CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 10ba
authors Tournay, Bruno
year 1999
title The Software Beats the Hardware
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 74-79
summary The paper is based on ongoing reflections concerning the importance of information technology in architecture. Such reflections are necessary to develop research concerning the use of information technology in architectural design, so as to shift the focus from purely technological development to an actual field of research. The result of these reflections to date suggests that research into the significance of information technology in architecture must go via sociological research on the subject, since information technology has become a social factor. The central element in such research will be to identify and specify how the virtual world which is developing can be articulated in relation to the physical world. One of the ways of doing this is to use metaphors.
keywords 3D City modeling
series eCAADe
email kaed@image.dk
last changed 2001/06/04 14:13

_id f02e
authors Traverso, Giovanni and Vighy, Paola
year 1999
title FULL-SCALE MODELING FOR THE LIGHTING DESIGN OF A NEW PAVILION AT THE VENICE BIENNALE
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 51-56
summary The research which is presented in this paper is related to a lighting topic and part of an architectural project for a pavilion at the Biennale of Venice, used for modern art exhibitions. The building is located along a Venetian canal: the roof form is curved in a way to allow daylight, reflected by the water, to penetrate in the lower part of the building, determining the atmosphere for the sculpture exhibition. In the upper part of the building, where the rooms have a barrel-shaped roof, we want to provide good diffuse lighting to emphasise the quality of the materials and colors of paintings. Starting point is a study of lighting techniques related to a temporary exhibition of modern art. Special attention will be paid to some considerations concerning the question of conservation, the integration of artificial lighting and daylighting, the modeling effects of light and its color performance as well as the effect of light. The study has been carried out testing (full-) scale models in the Lighting Laboratory at the University College of London.
keywords Lighting Techniques, Full-scale Experiments, Daylight Control, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email traverso@keycomm.it
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:29

_id d267
authors Verbeke, J. Provoost, T., Verleye, J., Nys, K., Van Zutphen, R., Achten, H., Turksma, A., Pittioni, G., Asanowicz, A., Jakimowicz A. and Af Klercker, J.
year 1999
title AVOCAAD, The Experience
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 244-251
summary The Leonardo da Vinci project AVOCAAD (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design) aims at stimulating creative and experimental use of computers in the field of Architecture and Construction by the use of new technologies. For this purpose, a large set of exercises and exercise materials was developed and is now available through an interactive web-site. This allows regular students as well as architects in practice to continuously seek for a more interesting and inspiring use of computers and IC-technology, adding value in their own field of interest and work. The interactive web-site generates a virtual forum for exchange of ideas. The AVOCAAD partners as well as the newly joined partners are currently using and testing the available teaching materials (exercises, foreground and background information) with students. Moreover a small design exercise in the context of the project has been the theme of a workshop held at the AVOCAAD 1999 conference. Students and architects were asked to create a design in a predefined space based on experimental architectural music. This paper intends to report on the experiences we gained in using the interactive web-site, the exercises and also doing the workshop. We will address the pedagogical implications of issues like learning environment, continuous and distance learning, and focus on their impact towards CAAD curricula. Examples and results will illustrate the general framework.
keywords AVOCAAD, CAAD, Creativity, LLL, ODL
series eCAADe
email info@avocaad.org
more http://www.avocaad.org
last changed 2005/09/09 08:46

_id 53a4
authors Vélez Jahn, Gonzalo
year 1999
title The MUMOVIAR (Museum for Modeling Virtual Architecture) - A Proposal for a Research Theme (The Mumoviar (For Museum Virtual Modeling Architecture) - to for Proposal to Research Theme)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 379-383
summary One of the most interesting areas in the forefront of non-immersive virtual reality (VRML) applications to architecture is the one that concerns the design, construction and exploration of on-line multi-access worlds using the Internet-WWW. However, and despite the great proliferation of earlier single-access models built on VRML, attempts to collect, classify and provide accesibility that type of models has proved almost nil. On the other side, one of the architectural typologies that promises the greatest transformation potential in the virtual architecture area in cyberspace is the one that concerns virtual museums and galleries. This paper seeks to provide a bridge between the two aforementioned approaches by formulating a conceptual basis for the creation of a virtual, on-line, multi-access museum intended to house collections of VRML building models. Such models, initially shown at a conventional model scale, would be accessed by visitors through an interface intended to transport those visitors into the models’ environments, where changes in scale could provide navigation access to interior and exterior view of the building . Accordingly, the museum would act as a sort of "spaceport” toward different routes of exploration. This modelistic cascading seems to offer interesting possibilities as regards future virtual architecture applications.
series SIGRADI
email gvelez@reacciun.ve
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id e12c
authors Wingham, Ivana
year 1999
title Digital Space, Social Technology and Virtual Force as Determinants of Design in the 21st Century
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 122-126
summary It is appropriate to begin with salient quotes relating to the Interface Paradigm: 'The grand abstraction of man as the measure of all things, as an originary condition, a whole presence, can no longer be sustained' P. Eisenmann, 1986 'Although notions of adaptation are perhaps most familiar from biology, the most important ideas about adaptation in the history of AI are actually sociological' P.E.Agre, 1998 'When several bureaucracies coexist (governmental, academic, ecclesiastic) in the absence of super hierarchy to co-ordinate the interactions, the whole set of institutions will tend to form a meshwork of hierarchies, articulated mostly through local and temporary links' M. De Landa 1998
keywords Interface, Social Space, Virtual Force
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 7a52
authors Wong, Wilson and Kvan, Thomas
year 1999
title Textual support of collaborative design
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 168-176
summary Discussions of media in architectural design typically revolve around graphical forms, be they digital or analog. For example, much current research addresses the relationship between design sketching and cognitive process affecting the products of individual designers. This emphasis on graphics overshadows the role of text in design. While most CAD tools pursue increasingly realistic computer graphics, the interactions of designing require broader support. In this paper, we consider the importance of text in collaborative architectural design. Text is a common medium to record information in computer technology and has a role to play in an architectural design process. In the collaborative environment, a shared understanding and preserved history are important for communication. In this way, just as graphics can be seen as a cognitive aid, so too can text. Any singular design medium is insufficient to present the design idea thoroughly. Several design media should coexist. This paper outlines the cognitive background graphics in design, then reviews the role of text in design collaboration, drawing upon experimental results from cognitive science and architectural settings. As a conclusion, the paper sets out a direction for future research and development of tools to support collaborative design communication.
series ACADIA
email wilson@arch.hku.hk
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id bacd
authors Abadí Abbo, Isaac
year 1999
title APPLICATION OF SPATIAL DESIGN ABILITY IN A POSTGRADUATE COURSE
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 75-82
summary Spatial Design Ability (SDA) has been defined by the author (1983) as the capacity to anticipate the effects (psychological impressions) that architectural spaces or its components produce in observers or users. This concept, which requires the evaluation of spaces by the people that uses it, was proposed as a guideline to a Masters Degree Course in Architectural Design at the Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes in Mexico. The theory and the exercises required for the experience needed a model that could simulate spaces in terms of all the variables involved. Full-scale modeling as has been tested in previous research, offered the most effective mean to experiment with space. A simple, primitive model was designed and built: an articulated ceiling that allows variation in height and shape, and a series of wooden panels for the walls and structure. Several exercises were carried out, mainly to experience cause -effect relationships between space and the psychological impressions they produce. Students researched into spatial taxonomy, intentional sequences of space and spatial character. Results showed that students achieved the expected anticipation of space and that full-scale modeling, even with a simple model, proved to be an effective tool for this purpose. The low cost of the model and the short time it took to be built, opens an important possibility for Institutions involved in architectural studies, both as a research and as a learning tool.
keywords Spatial Design Ability, Architectural Space, User Evaluation, Learning, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
email iabadi@ceea.arq.ucv.ve
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 09:27

