CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 629

_id 68a8
authors Novitski, B. J. and Mitchell, William
year 1999
title Rendering Real and Imagined Buildings: The Art of Computer Modeling
source Rockport Publishers
summary Rendering Real and Imagined Buildings explores the world of buildings that were, that could have been or that are yet to be. Advances in architectural rendering programs on the computer can allow architects to explore unbuilt architecture, test structures, discover details, and see in 3-D what cannot be shown on paper. The book presents 27 buildings from an ancient temple to a house by Frank Lloyd Wright to an airport for the future.
series other
email novitski@architectureweek.com
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id ga0010
id ga0010
authors Moroni, A., Zuben, F. Von and Manzolli, J.
year 2000
title ArTbitrariness in Music
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Evolution is now considered not only powerful enough to bring about the biological entities as complex as humans and conciousness, but also useful in simulation to create algorithms and structures of higher levels of complexity than could easily be built by design. In the context of artistic domains, the process of human-machine interaction is analyzed as a good framework to explore creativity and to produce results that could not be obtained without this interaction. When evolutionary computation and other computational intelligence methodologies are involved, every attempt to improve aesthetic judgement we denote as ArTbitrariness, and is interpreted as an interactive iterative optimization process. ArTbitrariness is also suggested as an effective way to produce art through an efficient manipulation of information and a proper use of computational creativity to increase the complexity of the results without neglecting the aesthetic aspects [Moroni et al., 2000]. Our emphasis will be in an approach to interactive music composition. The problem of computer generation of musical material has received extensive attention and a subclass of the field of algorithmic composition includes those applications which use the computer as something in between an instrument, in which a user "plays" through the application's interface, and a compositional aid, which a user experiments with in order to generate stimulating and varying musical material. This approach was adopted in Vox Populi, a hybrid made up of an instrument and a compositional environment. Differently from other systems found in genetic algorithms or evolutionary computation, in which people have to listen to and judge the musical items, Vox Populi uses the computer and the mouse as real-time music controllers, acting as a new interactive computer-based musical instrument. The interface is designed to be flexible for the user to modify the music being generated. It explores evolutionary computation in the context of algorithmic composition and provides a graphical interface that allows to modify the tonal center and the voice range, changing the evolution of the music by using the mouse[Moroni et al., 1999]. A piece of music consists of several sets of musical material manipulated and exposed to the listener, for example pitches, harmonies, rhythms, timbres, etc. They are composed of a finite number of elements and basically, the aim of a composer is to organize those elements in an esthetic way. Modeling a piece as a dynamic system implies a view in which the composer draws trajectories or orbits using the elements of each set [Manzolli, 1991]. Nonlinear iterative mappings are associated with interface controls. In the next page two examples of nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces are shown.The mappings may give rise to attractors, defined as geometric figures that represent the set of stationary states of a non-linear dynamic system, or simply trajectories to which the system is attracted. The relevance of this approach goes beyond music applications per se. Computer music systems that are built on the basis of a solid theory can be coherently embedded into multimedia environments. The richness and specialty of the music domain are likely to initiate new thinking and ideas, which will have an impact on areas such as knowledge representation and planning, and on the design of visual formalisms and human-computer interfaces in general. Above and bellow, Vox Populi interface is depicted, showing two nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces. References [Manzolli, 1991] J. Manzolli. Harmonic Strange Attractors, CEM BULLETIN, Vol. 2, No. 2, 4 -- 7, 1991. [Moroni et al., 1999] Moroni, J. Manzolli, F. Von Zuben, R. Gudwin. Evolutionary Computation applied to Algorithmic Composition, Proceedings of CEC99 - IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, Washington D. C., p. 807 -- 811,1999. [Moroni et al., 2000] Moroni, A., Von Zuben, F. and Manzolli, J. ArTbitration, Las Vegas, USA: Proceedings of the 2000 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Workshop Program – GECCO, 143 -- 145, 2000.
