CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 9e26
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen,
year 1999
title The right tool at the right time : investigation of freehand drawing as an interface to knowledge based design tools
source College of Architecture, Georgia Institute of Technology
summary Designers use different symbols and configurations in their drawings to explore alternatives and to communicate with each other. For example, when thinking about spatial arrangements, they draw bubble diagrams; when thinking about natural lighting, they draw a sun symbol and light rays. Given the connection between drawings and thinking, one should be able infer design intentions from a drawing and ultimately use such inferences to program a computer to understand our drawings. This dissertation reports findings from empirical studies on drawings and explores the possibility of using the computer to automatically infer designer's concerns from the drawings a designer makes. This dissertation consists of three parts: 1) a literature review of design studies, cognitive studies of drawing and computational sketch systems, and a set of pilot projects; 2) empirical studies of diagramming design intentions and a design drawing experiment; and 3) the implementation of a prototype system called Right-Tool-Right-Time. The main goal is to find out what is in design drawings that a computer program should be able to recognize and support. Experiments were conducted to study the relation between drawing conventions and the design tasks with which they are associated. It was found from the experiments that designers use certain symbols and configurations when thinking about certain design concerns. When thinking about allocating objects or spaces with a required dimensions, designers wrote down numbers beside the drawing to reason xviii about size and to calculate dimensions. When thinking about visual analysis, designers drew sight lines from a view point on a floor plan. Based on the recognition that it is possible to associate symbols and spatial arrangements in a drawing with a designer's intention, or task context, the second goal is to find out whether a computer can be programed to recognize these drawing conventions. Given an inferred intention and context, a program should be able to activate appropriate design tools automatically. For example, concerns about visual analysis can activate a visual simulation program, and number calculations can activate a calculator. The Right- Tool-Right-Time prototype program demonstrates how a freehand sketching system that infers intentions would support the automatic activation of different design tools based on a designers' drawing acts.
series thesis:PhD
email ellendo@cmu.edu
more http://www.arch.gatech.edu/~ellen/thesis.html
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 89bb
authors Ataman, Osman and Richey, Thomas
year 1999
title ArchiDATA: A Hypermedia Tool for Architecture
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 496-500
summary Design is a cooperative activity at several levels. At one level, clients, architects, financiers, and construction engineers and contractors, all play important roles in creating the design for the building. At another level, the design team may contain architects, interior and landscape designers, lighting experts, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning experts, etc. At a third level, individual architects cooperate with computer-based design tools in creating portions of a complex design. This paper describes an ongoing project called ArchiDATA, in which we are developing a computational Case-Based Design Aid (CBDA) for architectural design. This project, which is collaboration between cognitive scientists and architectural researchers, builds on an artificial intelligence paradigm called case-based reasoning and work in post-occupancy evaluation and other case study research in architecture.
series SIGRADI
email ataman@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id e15c
authors Bartenbach, Christian and Witting, Walter
year 1999
title VDU WORK IN DIFFERENT LIGHTING CONDITIONS
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 7-28
summary In order to avoid the disadvantages of purely subjective methods in a technical evaluation of daylight and artificial light systems, the Bartenbach LichtLabor developed new test methods which can determine objectively and quantitatively the visual or psycho-physiological stress connected with VDU work [1], depending on different lighting conditions. Daylight and artificial lighting systems were tested with these methods and compared by using the performances achieved by the test subjects. Some highly significant differences in performance done under the individual lighting systems became apparent and demonstrated that the visual stress or the physical or physiological fatigue from an ergonomic viewpoint depends largely on the lighting conditions at the workplace. This holds true for daylight systems (glare protection, re-directing lamellae, clear window as a control condition) as well as for purely artificial lighting systems where especially the choice of color temperature of the light and the used control gear (conventional or electronic) determine the resulting performance. Optimized lighting also positively affects the productivity and economicy for the design of workplaces that take the human factor into account.
keywords VDU, Optimized Lighting, Performance Test, Lighting System, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:27

_id b4d2
authors Caldas, Luisa G. and Norford, Leslie K.
