CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 626

_id 1ead
authors Dinand, Munevver Ozgur and Ozersay, Fevzi
year 1999
title CAAD Education under the Lens of Critical Communication Theories and Critical Pedagogy: Towards a Critical Computer Aided Architectural Design Education (CCAADE)
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 86-93
summary Understanding the dominant ethos of our age is imperative but not easy. However it is quite evident that new technologies have altered our times. Every discipline is now forced to be critical in developing new concepts according to the realities of our times. Implementing a critical worldview and consciousness is now more essential than ever. Latest changes in information technology are creating pressure on change both in societal and cultural terms. With its direct relation to these technologies, computer aided architectural design education, is obviously an outstanding / prominent case within contemporary debate. This paper aims to name some critical points related to computer aided architectural design education (CAADE) from the perspective of critical communication studies and critical education theories. It tries to relate these three areas, by introducing their common concepts to each other. In this way, it hopes to open a path for a language of critique. A critique that supports and promotes experimentation, negotiation, creativity, social consciousness and active participation in architectural education in general, and CAADE in specific. It suggests that CAADE might become critical and produce meta-discourses [1 ] in two ways. Firstly, by being critical about the context it exists in, that is to say, its relationships to the existing institutional and social structures and secondly by being critical about the content it handles; in other words by questioning its ideological dimensions. This study considers that analysing the role of CAADE in this scheme can provide architectural education with the opportunity to make healthy projections for the future.
keywords Critical Theories, Critical Pedagogy, Critical CAADE
series eCAADe
email F.Oversay@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id d931
authors Gabryszewski, Artur B.
year 1999
title Idea of an Intelligent Building - Development Prospects
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 739-743
summary An ever-increasing number of offices as also residential buildings are being realised by designers and investors in accordance with the concept of an intelligent building. Houses of the new generation are being constructed. This is possible thanks to dynamic progress in the development of computer and microprocessor engineering techniques. Putting into reality the idea of the 'intelligent building' will become one of the most interesting assignments of Polish building industry in the rapidly approaching XXI century. The term 'intelligent building' first appeared in the eighties. The idea behind this conception is aspiring to create a friendly, work supporting, effective environment. The revolution in telecommunications and information technology along with change in the standards of office work, have caused computer networks and modem systems of automation and protection, to invade buildings. From the technical point of view, an intelligent building is an object in which all the subsystems co-operate with each other, forming a friendly environment for man. For users of an intelligent building, the most important issue is realisation of the following aims: object management which includes both control of human resources and automation systems in the building and also efficient management of the building space in such a way that the costs of its utilisation are minimised. The possibility of optional installation of modern systems and equipment should be facilitated by the architecture itself. Therefore, the specifics of all the building elements should be taken into account right at the designing stage. The following features characterise an intelligent building: integration of telecommunication systems in the building, central management and supervision system and utilisation of structural cabling as the carrier of signals controlling most of the systems in the building. Presently, there is no building in Poland that could be characterised by the three features mentioned.
keywords High-tech Architecture, Ecology, CAAD
series eCAADe
email zarnow@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 1873
authors Ji, Guohua and Feng, Jinlong
year 1999
title Structural Approach to the Organization of Information: A Teaching Experiment at SEU
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 153-159
summary Design studio still plays a very important role in architectural design education today since teachers and students can exchange their thinking directly. In the whole teaching/learning process, there are a lot of information to be exchanged between the teachers and the students. How to organize the information and record the whole teaching/learning process is very interesting to us. The increasing use of CAD raises some problems with its advantages when the amount of compute-files becomes very big and they are in different formats. In the third year design studio teaching in the academic year 1998/99 at Department of Architecture in Southeast University, we try to use WWW techniques and features to organise the design information. We try to integrate the teaching programme, the project information, the reference material and the students' work together, to record and monitor the teaching process. Since the teaching programme is clearly organised, we could use some strategies and ideas to control the organisation of file storage and presentation. It creates the basis for the further development of applying network to aid the studio teaching.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/09/05 07:21

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 6476
authors Maver, T., Petric, J., Ennis, G. and Lindsay, M.