series other
email artemis@ia.cti.br
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 8fe9
authors Terzidis, Kostas
year 1999
title Experiments on Morphing Systems
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 149-151
summary This paper presents recent experiments on 3D morphing of buildings. A genealogical tree is created out of cross-morphing buildings showing their children and grandchildren. The resulting children-buildings share characteristics of the formal properties of their parents. There are two methods used here to morph buildings: face-to-face mapping and object-to-object mapping. All morphed buildings are shown as real-time animation. A series of experiments will be presented. Some experiments investigate the implementation of architecture or art theories. For example, how would it look like to morph a Hedjuk building into a Le Corbusier building? How would the resulting child look like in a cubist world? Or how would a building look like as it is extrapolated beyond its target and instead of lines and points it is represented as letters and colors? The computer system that was developed by the author for this paper is called "zhapes" and is a Java-based 3D-experimentation system. It resides at the address http://www.cda.ucla.edu/caad/java/x/formProj2/formB.html where it can be downloaded for explorations.
series SIGRADI
email kostas@ucla.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id 7e51
authors Ucelli, G., Conti, G. and Af Klercker, J.
year 1999
title Visualisation: The Customer's Perception
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 539-544
summary Probably the most frustrating circumstance which might occur to an architect is to find out that his client is going to live for years in a house that is not like he expected it to be. Everybody has experienced to look at a picture of a place and after some time to go there and find out that the place is not according to his idea. This is due to the effectiveness of the media in representing the real space. During our experience we have tried to find out the way this effectiveness interferes in the relation between client and architect and how computer images can be effective in communicating the idea of architectural space. The problem of communication between designer and client rises when you notice that traditional graphic techniques (plans, sections, facades) are not enough understandable to make laypeople feel the real architectural space. And the unique answer to this problem has always been faced simply by leaving the architect understand the wishes of his client. During these last years though, computer techniques and multimedia tools have changed the way architects communicate their ideas.
keywords Perception, Computer Images, Rendering
series eCAADe
email gucelli@telegest.it, gconti@telegest.it, jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 48a7
authors Brooks
year 1999
title What's Real About Virtual Reality
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol. 19, no. 6, Nov/Dec, 27
summary As is usual with infant technologies, the realization of the early dreams for VR and harnessing it to real work has taken longer than the wild hype predicted, but it is now happening. I assess the current state of the art, addressing the perennial questions of technology and applications. By 1994, one could honestly say that VR "almost works." Many workers at many centers could doe quite exciting demos. Nevertheless, the enabling technologies had limitations that seriously impeded building VR systems for any real work except entertainment and vehicle simulators. Some of the worst problems were end-to-end system latencies, low-resolution head-mounted displays, limited tracker range and accuracy, and costs. The technologies have made great strides. Today one can get satisfying VR experiences with commercial off-the-shelf equipment. Moreover, technical advances have been accompanied by dropping costs, so it is both technically and economically feasible to do significant application. VR really works. That is not to say that all the technological problems and limitations have been solved. VR technology today "barely works." Nevertheless, coming over the mountain pass from "almost works" to "barely works" is a major transition for the discipline. I have sought out applications that are now in daily productive use, in order to find out exactly what is real. Separating these from prototype systems and feasibility demos is not always easy. People doing daily production applications have been forthcoming about lessons learned and surprises encountered. As one would expect, the initial production applications are those offering high value over alternate approaches. These applications fall into a few classes. I estimate that there are about a hundred installations in daily productive use worldwide.
series journal paper
email brooks@ai.mit.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4fa1
authors Lee, E., Ida, Y., Woo, S. and Sasada, T.