year 1999
title A Genetic Algorithm Tool for Design Optimization
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 260-271
summary Much interest has been recently devoted to generative processes in design. Advances in computational tools for design applications, coupled with techniques from the field of artificial intelligence, have lead to new possibilities in the way computers can inform and actively interact with the design process. In this paper we use the concepts of generative and goal-oriented design to propose a computer tool that can help the designer to generate and evaluate certain aspects of a solution towards an optimized behavior of the final configuration. This work focuses mostly on those aspects related to the environmental performance of the building. Genetic Algorithms are applied as a generative and search procedure to look for optimized design solutions in terms of thermal and lighting performance in a building. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is first used to generate possible design solutions, which are then evaluated in terms of lighting and thermal behavior using a detailed thermal analysis program (DOE2.1E). The results from the simulations are subsequently used to further guide the GA search towards finding low-energy solutions to the problem under study. Solutions can be visualized using an AutoLisp routine. The specific problem addressed in this study is the placing and sizing of windows in an office building. The same method is applicable to a wide range of design problems like the choice of construction materials, design of shading elements, or sizing of lighting and mechanical systems for buildings.
series ACADIA
email lcaldas@mit.edu
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id groot_ddssar0221
id groot_ddssar0221
authors De Groot, E.H.
year 1999
title Integrated Lighting System Assistant
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary The aim of the design project described in this thesis is to design a tool to support the building design process. Developing a design is considered to be a wicked problem because it goes beyond reasonable or predictable limits. Consequently, in this design project we address two wicked problems simultaneously: a double wicked problem. The two wicked problems concerned are the design of Design Decision Support System [DDSS] and the conceptual design of office lighting systems. To get a handle on the first wicked problem, two workshops were organised to meet the possible future users and to create a common basis for the tool to be developed. To tackle the wickedness of the second problem, an office lighting model and performance evaluation method were developed and implemented in a new prototype computer system: Integrated Lighting System Assistant [ILSA]. The workshops have proven to be a good source of feedback and an essential link to daily practice. The ILSA prototype shows that it is possible to implement the lighting model and evaluation method into a working prototype that can support architects in making decisions for the early design stage in the field of integrating daylight and artificial lighting.
series thesis:PhD
more http://www.bwk.tue.nl/fago/AIO/ellie/
last changed 2003/12/16 06:16

_id c14a
authors Huang, Hsu-Jen
year 1999
title Computer Daylight Simulation Systems: An Experimental Evaluation
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 115-120
summary This paper investigates Daylight Simulation Systems in computer visualization programs. Computer visualization has provided qualitative appearance in architectural presentation. There are two aspects, one objective and another subjective, that should be considered in lighting simulation. The objective aspect is concerned with accurate prediction of daylight levels. The subjective aspect is associated with the evaluation of lighting quality. The objective aspect of lighting has often been neglected by visualization designers during the process of simulation. The relevant concepts of lighting to ensure accurate simulation techniques have been defined in order to highlight and resolve the dilemma of accurate lighting visualization. The interactive relationship between material simulation and lighting simulation has also been investigated. In addition, there is a discussion to determine how realistic and artistic the current approaches on lighting simulation are for architectural design presentation. This paper has attempted to provide guidance for the future development of visualization programs and information on innovative ways to accommodate computer visualization for architectural usage and needs.
series SIGRADI
email huanghj@aol.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id 4ae8
authors Kokosalakis, Jen, Hohmann, L.M. and Pamplin, I.
year 1999
title Benefits of Data Integration in Building Modelling: 3D Object Oriented Professional Collaboration
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 103-130
summary This paper will review current progress across the building construction industry in meeting demands for use of data integration with the 3D building model as the coordinating device in building design and development. Decades of national initiatives from NEDO (1990) to Egan (1998) have striven to encourage collaboration in first the building design team and later targetting in programmas the means to accomplish this. In its 14th year 'The User Group' has intensified efforts to persuade the industry of the benefits of associating all data involved from the first briefing and conception of design needs and ideas, through the development of the design, testing for structures, costs, heating, lighting, urban and rural environmental impact, facilities management, adaptation and even the eventual controlled demolition of the building. Examples in this paper will be reported from 'The User Group' conference, "Profit from Data Integration: An industry update", (NEC, Birmingham, Nov. 1998), to indicate how various organisations are now profiting from data integration in 3D object orientated modelling.
