionary Design
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 343-346
summary Computer tools that provide support in the early explorative phase of architectural design are rare. In order to explore the solution space of a design problem, architects in general rely on the use of paper and pencil. We are developing a system which will assist the designer in the exploration of a particular design problem, focusing initially on 2D floorplans. The format chosen for this system is one in which the computer, in interaction with the designer, "evolves" designs. A major obstacle associated with the use of an evolutionary approach is the adequate representation of a floorplan in a genome. We propose a tree-structure in which the nodes represent organising-principles that dictate how the leaves attached to it are organised. Figure 1 shows an example of a tree with four levels; the terminal nodes represent the elements to be placed. The first level no only represents an organising-principle, but also a contour; this contour is either fixed (e.g. dictated by the environment) or free to evolve. On either side of the tree-structure two interpretations of this tree are shown.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ga9902
id ga9902
authors Soddu, Celestino
year 1999
title Recognizability of designer imprinting in Generative artwork
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Design lives within two fundamental stages, the creative and the evolutionary. The first is that of producing the idea: this approach is built activating a logical jump between the existing and possible worlds that represent our wishes and thoughts. A design idea is the identification of a set of possibilities that goes beyond specific "solutions" but identifies the sense or the attainable quality. The field involved in this design stage is "how" the world may be transformed, not what the possible scenario may be. The second is the evolutionary stage, that of the development of the idea. This approach runs inside paths of refinement and increases in complexity of the projects. It involves the management of the project to reach the desired quality.Generative design is founded on the possibility to clearly separate the creative and the evolutionary stages of the idea. And the first is reserved for man (because creative processes, being activated from subjective interpretations and being abduptive paths and not deductive, inductive or analytical ones, can not be emulated by machines) and the second may be carried out using artificial devices able to emulate logical procedures. The emulation of evolutionary logics is useful for a very simple reason: for getting the best operative design control on complexity. Designers know very well that the quality of a project depends, very importantly, on the time spent designing. If the time is limited, the project can not evolve enough to attain the desired quality. If the available time is increased, the project acquires a higher quality due to the possibility of crossing various parallel evolutionary paths, to develop these and to verify their relative potential running through the cycle idea/evolution more times and in progress. (scheme1) This is not all. In a time-limited design activity, the architect is pressed into facing the formalization of performance requirements in terms of answering directly specific questions. He is pressed into analytically systematizing the requirements before him to quickly work on the evolution of the project. The design solution can be effective but absolutely not flexible. If the real need of the user is, even slightly, different to the hypothesized requirement, the quality of the project, as its ability to respond to needs, breaks down. Projects approached in this way, which we could call "analytical", are quickly obsolete, being tied up to the flow of fashion. A more "creative" approach, where we don't try to accelerate (therby simplifying) the design development path "deducting" from the requirements the formalization choices but we develop our idea using the requirements and the constraints as opportunities of increasing the complexity of the idea, enriching the design development path to reach a higher quality, needs, without doubt, more time. As well as being, of course, a creative and non-analytical approach. This design approach, which is "the" design path, is a voyage of discovery that is comparable to that of scientific research. The fundamental structure is the idea as a "not deducted" hypothesis concerning a quality and recognizability of attainable artwork, according to the architect's "subjective" point of view. The needs and the constraints, identified as fields of possible development of the project, are opportunities for the idea to develop and acquire a specific identity and complexity. Once possible scenarios of a project are formed, the same requirements and constraints will take part, as "verification of congruity", of the increase in quality. Then the cycle, once more, will be run again to reach more satisfactory results. It is, without doubt, an approach that requires time.
series other
email Celestino.soddu@polimi.it
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 7cb1
authors Stuurstraat, N. and Tolman, F.
year 1999
title A product modeling approach to building knowledge integration
source Automation in Construction 8 (3) (1999) pp. 269-275
summary Knowledge informatics is still playing only a minor role in the design process of buildings and civil engineering efforts, particularly in the inception stage. The primary reason that most knowledge tools are not well integrated into the process is that most tend to be based on stand alone expert system technology. Improving the re-use of existing knowledge is required to increase industry performance. A solution could be a new generation of integrated knowledge systems. One problem that must be addressed is how to cope with the conflicting requirements of each particular subsystem when each is optimized for its own knowledge domain. No optimum solution exists that is able to simultaneously optimize each subsystem for a total solution. This paper discusses an approach to building knowledge integration that attempts to address these shortcomings through the use of combined product model and meta-knowledge approach.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id a875
authors Suwa, M., Gero, J.S. and Purcell, T.