year 1999
title Environmental Design Using Fractals in Computer Graphics
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 533-538
summary Computer graphics have developed efficient techniques for visualisation of the real world. Many of the algorithms have a physical basis, such as computational models for the light and the shadow, models of real objects (buildings, mountains, roads and so on) and the simulation of natural phenomenon. Now computer graphics techniques provide the virtual world with a perception of three dimensions. The concept of the virtual world and its technology have been expanding and intensifying in recent years. Almost everything in the real world has been simulated in virtual world. When it comes to a terrain model, what we need is labour and time. But now it is possible to simulate terrain like the real world using fractals in computer graphics with a very small program and small data set. This study aims to show how to build a real world impression in the virtual world. In this paper the authors suggest a landscape design method and show the results of its application.
keywords Fractals, Polygon-Reduction, Computer Graphics, Virtual World, Collaboration
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 69f5
authors Chan, C., Maves, J. and Cruz-Neira, C.
year 1999
title An Electronic Library for Teaching Architectural History
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 335-344
summary This research project developed an electronic library of significant buildings chosen to represent seven selected periods of Western architectural history: Egyptian (Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut), Greek (Parthenon), Roman (Pantheon), Romanesque (Speyer Cathedral), Gothic (Notre Dame Cathedral), Renaissance (Tempietto), and Modern (Des Moines Art Center). All buildings were reconstructed in their original or intended forms based on plans, drawings, photographs, and historical texts. Two products were generated by this project: (1) materials to be displayed on the World Wide Web, including rendered still images for perception, movies for a visual guide, and Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) models for user navigation; and (2) virtual reality (VR) models to be displayed in the C2 (an improved version of the Cave Automatic Virtual Environment or CAVE facility). The benefits of these VR models displayed on the Web and in the C2 are their easy accessibility at any time from various geographic locations and the immersive experience that enhances viewersÌ understanding of the effects of spatial proportions on form and of colors on materials.
series CAADRIA
more http://archvr.design.iastate.edu/miller
last changed 2000/01/13 11:23

_id ga9921
id ga9921
authors Coates, P.S. and Hazarika, L.
year 1999
title The use of genetic programming for applications in the field of spatial composition
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Architectural design teaching using computers has been a preoccupation of CECA since 1991. All design tutors provide their students with a set of models and ways to form, and we have explored a set of approaches including cellular automata, genetic programming ,agent based modelling and shape grammars as additional tools with which to explore architectural ( and architectonic) ideas.This paper discusses the use of genetic programming (G.P.) for applications in the field of spatial composition. CECA has been developing the use of Genetic Programming for some time ( see references ) and has covered the evolution of L-Systems production rules( coates 1997, 1999b), and the evolution of generative grammars of form (Coates 1998 1999a). The G.P. was used to generate three-dimensional spatial forms from a set of geometrical structures .The approach uses genetic programming with a Genetic Library (G.Lib) .G.P. provides a way to genetically breed a computer program to solve a problem.G. Lib. enables genetic programming to define potentially useful subroutines dynamically during a run .* Exploring a shape grammar consisting of simple solid primitives and transformations. * Applying a simple fitness function to the solid breeding G.P.* Exploring a shape grammar of composite surface objects. * Developing grammarsfor existing buildings, and creating hybrids. * Exploring the shape grammar of abuilding within a G.P.We will report on new work using a range of different morphologies ( boolean operations, surface operations and grammars of style ) and describe the use of objective functions ( natural selection) and the "eyeball test" ( artificial selection) as ways of controlling and exploring the design spaces thus defined.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id f51a
authors Del Pup, Claudio
year 1999
title Carbon Pencil, Brush and Mouse, Three Tools in the Learning Process of New University Art Designers
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 420-425
summary This article develops the introduction of computer technologies in the fine arts environment the use of these new tools, sharing the process of creation and interacting at the same level with older technics, breaks the myth of technology and tries to reach the right place according to current or modern advances. As an introduction, it explains the insertion in the current courses of study of the "computer languages area", its implementation, present situation and future stages. An important point we have developed is the teaching methodology, to solve the transition of those who, challenging their investigations in different areas, like fire arts, graphic arts, film or video, need the support of computers. The first steps consist in designing sample courses, which allow the measurement of results, the definition of concepts like extension, capacities, teaching hours and the most important, a methodology to share the enthusiasm of creation with the difficulties of learning a new technique it is necessary to discover limits, to avoid easy results as a creative tool one of the most important problems we have faced is the necessity of coordinating the process of creation with the individual time of a plastic artist, finding the right way that allows the integration of all the group, minimizing desertion and losing of motivation. Two years later, the first results in the field of digital image investigations and assistance in form design. Volume as a challenge and solutions supported in techniques of modeling in 3D (experiences of modeling a virtual volume from a revolution profile, its particular facts and the parallelism with potter's lathe the handling of image as the most important element, as an work of art itself, but also as a support in the transmission of knowledge (design of a CD as a tool for the department of embryology of medical school with the participation of people from the medical school, engineering school and school of fine arts). Time as a variable, movement, animation and its techniques, multimedia (design of short videos for the 150th anniversary of the Republic University). Conclusions, good hits, adjustments, new areas to include, problems to solve, the way of facing a constantly evolving technology.