series AVOCAAD
email j.kokosalakis@livjm.ac.uk, Imh@globalnet.co.uk, ian@pamplinass.source.co.uk
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id de8c
authors Martens, Bob
year 1999
title MAKING LIGHT TANGIBLE: SIMULATION OF LIGHT DESIGN WITHIN ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 1-6
summary In times where computer-assisted representations dominate the “market” of visual simulation, the major strongholds of simulation in true size in conveying (artificial) light configurations have been observed. Though light cannot be “touched” due to its material absence the human eye reacts extremely sensitively to differing constellations. In matters of seconds differences are perceived and classified. Opening up a rift between the various simulation techniques, however, would not prove wise. The normal procedure still consists of trial positioning of lighting objects on site (i.e.: 1:1 simulation at building site). Regarding the effort this causes attempts as to gaining similar results by means of (partial) computer representations are worth considering. The degree of abstraction, however, might be too significant to make for conclusive decisions. In other words: Can the gap between imagination and translation thereof into reality be bridged? This contribution deals with the experimental implementation of artificial light in the full-scale lab and its possibilities regarding the 1:1 simulation at the Vienna University of Technology, with special attention to the didactic aspects related thereto.
keywords Lighting Design, Full-scale Modeling, Architectural Education, Simulation Dome, Visual Simulation, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2004/05/04 09:28

_id f813
authors Martens, Bob (Ed.)
year 1999
title Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light
source Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5 / Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, 100 p.
summary EFA ‘ 99 covered the use of light throughout 1:1 simulation. As a rule the field of light design has a closer relation with simulation in true scale. Therefore, it is surprising that a conference dealing with this field did not take place at an earlier stage which might be due to the differing approaches concerning implementation and working focus at the various laboratories. The remarkable achievements of the individual lighting companies on the market regarding research work seem very promising and necessarily are to be duly acknowledged also on the part of academic circles. Furthermore, a productive exchange of information might develop between the, somewhat incompatibly seeming, interest groups. More interaction would surely prove wise, as the stage for successful research work in the field of light design and light impact is only to be set by combining all strengths.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id 02dc
authors Ng, E.N., Poh, L.K., Wei, W. and Nagakura, T.
year 1999
title Advanced Lighting Simulation in Architectural Design in the Tropics
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 429-441
summary This paper outlines a two years research program that the team attempted to apply one of the most powerful computational lighting simulation software RADIANCE to assist in daylighting design of an actual building in the tropics. The validation studies, which were carried out in the Asian Civilisation Museum (ACM) in Singapore, show that Radiance can be used to predict the internal illuminance with a high degree of accuracy under overcast sky conditions without external obstruction. The experimental application of Radiance to daylighting investigation of the ACM further supports its capabilities as well as its accuracy. Using Radiance to study two daylighting control options (curtains and louvers), it can be found that louvers are more effective than curtains as daylighting control devices, and that the angle of the louvers has more effect than their reflectance on daylight penetration and distribution.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/01/13 11:36

_id dbd8
authors Peter Kardos
year 1999
title The light and colour significance in urban environment perception
source Simulation of Architectural Space - Color and Light, Methods and Effects [Proceedings of the 4rd European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-86005-267-5] Dresden (Germany), 29 September - 1 October 1999, pp. 50-56
summary My contribution deals with light and colour effects in wider dimensions of architecture. It analyses their significance in urban environment perception from the application aspect of progressive tools of its forming and creative completion, i.e. the perceptual homomorphous iconic simulations in laboratory conditions. The work focuses on questions of light and colour perception, showing several principles and phenomena valid in visual perception systems. The structure of the perceived picture is interpreted in its four components: colour, motion, form and spaciousness. Each of the components is shown with relevant biological reactions and their reflections in subjective perception processes. The selected image examples document some manifestations of urbanistic structures and spaces experience transformation in natural and artificial lighting conditions. The emphasis of my contribution lies on some demonstrations from the laboratory experiment in investigating the illumination and colour influence on the architectural design quality, and on examples of alternative methods of visual interpretation on endoscopic modelling simulation outputs. The conclusion of my work formulates some knowledge and statement of objective colour and light modelling simulation assets in architectural design quality.
series EAEA
email kardos@fastu.fa.stuba.sk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id eb7a
authors Porada, Mikhael
year 1999
title Virtual Analogy and Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 69-73
summary Our fashion of thought is dialogic in its way to use simultaneously logic- mathematics and analogical approaches (Morin, 1986). The analogy works as well at the level of the unconscious by the construction of an analogon that permits us to recognise a face between thousand of others, despite changes intervened in time; as consciously where by an effort of constructive analogy, we establish bridges between different events or domains giving to the design a new lighting that puts it on the way to a solution. For this reason visual approach acquires a great importance in the establishment of similitude in conception. Many testimonies of scientists, philosophers, artists confirm this observation about their creative work, while underlining the danger of no founded analogies. In current life, analogy brings a support of likeness to the daily conversations, and the possibility to advance in the dialogue by a chaining of analogies having for objective to strengthen the speech.