year 1999
title How an Architect Created Design Requirements
source G. Goldschmidt and W. Porter (eds), Design Thinking Research Symposium: Design Representation, MIT, Cambridge, pp. II.101-124
summary There is an anecdotal view that designers, during a conceptual design process, not just synthesise solutions that satisfy initially given requirements, but also create by themselves novel design requirements that capture important aspects of the given problem. Further, it is believed that design sketches serve as a thinking tool for designers to do this. Then, what kinds of cognitive interaction with their own sketches enable designers to create novel requirements? The purpose of this paper is to answer this question. We examined the cognitive processes of a practising architect, using a protocol analysis technique. Our examinations focused on whether particular types of cognitive actions account for the creation of novel design requirements. We found that intensive occurrences of a certain type of perceptual actions, acts of establishing new relations or visual features on the sketches, are likely to co-occur with the creation of requirements. This suggests that this type of perceptual actions are the key constituent of acts of creating novel requirements, and therefore one of the important actions in sketching activities. This presents evidence of the view that designing is a situated act, as well as has an implication for design education.
keywords Design Requirements; Sketches; Design Cognition; Protocol Analysis
series journal paper
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/03/31 06:37

_id c056
authors Tsou, Jin-Yeu and Chow, Benny
year 1999
title Team Orientated Knowledge Construction for Architectural Education
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 292-300
summary Information Technology is always more accessible when we trying to imagine what the IT could be actually used. This situation is even more noticeable in the architecture field, and there are various technologies that have failed on delivering urgent needed education quality. Meanwhile, the tradition architecture education is evolving rapidly under the concepts of problem-based approach, knowledge reconstruction, and self-guided learning. "Education without institutional boundary" happens everyday in the classroom, and multi-direction learning modes have replaced the traditional single-direction teaching approach. The role of IT in the curriculum of architectural design education has become a subject of debate, scrutiny and experimentation in architectural schools. This paper will first outline the theory of applying team-oriented knowledge construction approach into studio teaching, the setup of our integrated digital design media environment is introduced; organization issue regarding the team formation and studio coordination is discussed; case studies are illustrated for demonstrating the methodology applied; and the student feedback is summarized to analysis the effectiveness of the approach.
keywords Multimedia, CD-ROM, Problem-Based Learning, Team-Orientated Learning, Constructivist Learning
series eCAADe
email jinyeutsou@cuhk.edu.hk, kaming@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 0c9c
authors Tweed, Christopher
year 1999
title Prescribing Designs
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 51-57
summary Much of the debate and argument among CAAD researchers has turned on the degree to which CAAD systems limit the ways in which designers can express themselves. By defining representations for design objects and design functions, systems determine what it is possible to describe. Aart Bijl used the term 'prescriptiveness' to refer to this property of systems, and the need to overcome it was a major preoccupation of research at EdCAAD during the 1980s, including the development of the MOLE (Modelling Objects with Logic Expressions) system. But in trying to offer designers the freedom that was judged to be essential to evolving design practices, MOLE transferred much of the burden of programming from system developers to end-users - you can have any design objects you want, as long as you write the code. Close examination of MOLE's logic reveals that it too had to rely on fundamental definitions that, even if not domain-specific, are certainly historically contingent. This paper will return to the issue of prescriptiveness, summarising the lessons learned from the MOLE 'experiment,' and identifying new prescriptions that are deciding what designs can be. Looking beyond computer representations, we find that designs are shaped by much larger, and arguably more powerful, historical, social and cultural forces surrounding design practice. These forces are shaping the way CAAD is used and how new systems are conceived and developed.
keywords Bijl, Prescriptiveness
series eCAADe
email c.tweed@qub.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 7e51
authors Ucelli, G., Conti, G. and Af Klercker, J.
year 1999
title Visualisation: The Customer's Perception
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 539-544
summary Probably the most frustrating circumstance which might occur to an architect is to find out that his client is going to live for years in a house that is not like he expected it to be. Everybody has experienced to look at a picture of a place and after some time to go there and find out that the place is not according to his idea. This is due to the effectiveness of the media in representing the real space. During our experience we have tried to find out the way this effectiveness interferes in the relation between client and architect and how computer images can be effective in communicating the idea of architectural space. The problem of communication between designer and client rises when you notice that traditional graphic techniques (plans, sections, facades) are not enough understandable to make laypeople feel the real architectural space. And the unique answer to this problem has always been faced simply by leaving the architect understand the wishes of his client. During these last years though, computer techniques and multimedia tools have changed the way architects communicate their ideas.
keywords Perception, Computer Images, Rendering
series eCAADe
email gucelli@telegest.it, gconti@telegest.it, jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 44c0
authors Van Leeuwen, Jos P.