series SIGRADI
email claudio.delpup@quanam.com.uy
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id ga9916
id ga9916
authors Elzenga, R. Neal and Pontecorvo, Michael S.
year 1999
title Arties: Meta-Design as Evolving Colonies of Artistic Agents
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Meta-design, the act of designing a system or species of design instead of a design instance, is an important concept in modern design practice and in the generative design paradigm. For meta-design to be a useful tool, the designer must have more formal support for both design species definition/expression and the abstract attributes which the designer is attempting to embody within a design. Arties is an exploration of one possible avenue for supporting meta-design. Arties is an artistic system emphasizing the co-evolution of colonies of Artificial Life design or artistic agents (called arties) and the environment they inhabit. Generative design systems have concentrated on biological genetics metaphors where a population of design instances are evolved directly from a set of ‘parent’ designs in a succession of generations. In Arties, the a-life agent which is evolved, produces the design instance as a byproduct of interacting with its environment. Arties utilize an attraction potential curve as their primary dynamic. They sense the relative attraction of entities in their environment, using multiple sensory channels. Arties then associate an attractiveness score to each entity. This attractiveness score is combined with a 'taste' function built into the artie that is sensitized to that observation channel, entity, and distance by a transfer function. Arties use this attraction to guide decisions and behaviors. A community of arties, with independent evolving attraction criteria can pass collective judgement on each point in an art space. As the Artie moves within this space it modifies the environment in reaction to what it senses. Arties support for Meta-design is in (A) the process of evolving arties, breeding their attraction potential curve parameters using a genetic algorithm and (B) their use of sensory channels to support abstract attributes geometries. Adjustment of these parameters tunes the attraction of the artie along various sensing channels. The multi-agent co-evolution of Arties is one approach to creating a system for supporting meta-design. Arties is part of an on-going exploration of how to support meta-design in computer augmented design systems. Our future work with Arties-like systems will be concerned with applications in areas such as modeling adaptive directives in Architecture, Object Structure Design, spatio-temporal behaviors design (for games and simulations), virtual ambient spaces, and representation and computation of abstract design attributes.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 65b4
authors Kos, Jose Ripper
year 1999
title Architecture and Hyperdocument: Data Shaping Space
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 462-465
summary The computer interface can't convey the hole experience of walking through a city or a building. Nevertheless, the complexity of all the aspects involved in those threedimensional spaces can be better understood through the non-linearity of the hyperdocument. Each dweller of a city and a building has many layers of relationship with both. The sequence and the extent each observer explores the space is unique. It’s not totally apprehended in a first visit. As the observer knows better that space, his experience changes. A similar situation takes place in a multimedia application. Hence, it's possible to build an analogy between the architectonic or urban structure and a hyperdocument navigation structure. We can also state that the computer is critical to create paths of architectural information through space and time. The 3D model of a city is a powerful basis to structure the hyperdocument navigation. The city can be viewed in separate parts or layers of information. One investigates the city through different aspects of its configuration and explores it in different scales and levels of detail. The images generated from this 3D model can be combined with video, photo, sound and text, organizing the information which gives form to the city. The navigation through this information, addresses the citty by its economy, housing, religion, politics, leisure, projects, symbolic buildings, and other aspects. This paper will discuss these issues through the experiments of the research done at the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. The research group at the "Laboratory of Urban Analysis and Digital Representation" in PROURB (Graduate Program of Urbanism) analyses the city and its buildings using CD-ROMs and websites.