year 2000
title Visiting The Virtual City
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 135-139
summary In 1999, the city of Glasgow in Scotland, celebrated the honour of being the UK City of Architecture and Design. The same year saw the successful launch, on the Internet, of a fully interactive virtual experience of the city. This paper describes the evolution and functionality of vrglasgow over the last 10 years and anticipates its future development over the next 5 years. Currently the system comprises the VRML topography, the road network and the 3-D geometry of around 10,000 buildings within the city centre. The visitor to the virtual city to navigate and search under a range of headings for items of interest and experience some of Glasgow’s best architecture. Data from a number of information sources are interlinked and made accessible through VRML as well as through the conventional internet modes such as lists, tables and search engines. Consequently, the visitor can explore the city intuitively.
keywords 3D City modeling
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 473d
authors Maver, Tom and Petric, Jelena
year 1999
title Virtual Heritage: Is There a Future for the Past?
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 482-487
summary This paper attempts an overview of the contribution which emerging information technologies - viz CAD, Multimedia, Virtual Reality and the Internet - can make to the presentation, understanding and preservation of the rich architectural heritage which exists (pro-term) in almost every cultural context. In the UK, the growing interest in sites such as Stonehenge has, through the threat of greater physical presence, increasingly kept the public at bay - a curious paradox which Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to address. Virtual Reality (-an overly used and underly understood term-) is an information technology which can provide a convincing experience of environments which: i) exist, but are too remote, costly or hazardous, to visit. ii) don't yet exist but are planned, such as architectural designs or urban plans. iii) never will exist, other than in the imagination. iv) existed in the past and are now threatened or already lost. // This paper has its focus on the latter category, i.e. what is now becoming known as Virtual Heritage (VH), but it puts VH in the context of the broader spectrum of simulated experiences of past, present and future environments of cultural significance. The paper draws largely on the work of ABACUS, the Architecture and Building Aids Computer Unit, Strathclyde. The examples of the application of IT to VH include: i) a virtual reality experience of Historic Scotland's premier historical site: Skara Brae, the most complete neolithic settlement in Northern Europe. ii) a multimedia CD-ROM featuring some 50 of the most wonderful interiors of Glasgow's architectural treasures. iii) a computer based archive of rare and normally inaccessible 17C and 18C drawings of Scottish buildings from three seminal sources. iv) a massive 3-D model of Glasgow (some 10,000 buildings located on the hilly terrain of the city), which is now accessible on the Internet. // The paper concludes with conjectures based on the examples given of how emerging information technologies can help secure a future for the past.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id db35
authors Schmitt, G.
year 1999
title Information Architecture: Basics of CAAD and its future
source Basel: Birkhaeuser
summary With increasing intensity, CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) is determining the daily work of today's architectural offices. Computers allow complex designs to be visualised and altered with great speed and accuracy; three-dimensional models can be created with simulation and animation possibilities, and links to the World Wide Web provide access to a flow of information. The author develops his thesis that these aspects do not just enable the creative process to be optimised in a quantitative sense but also qualitatively. Alongside the spatial and time dimensions, the new electronic possibilities provide a fifth dimension in architecture.
series other
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 693f
authors Schmitt, G.
year 1999
title Basis and Future of CAAD
source Birkhauser, Basel.
summary The IT Revolution in Architecture; a small new series, reflecting on the effects the virtual dimension is having on architects and architecutre in general. In this edition Schmitt illustrates a number of aspects of the territory of CAAD, and demonstrates how this pool of information accumlated in the data basis could be exploited and elaborated as the "5th" dimension of architecture.
series other
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ń either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Đ seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ga0015
id ga0015
authors Daru, R., Vreedenburgh, E. and Scha, R.