series eCAADe
email Michel.Porada@evcau.archi.fr
last changed 2003/04/01 16:57

_id f851
authors Ramasubramanian, Pattanaik and Greenberg
year 1999
title A perceptually based physical error metric for realistic image synthesis
source Alyn Rockwood, editor, SIGGRAPH 99 Conference Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, ACM SIGGRAPH, Addison Wesley
summary We introduce a new concept for accelerating realistic image synthesis algorithms. At the core of this procedure is a novel physical error metric that correctly predicts the perceptual threshold for detecting artifacts in scene features. Built into this metric is a computational model of the human visual system's loss of sensitivity at high background illumination levels, high spatial frequencies, and high contrast levels (visual masking). An important feature of our model is that it handles the luminance-dependent processing and spatiallydependent processing independently. This allows us to precompute the expensive spatially-dependent component, making our model extremely efficient. We illustrate the utility of our procedure with global illumination algorithms used for realistic image synthesis. The expense of global illumination computations is many orders of magnitude higher than the expense of direct illumination computations and can greatly benefit by applying our perceptually based technique. Results show our method preserves visual quality while achieving significant computational gains in areas of images with high frequency texture patterns, geometric details, and lighting variations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 19a8
authors Schultz, Volkher
year 1999
title A DIDACTIC CONCEPT FOR TRAINING ARCHITECTS AND INTERIOR DECORATORS
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 29-39
summary The 20th year anniversary of the Lichtlabor is used as an opportunity to look back. Two decades in a period of rapid technological development is a long time, during which furnishings pass or fail their trial period. The organizational structure of the Lichtlabor which includes lay-out and appliances has continually expanded since 1977 although the theoretical approach has not changed. Even the ideational structure of the Lichtlabor, without which an organizational structure would be worthless, has proved to be workable and effective as a didactic concept. This concept is based on the interdisciplinary midpoint between a technically (basic) understanding of light – a combination of abstract knowledge and experience gained – and its design-related application.
keywords Lighting Laboratory, Interior Design, Didactic Concept, Visual Comfort, Architectural Space, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:28

_id cfcd
authors Shaviv, E.
year 1999
title Integrating energy consciousness in the design process
source Automation in Construction 8 (4) (1999) pp. 463-472
summary The design process for an intelligent, energy conscious building which was built, along with the design tools that were applied, is presented. The building, situated in the hot–humid climate of Rehovot, Israel, houses the laboratories and offices of the Weizmann Institute's Environmental Science and Energy Research Department. Alternative bio-climatic design options were proposed and evaluated throughout the detailed design stage. A building energy performance index (BEPI) was established for each alternative. This index reflects the total amount of energy consumption for heating, cooling, ventilating and lighting used per square meter of floor area. Thermal modeling for the different design alternatives were carried out by means of an hourly dynamic simulation model. The model solves simultaneously the heat transfer equations through all exterior walls, taking into account the thermal mass of each external wall as well as internal partitions. The model was extended to include hourly calculations of daylighting and geometrical shading coefficient of the windows, as well as automated and `smart' control strategies.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id f02e
authors Traverso, Giovanni and Vighy, Paola
year 1999
title FULL-SCALE MODELING FOR THE LIGHTING DESIGN OF A NEW PAVILION AT THE VENICE BIENNALE
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 51-56
summary The research which is presented in this paper is related to a lighting topic and part of an architectural project for a pavilion at the Biennale of Venice, used for modern art exhibitions. The building is located along a Venetian canal: the roof form is curved in a way to allow daylight, reflected by the water, to penetrate in the lower part of the building, determining the atmosphere for the sculpture exhibition. In the upper part of the building, where the rooms have a barrel-shaped roof, we want to provide good diffuse lighting to emphasise the quality of the materials and colors of paintings. Starting point is a study of lighting techniques related to a temporary exhibition of modern art. Special attention will be paid to some considerations concerning the question of conservation, the integration of artificial lighting and daylighting, the modeling effects of light and its color performance as well as the effect of light. The study has been carried out testing (full-) scale models in the Lighting Laboratory at the University College of London.