keywords 3D City Modeling, Hyperdocument, Multimedia, Architecture, Urbanism
series SIGRADI
email josekos@pobox.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id 64e4
authors Boardman, Ted and Hubbell, Jeremy
year 1999
title Inside 3D Studio Max 3 Modeling, Materials and Rendering : Modeling, Materials, and Rendering
source New Riders Pub
summary Inside 3D Studio MAX 3 Modeling, Materials, and Rendering is the only in-depth guide dedicated to modeling, materials, and rendering with 3D Studio MAX. You go inside the advanced modeling, texturing, and rendering features of 3D Studio MAX and learn how to use these features to get professional results. Real-world tutorials, advanced tips, and insider tricks take you beyond the basics and help you master high-end techniques. The CD-ROM is loaded with MAX and AVI files, models, materials, and textures for polishing your skills with the book's tutorials.
series other
last changed 2003/02/26 17:58

_id 5a10
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-Wen
year 1999
title Playing with Digital Media: Enlivening Computer Graphics Teaching
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 96-109
summary Are there better ways of getting a student to learn? Getting students to play at learning can encourage comprehension by engaging their attention. Rather than having students' fascination with video games and entertainment limited to competing against learning, we can direct this interest towards learning computer graphics. We hypothesize that topics having a recreational component increase the learning curve for digital media instruction. To test this, we have offered design media projects with a playful element as a counterpart to more step-by-step descriptive exercises. Four kinds of problems, increasing in difficulty, are discussed in the context of computer aided architectural design education: 1) geometry play, 2) kit of parts, 3) dreams from childhood and 4) transformations. The problems engage the students in different ways: through playing with form, by capturing their imagination and by encouraging interaction. Each type of problem exercises specific design skills while providing practice with geometric modeling and rendering. The problems are sequenced from most constrained to most free, providing achievable milestones with focused objectives. Compared to descriptive assignments and more serious architectural problems, these design-oriented exercises invite experimentation by lowering risk, and neutralize stylistic questions by taking design out of the traditional architectural context. Used in conjunction with the modeling of case studies, they engage a wide range of students by addressing different kinds of issues. From examining the results of the student work, we conclude that play as a theme encourages greater degree of participation and comprehension.
series ACADIA
email nywc@darkwing.uoregon.edu
last changed 1999/12/10 12:50

_id 9a1e
authors Clayton, Mark J. and Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo
year 1999
title Stumbling, Backtracking, and Leapfrogging: Two Decades of Introductory Architectural Computing
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 151-158
summary Our collective concept of computing and its relevance to architecture has undergone dramatic shifts in emphasis. A review of popular texts from the past reveals the biases and emphases that were current. In the seventies, architectural computing was generally seen as an elective for data processing specialists. In the early eighties, personal computers and commercial CAD systems were widely adopted. Architectural computing diverged from the "batch" world into the "interactive" world. As personal computing matured, introductory architectural computing courses turned away from a foundation in programming toward instruction in CAD software. By the late eighties, Graphic User Interfaces and windowing operating systems had appeared, leading to a profusion of architecturally relevant applications that needed to be addressed in introductory computing. The introduction of desktop 3D modeling in the early nineties led to increased emphasis upon rendering and animation. The past few years have added new emphases, particularly in the area of network communications, the World Wide Web and Virtual Design Studios. On the horizon are topics of electronic commerce and knowledge markets. This paper reviews these past and current trends and presents an outline for an introductory computing course that is relevant to the year 2000.