year 2000
title Architectural Innovation as an evolutionary process
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Traditionally in art and architectural history, innovation is treated as a history of ideas of individuals (pioneers), movements and schools. The monograph is in that context one of the most used forms of scientific exercise. History of architecture is then mostly seen as a succession of dominant architectural paradigms imposed by great architectural creators fighting at the beginning against mainstream establishment until they themselves come to be recognised. However, there have been attempts to place architectural innovation and creativity in an evolutionary perspective. Charles Jencks for example, has described the evolution of architectural and art movements according to a diagram inspired by ecological models. Philip Steadman, in his book "The Evolution of Designs. Biological analogy in architecture and the applied arts" (1979), sketches the history of various biological analogies and their impact on architectural theory: the organic, classificatory, anatomical, ecological and Darwinian or evolutionary analogies. This last analogy "explains the design of useful objects and buildings, particularly in primitive society and in the craft tradition, in terms of a sequence of repeated copyings (corresponding to inheritance), with small changes made at each stage ('variations'), which are then subjected to a testing process when the object is put into use ('selection')." However, Steadman has confined his study to a literature survey as the basis of a history of ideas. Since this pioneering work, new developments like Dawkins' concept of memes allow further steps in the field of cultural evolution of architectural innovation. The application of the concept of memes to architectural design has been put forward in a preceding "Generative Art" conference (Daru, 1999), showing its application in a pilot study on the analysis of projects of and by architectural students. This first empirical study is now followed by a study of 'real life' architectural practice. The case taken has a double implication for the evolutionary analogy. It takes a specific architectural innovative concept as a 'meme' and develops the analysis of the trajectory of this meme in the individual context of the designer and at large. At the same time, the architect involved (Eric Vreedenburgh, Archipel Ontwerpers) is knowledgeable about the theory of memetic evolution and is applying a computer tool (called 'Artificial') together with Remko Scha, the authoring computer scientist of the program who collaborates frequently with artists and architects. This case study (the penthouse in Dutch town planning and the application of 'Artificial') shall be discussed in the paper as presented. The theoretical and methodological problems of various models of diffusion of memes shall be discussed and a preliminary model shall be presented as a framework to account for not only Darwinian but also Lamarckian processes, and for individual as well as collective transmission, consumption and creative transformation of memes.
keywords evolutionary design, architectural innovation, memetic diffusion, CAAD, penthouses, Dutch design, creativity, Darwinian and Lamarckian processes
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id a25e
authors Loy, Hollis A.
year 1999
title Foundation for a Thorough CAAD Education
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 301-308
summary The birth and development of computing is considered by most as one of the greatest technological achievements of the twentieth century. Since the integration of computers in the built environment, over two decades ago, computing methods developed into efficient designing and calculating tools. In contrast, accelerating advancements in computing technology have created generation gaps amongst architects. There are inexperienced, novice, intermediate and advanced computer-capable architects. If each group was asked to define CAAD, some would still describe it as a computer program for technical draughting. Others may define CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) as a vast array of digital media in CAD, multimedia and DTP, assisting architects in compiling visual presentations. Currently, most architectural schools are capable of instructing most, if not all, facets of CAAD (2D & 3D CAD, model rendering, photo montage, brochure layouts, etc.). However, this knowledge is accumulated at random throughout the course of study. "Computer Graphics for Architects" is the latest educational development in Europe bridging generation gaps with senior architects and serving as an introductory CAAD seminar to beginning architecture students. This book and lecture presents a gallery of recent architectural CAD, multimedia, and DTP presentations practiced in Europe´s second largest architectural firm. The terminology is user-friendly and its content concentrates on responding to the most often posed questions by CAAD beginners relating to: (1) Terminology (2) Appearance (3) Time Consumption (4) Cost Techniques introduced are independent of any platform. The goal is to summarize quickly and effectively the countless possibilities of presentations applicable in architecture practice. "Computer Graphics for Architects" provides a direction for future presentations and motivates students to excel in CAAD.