year 1999
title Modelling architectural design information by features : an approach to dynamic product modelling for application in architectural design
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary Architectural design, like many other human activities, benefits more and more from the ongoing development of information and communication technologies. The traditional paper documents for the representation and communication of design are now replaced by digital media. CAD systems have replaced the drawing board and knowledge systems are used to integrate expert knowledge in the design process. Product modelling is one of the most promising approaches in the developments of the last two decades, aiming in the architectural context at the representation and communication of the information related to a building in all its aspects and during its complete life-cycle. However, after studying both the characteristics of the product modelling approach and the characteristics of architectural design, it is concluded in this research project that product modelling does not suffice for support of architectural design. Architectural design is characterised mainly as a problem solving process, involving illdefined problems that require a very dynamic way of dealing with information that concerns both the problem and emerging solutions. Furthermore, architectural design is in many ways an evolutionary process. In short term this is because of the incremental approach to problem solving in design projects; and in long term because of the stylistic development of designers and the continuous developments in the building and construction industry in general. The requirements that are posed by architectural design are concentrated in the keywords extensibility and flexibility of the design informationmodels. Extensibility means that designers can extend conceptual models with definitions that best suit the design concepts they wish to utilise. Flexibility means that information in design models can be structured in a way that accurately represents the design rationale. This includes the modelling of incidental characteristics and relationships of the entities in the model that are not necessarily predefined in a conceptual model. In general, product modelling does not adequately support this dynamic nature of design. Therefore, this research project has studied the concepts developed in the technology of Feature-based modelling, which originates from the area of mechanical engineering. These concepts include the usage of Features as the primitives for defining and reasoning about a product. Features have an autonomous function in the information model, which, as a result, constitutes a flexible network of relationships between Features that are established during the design process. The definition of Features can be specified by designers to formalise new design concepts. This allows the design tools to be adapted to the specific needs of the individual designer, enlarging the library of available resources for design. In addition to these key-concepts in Feature-based modelling as it is developed in the mechanical engineering context, the project has determined the following principles for a Feature-based approach in the architectural context. Features in mechanical engineering are used mainly to describe the lowest level of detail in a product's design, namely the characteristics of its parts. In architecture the design process does not normally follow a strictly hierarchical approach and therefore requires that the building be modelled as a whole. This implies that multiple levels of abstraction are modelled and that Features are used to describe information at the various abstraction levels. Furthermore, architectural design involves concepts that are non-physical as well as physical; Features are to be used for modelling both kinds. The term Feature is defined in this research project to reflect the above key-concepts for this modelling approach. A Feature is an autonomous, coherent collection of information, with semantic meaning to a designer and possibly emerging during design, that is defined to formalise a design concept at any level of abstraction, either physical or non-physical, as part of a building model. Feature models are built up entirely of Features and are structured in the form of a directed graph. The nodes in the graph are the Features, whereas the arcs are the relationships between the Features. Features can be of user-defined types and incidental relationships can be added that are not defined at the typological level. An inventory in this project of what kind of information is involved in the practice of modelling architectural design is based on the analysis of a selection of sources of architectural design information. This inventory is deepened by a case study and results in the proposition of a categorisation of architectural Feature types.
keywords Automated Management Information Systems; Computer Aided Architectural Design; Information Systems; Modelling
series thesis:PhD
email j.p.v.leeuwen@bwk.tue.nl
more http://www.ds.arch.tue.nl/jos/thesis/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id caadria2006_633
id caadria2006_633
authors WAN-YU LIU
year 2006
title THE EMERGING DIGITAL STYLE: Attention shift in architectural style recognition
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 633-635
summary “Style” has long been an important index to observe the design thinking of designers in architecture. Gombrich (1968) defined style as a particular selection from the alternatives when doing things; Ackerman (1963) considered that a distiguishable ensemble of certain characteristics we call a style; Schapiro (1961) pointed out that style is constant forms, and sometimes the constant elements, qualities and expression; Kirsch (1998), Cha and Gero (1999) thought of style as a form element and shape pattern. As Simon and others referred to, style emerged from the process of problem solving, Chan (1994, 2001) ever devised a serious of experiments to set up the operational definitions of style, further five factors that relate to generating styles. Owing to that the greater part of sketches and drawings in the design process couldn’t be replaced by computer-aided design systems (Eisentraut, 1997), designers must shift between different problem-solving methods while facing different design problems. The purpose in this research is to discuss the influences of computer usage on style generation and style recognition: The employment of certain procedural factors that occurred in the design processes that using conventional media is different from the ones that using computer media? Do personal styles emerge while designers shifting between different media in the design processes? Does any unusual phenomenon emerge while accustomed CAD-systems designers recognizing a style?
series CAADRIA
email Giselle@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

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