keywords Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Computer-Aided Design, Computing Education, Introductory Courses
series eCAADe
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 4a1a
authors Laird, J.E.
year 2001
title Using Computer Game to Develop Advanced AI
source Computer, 34 (7), July pp. 70-75
summary Although computer and video games have existed for fewer than 40 years, they are already serious business. Entertainment software, the entertainment industry's fastest growing segment, currently generates sales surpassing the film industry's gross revenues. Computer games have significantly affected personal computer sales, providing the initial application for CD-ROMs, driving advancements in graphics technology, and motivating the purchase of ever faster machines. Next-generation computer game consoles are extending this trend, with Sony and Toshiba spending $2 billion to develop the Playstation 2 and Microsoft planning to spend more than $500 million just to market its Xbox console [1]. These investments have paid off. In the past five years, the quality and complexity of computer games have advanced significantly. Computer graphics have shown the most noticeable improvement, with the number of polygons rendered in a scene increasing almost exponentially each year, significantly enhancing the games' realism. For example, the original Playstation, released in 1995, renders 300,000 polygons per second, while Sega's Dreamcast, released in 1999, renders 3 million polygons per second. The Playstation 2 sets the current standard, rendering 66 million polygons per second, while projections indicate the Xbox will render more than lOO million polygons per second. Thus, the images on today's $300 game consoles rival or surpass those available on the previous decade's $50,000 computers. The impact of these improvements is evident in the complexity and realism of the environments underlying today's games, from detailed indoor rooms and corridors to vast outdoor landscapes. These games populate the environments with both human and computer controlled characters, making them a rich laboratory for artificial intelligence research into developing intelligent and social autonomous agents. Indeed, computer games offer a fitting subject for serious academic study, undergraduate education, and graduate student and faculty research. Creating and efficiently rendering these environments touches on every topic in a computer science curriculum. The "Teaching Game Design " sidebar describes the benefits and challenges of developing computer game design courses, an increasingly popular field of study
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 221d
authors Lee, Sanghyun
year 1999
title Internet-based collaborative design evaluation : an architect's perspective
source Harvard University
summary This research aims at developing a design evaluation system that employs a Product Model as the logical basis for integrating building design and construction processes. The system is implemented with Java language, which allows the system to work over the Internet. Accordingly, the system helps architects to collaborate with remote participants. Thus, this design evaluation system is a building performance evaluator like DOE-2, RADIANCE, HVAC, and the Automated Building Code Checker. This research, however, is mainly concerned with an architect's view during the schematic design and design development stage, while the existing design evaluation systems cover other special consultants' views such as those of HVAC designers, structural engineers, and contractors. From an architect's view, this evaluation system checks the compliance of design objects represented by means of physical objects such as walls and windows and conceptual objects such as rooms as well, to the design criteria focused on accommodating human behavior, rather than other building performances such as sustaining building structures and maintaining indoor livability. As such, the system helps designers analyze and evaluate design solutions according to their original intent. The innovative points of this research lie in the following: (1) Unlike other inquiries, it addresses a systematic evaluation of building design from an architect's view focusing on the experiential quality of the built environment. This research demonstrates that such an evaluation becomes available by introducing human activity-based evaluation. (2) It can take a multi-agenda for several groups of different interests by providing an Aspect Model based on human activity-centered systematic translation of their design considerations and 3D model-based graphical representations into system readable ones. (3) As a result, it addresses the possibility of expanding the capability of the design evaluator from a mere code checker to a general design evaluator while simultaneously, enhancing the availability from stand alone to Internet based networking.
keywords Architectural Rendering; Data Processing; Evaluation; Buildings; Performance; World Wide Web; Internet
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a25e
authors Loy, Hollis A.