keywords Lighting Techniques, Full-scale Experiments, Daylight Control, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email traverso@keycomm.it
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:29

_id c041
authors Vakalo, E., Malkawi, A.M. and Emdanat, S.S.
year 1999
title An AI-based shell for linking thermal and form-making considerations
source Automation in Construction 8 (4) (1999) pp. 455-462
summary Over the past few years, our team has developed several computer-based models in the areas of architectural form-making and thermal analysis. These programs were designed to deal with specific problems and use a range of techniques including machine vision, knowledge-based systems, and artificial intelligence techniques. Recently, a project that integrates these systems was initiated. Its objective is to design an intelligent computer shell that forms the basis for this integration in the domain of architecture. The paper discusses the development of the shell and its use to analyze and study architectural form and its determinants. The shell accommodates modules that link the morphological structure of architectural design with more of its determinants (e.g., structural, acoustical, and lighting considerations, as well as code requirements). The paper presents and discusses the background of the shell, its structure, its methods of knowledge representation, and an example of its use.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 5f23
authors Vineeta, Pal
year 1999
title Integrated Computational Analysis of the Visual Environment in Buildings
source Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
summary Despite significant advances in the area of computational support for lighting design, lighting simulation tools have not been sufficiently integrated into the lighting design process. There is a significant body of designers who rely solely on their individual experience and do not use predictive simulation tools. Even when simulation tools are utilized, it is for design verification or presentation rather than for design support. A number of factors are thought to contribute to this lack of integration of simulation tools into the design process: a) Most existing tools rely on the problematic assumption implying the appropriateness of simplified models for the less complex early design and detailed simulation for the more complex later stages of design; b) They do not support an active exploration of design variables to satisfy desired performance criteria; c) They are not integrated with other building performance simulation models. This thesis addresses the above shortcomings by contributing to the field of visual analysis in the following areas, pertaining to the development of active, integrated design and performance simulation environments: - Implementation of a consistent and coherent, physically-based modeling approach, combining radiosity and ray-tracing methods for the simulation of light propagation. - Provision of design support both in terms of evaluation support for interpreting large amounts of computed data with diverse performance indices, and in terms of active design support to explore the relationships between the design variables and performance indices. - Integration of the lighting simulation module within a larger software environment (SEMPER) for the prediction and evaluation of multiple performance indicators (for energy, light, acoustics, etc.) in buildings.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 21c8
authors Bargiela, Beatriz and Bausset, Raúl Abad
year 1999
title Sistemas multimediales aplicados a la arquitectura y su conocimiento (Multimedia Systems Applied to Architecture and its Knowledge Base)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 186-191
summary This text makes a careful description of a great part of the components of the vocabulary of architecture and their syntax. It's structured in two parts, one textual and the other graphic. Due to the acknowledged contribution of the author on the subject of description of vocabulary of the elements of architecture and the research and development works that are entered upon in the master in computer graphics in the informatic field, it was proposed the development of an interactive system that allowed by means of links to connect the different parts of text and their respective graphics. Having as a basis the idiomatic equivalent term in Spanish and English, carried out in another research work, it was considered the possibility to link the text in these two languages besides the original one, french. That's why we've decided to propose the navigation through numeric text and images. This navigation has been already inferred from the reading of the text as intended from the author's that was why our task has been the interpretation of this intention and its translation in an informatic system. The product presented in this work is limited to having designed a methodology and showing its performance with some terms and images, able to make evident the sketch of our idea. The work is made out of the description of the following phases: 1.) Design of its interface; 2.) Compilation and classification of images compilation and classification of text; 3.) Coordination of textual and graphic elements; 4.) Programming of events in the interactive system.
series SIGRADI
email gidcad@ub.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 64e4
authors Boardman, Ted and Hubbell, Jeremy
year 1999
title Inside 3D Studio Max 3 Modeling, Materials and Rendering : Modeling, Materials, and Rendering
source New Riders Pub
summary Inside 3D Studio MAX 3 Modeling, Materials, and Rendering is the only in-depth guide dedicated to modeling, materials, and rendering with 3D Studio MAX. You go inside the advanced modeling, texturing, and rendering features of 3D Studio MAX and learn how to use these features to get professional results. Real-world tutorials, advanced tips, and insider tricks take you beyond the basics and help you master high-end techniques. The CD-ROM is loaded with MAX and AVI files, models, materials, and textures for polishing your skills with the book's tutorials.
series other
last changed 2003/02/26 17:58

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