series eCAADe
email Loy.In.Germany@t-online.de
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id becb
authors Anders, Peter
year 1999
title Electronic Extension: Some implications of cyberspace for the practice of architecture
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 276-289
summary This white-paper builds upon previous research to present hybrids of electronic and physical spaces as extensions of current design practice. It poses an hypothetical project - a hybrid of physical and cyberspaces - to be developed through an extrapolation of current architectural practice by fully exploiting new information technologies. The hybrid's attributes not only affect the scope of development but the very activities of the design team and client during - and after - deployment. The entire life cycle of the project is affected by its dual material and media presence. The paper concludes by discussing the effect the hybrid - here called a "cybrid" - on the occupant, and its local and global communities. It reviews the economics, administration, marketing, operation, flexibility, and extension of the project to assess its effects on these scales. The conclusions are provisional owing to the youth of the technologies. However, in laying out these issues, the author hopes to begin a discussion on effects computation will have on our built environment.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id bbb9
authors Blaise, Jean-Yves and Dudek, Iwona
year 1999
title SOL: Spatial and Historical Web-Based Interface for On Line Architectural Documentation of Krakow's Rynek Gowny
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 700-707
summary Our paper presents recent developments of a co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France), specialised in computer science and the HAiKZ Institute of Krakow's Faculty of Architecture, specialised in architectural heritage and conservation. Before undertaking any action to a listed building or interventions in its neighbourhood, it is vital to gain a clear understanding of the building in question. Numerous heterogeneous data detained by diverse institutions has to be handled. This process can be greatly eased by enhanced classification of the information. The development we present is a multidisciplinary platform independent information tool dedicated to education and research. SOL uses an http protocol centred computer architecture connecting a relational database, a VRML 2.0 representation module and a web search interface. It allows searches and updating of the database through a standard text based interface, a VRML 2.0 graphical module and a thematic interface. SOL is experienced on the urban fabric of the Main Square (Rynek Gówny) in Kraków. The choice of a web-centred development, both in the search and updating interface and in the representation module provides platform independence and distant access to the database, and enables successive contributions of students or researchers.
keywords Web Interface, Database, Architectural Heritage Environment, Information Module, Historical Evolutions
series eCAADe
email jyb@gamsau.archi.fr, idu@gamsau.archi.fr
more http://alberti.gamsau.archi.fr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 6e36
authors Castańé, Dora
year 1999
title Documentation and Patrimony. The Digital Era: A Channel for Memory Recovery
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 451-457
summary The end of the millennium with its new digital technology is contributing important tools to the area of documentation and historical patrimony those of us who support the preservation of memories think that a very important way of personalizing and strengthening our identity is to provide to those who inhabit the city with heightened awareness towards the values of our past. The revitalization requires that the patrimony in itself be valued. At the same time, it necessitates the preparation of a great amount of information utilizing cataloguing, research databases, and other materials be accessible to all citizens. This piece of work shares the different digital data base experiences that are being developed in the CEDODAL foundation art and latinamerican architecture (center for documentation), which is under the direction of the architect Ramon Gutierrez, a research services organization, and diverse higher education institutions (universities). Four bases are introduced, each with different thought and criterion structures in the definition of fields as well as in their dynamic visualizations. Each of them possesses great quantities of digital images, blue prints, and texts. In three of those bases, the data is the output from teams of researchers in different topics through special arrangements with Santa Fe's provincial water), Fonart, and city government. At the same time, the CEDODAL catalogues its documentaries with great quantities of photographic information, blue prints, research passages, and a library.
series SIGRADI
email dcastane@impsat1.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 9cab
authors Coomans, M.K.D.
year 1999
title A Virtual Reality User Interface for a Design Information System, CCAI: the Journal for the Integrated Study of Artificial Intelligence
source Cognitive Science and Applied Epistemology, Rijks Universiteit Gent
summary The computer is a tool, a complex artefact that is used to extend our reach. A computer system can provide several kinds of services, but against these services stands a supplementary task that the user must deal with: the communication with the computer system. We argued that Virtual Reality (VR) can fundamentally improve the user interface by rendering on the common experiential skills of all users. We present the theoretical basis for this, referring to Donald Norman's theory. We show that VR provides at least theoretically, the means to take a big step in the direction of an ideal user interface. As an example of a innovative application of VR in user interface design, we presented the VR-DIS system; an interdisciplinary design system for the building and construction industry. We discuss the issues underlying the design of its VR interface.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 7dcd
authors Cotton B. and Oliver, R.