year 1999
title Foundation for a Thorough CAAD Education
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 301-308
summary The birth and development of computing is considered by most as one of the greatest technological achievements of the twentieth century. Since the integration of computers in the built environment, over two decades ago, computing methods developed into efficient designing and calculating tools. In contrast, accelerating advancements in computing technology have created generation gaps amongst architects. There are inexperienced, novice, intermediate and advanced computer-capable architects. If each group was asked to define CAAD, some would still describe it as a computer program for technical draughting. Others may define CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) as a vast array of digital media in CAD, multimedia and DTP, assisting architects in compiling visual presentations. Currently, most architectural schools are capable of instructing most, if not all, facets of CAAD (2D & 3D CAD, model rendering, photo montage, brochure layouts, etc.). However, this knowledge is accumulated at random throughout the course of study. "Computer Graphics for Architects" is the latest educational development in Europe bridging generation gaps with senior architects and serving as an introductory CAAD seminar to beginning architecture students. This book and lecture presents a gallery of recent architectural CAD, multimedia, and DTP presentations practiced in Europe´s second largest architectural firm. The terminology is user-friendly and its content concentrates on responding to the most often posed questions by CAAD beginners relating to: (1) Terminology (2) Appearance (3) Time Consumption (4) Cost Techniques introduced are independent of any platform. The goal is to summarize quickly and effectively the countless possibilities of presentations applicable in architecture practice. "Computer Graphics for Architects" provides a direction for future presentations and motivates students to excel in CAAD.
series eCAADe
email Loy.In.Germany@t-online.de
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 975b
authors Sato, I., Sato, Y. and Ikeuchi, K.
year 1999
title Acquiring a Radiance Distribution to Superimpose Virtual Objects onto a Real Scene
source IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-12, March 1999
summary This paper describes a new method for superimposing virtual objects with correct shadings onto an image of a real scene. Unlike the previously proposed methods, our method can measure a radiance distribution of a real scene automatically and use it for superimposing virtual objects appropriately onto a real scene. First, a geometric model of the scene is constructed from a pair of omnidirectional images by using an omnidirectional stereo algorithm. Then, radiance of the scene is computed from a sequence of omnidirectional images taken with different shutter speeds and mapped onto the constructed geometric model. The radiance distribution mapped onto the geometric model is used for rendering virtual objects superimposed onto the scene image. As a result, even for a complex radiance distribution, our method can superimpose virtual objects with convincing shadings and shadows cast onto the real scene. We successfully tested the proposed method by using real images to show its effectiveness.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 1570
authors Sowizral, H.A. and Deering, M.F.
year 1999
title The Java 3D API and Virtual Reality
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, May/June
summary Java 3D proves a natural choice for any Java programmer wanting to write an interactive 3D graphics program. A programmer constructs a scene graph containing graphic objects, lights, sounds, environmental effects objects, and behavior objects that handle interactions or modify other objects in the scene graph. The programmer then hands that scene graph to Java 3D for execution. Java 3D starts rendering objects and executing behaviors in the scene graph. Virtual reality applications go through an identical writing process. However, before a user can use such an application, Java 3D must additionally know about the user's physical characteristics (height, eye separation, and so forth) and physical environment (number of displays, their location, trackers, and so on). Not surprisingly, such information varies from installation to installation and from user to user. So Java 3D lets application developers separate their application's operation from the vagaries of the user's final display environment. The Java 3D application programmer's interface (API) provides a very flexible platform for building a broad range of graphics applications. Developers have already used Java 3D to build applications in a variety of domains including mechanical CAD, molecular visualization, scientific visualization, animation previews, geographic information systems, business graphics, 3D logos, and educational offerings. Virtual reality applications have included immersive workbench applications, headtracked shutter-glass-based desktop applications, and portals (a cave-like room with multiple back-projected walls).
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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