year 1999
title Understanding Hypermedia
source Phaidon Press Ltd, London
summary Understanding Hypermedia 2,000 is a wonderful read. It takes you on a journey tracing the origins of hypermedia from its very early beginings way back in the 1700's with the birth of print, all the way through to the modern new media revolution. It charts the developments in technology, culture, science and the arts to give you a very broad understanding of just what hypermedia is and where it came from. Looking to the future, Understanding Hypermedia looks at the components of hypermedia - interface design, typography, text, animation, video, vrml, etc -, the processes of designing and building new media projects - including examples from the web, cdrom and kiosks - and the future of the medium. From the hypermedia innovators to the visionaries of cyberspace. This book is a wonderful, rich and fasinating source of information and inspiration for anyone interested in or working with new media today.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2f1a
authors Dabney, M.K., Wright, J.C. and Sanders, D.H.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality and the Future of Publishing Archaeological Excavations: the multimedia publication of the prehistoric settlement on Tsoungiza at Ancient Nemea
source New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
summary The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is a study of settlement and land use in a regional valley system in Greece extending from the Upper Paleolithic until the present. Active field research was conducted by four teams between 1981 and 1990. The first component was a regional archaeological survey. Second, and closely related to the first, was a social anthropological study of modern settlement and land use. Next was a team assigned to excavate the succession of prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza. Last, historical ecologists, a palynologist, and a geologist formed the environmental component of the research. As a result of advances in electronic publishing, plans for the final publication of the Nemea Valley Archaeological Project have evolved. Complete publication of the excavation of the prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza will appear in an interactive multimedia format on CD/DVD in Fall 2000. This project is planned to be the first electronic publication of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. We have chosen to publish in electronic format because it will meet the needs and interests of a wider audience, including avocational archaeologists, advanced high school and college students, graduate students, and professional archaeologists. The multimedia format on CD/DVD will permit the inclusion of text, databases, color and black-and-white images, two and three-dimensional graphics, and videos. This publication is being developed in cooperation with Learning Sites, Inc., which specializes in interactive three-dimensional reconstructions of ancient worlds http://www.learningsites.com. The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is particularly well prepared for the shift towards electronic publishing because the project's field records were designed for and entered in computer databases from the inception of the project. Attention to recording precise locational information for all excavated objects enables us to place reconstructions of objects in their reconstructed architectural settings. Three-dimensional images of architectural remains and associated features will appear both as excavated and as reconstructed. Viewers will be able to navigate these images through the use of virtual reality. Viewers will also be able to reference all original drawings, photographs, and descriptions of the reconstructed architecture and objects. In this way a large audience will be able to view architectural remains, artifacts, and information that are otherwise inaccessible.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 762b
authors De Paoli, Giovanni and Bogdan, Marius
year 1999
title The Front of the Stage of Vitruvius' Roman Theatre - A new Approach of Computer Aided Design that Transforms Geometric Operators to Semantic Operators
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 321-333
summary The driving force of all researches where the systems of computation are used, is the utilization of an intelligent method for the representation of building. The use of computer, in design process, is often limited to technical functions (tekhne), and what one usually calls computer-aided design is often no more than computer-aided drawing. In this research paper we continue a reflection on the architect's work methods, and suggest an approach to design based on the semantic properties of the object (i.e. semantic operators), rather than by geometric operators. We propose a method of computer aid design using procedural models where the initial state of design is vague and undefined. We operate from a paradigm that leads to represent a building by means of parametric functions that, expressed algorithmically, give a procedural model to facilitate the design process. This approach opens new avenues that would permit to add the logos (semantic properties) and lead to a metaphorical representation. By means of procedural models, we show that, from a generic model we can produce a four dimensional model that encapsulate a volumetric model with semantic characteristics. We use a meta-functional language that allows us to model the actions and encapsulate detailed information about various building elements. This descriptive mechanism is extremely powerful. It helps to establish relations between the functions, contributes to a better understanding of the project's aim, and encapsulates the building properties by recalling characteristics of common classes which give rise to a new configuration and a completely original design. The scientific result of this experiment is the understanding and confirmation of the hypothesis that it is possible to encapsulate, by means of computing process, the links between design moves during conceptual and figural decisions and transform the geometric operators in semantic operators.
keywords Architecture, CAD, Function, Modeling, Semantic Operator, Geometric Operator
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

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