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id e719
authors Achten, Henri and Turksma, Arthur
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in Early Design: the Design Studio Experiences
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 327-335
summary The Design Systems group of the Eindhoven University of Technology started a new kind of design studio teaching. With the use of high-end equipment, students use Virtual Reality from the very start of the design process. Virtual Reality technology up to now was primarily used for giving presentations. We use the same technology in the design process itself by means of reducing the time span in which one gets results in Virtual Reality. The method is based on a very brief cycle of modelling in AutoCAD, assigning materials in 3DStudio Viz, and then making a walkthrough in Virtual Reality in a standard landscape. Due to this cycle, which takes about 15 seconds, the student gets immediate feedback on design decisions which facilitates evaluation of the design in three dimensions much faster than usual. Usually the learning curve of this kind of software is quite steep, but with the use of templates the number of required steps to achieve results is reduced significantly. In this way, the potential of Virtual Reality is not only explored in research projects, but also in education. This paper discusses the general set-up of the design studio and shows how, via short workshops, students acquire knowledge of the cycle in a short time. The paper focuses on the added value of using Virtual Reality technology in this manner: improved spatial reasoning, translation from two-dimensional to three-dimensional representations, and VR feedback on design decisions. It discusses the needs for new design representations in this design environment, and shows how fast feedback in Virtual Reality can improve the spatial design at an early stage of the design process.
series AVOCAAD
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl, A.A.E.Turksma@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 6d88
authors Achten, Henri H. and Van Leeuwen, Jos P.
year 1999
title Feature-Based High Level Design Tools - A Classification
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 275-290
summary The VR-DIS project aims to provide design support in the early design stage using a Virtual Reality environment. The initial brief of the design system is based on an analysis of a design case. The paper describes the process of analysis and extraction of design knowledge and design concepts in terms of Features. It is demonstrated how the analysis has lead to a classification of design concepts. This classification forms one of the main specifications for the VR-based design aid system that is being developed in the VR-DIS programme. The paper concludes by discussing the particular approach used in the case analysis and discusses future work in the VR-DIS research programme.
keywords Features, Feature-Based modelling, Architectural Design, Design Process, Design Support
series CAAD Futures
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.n
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 4d95
authors Alvarado, Rodrigo Garcia and Maver, Tom
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in Architectural Education: Defining Possibilities
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 7-9
summary Introduction: virtual reality in architecture Virtual Reality (VR) is an emergent computer technology for full 3D-simulations, which has a natural application in the architectural work, due that activity involves the complete definition of buildings prior to its construction. Although the profession has a long tradition and expertise in the use of 2D-plans for the design of buildings, the increasing complexity of projects and social participation requires better media of representation. However, the technological promise of Virtual Reality involves many sophisticated software and hardware developments. It is based on techniques of 3D-modelling currently incorporated in the majority of drawing software used in architecture, and also there are several tools for rendering, animation and panoramic views, which provide visual realism. But other capabilities like interactivity and sense of immersion are still complex, expensive and under research. These require stereoscopic helmets, 3D pointers and trackers with complicated configurations and uncomfortable use. Most advanced installations of Virtual-Reality like CAVEs involve much hardware, building space and restrictions for users. Nevertheless, diverse developers are working in Virtual-Reality user-friendly techniques and there are many initial experiences of architectural walk-throughs showing advantages in the communication and development of designs. Then we may expect an increasing use of Virtual Reality in architecture.
series ACADIA
email rgarcia@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ga9925
id ga9925
authors Ambrosini, L., Longatti, M. and Miyajima, H.
year 1999
title Time sections, abstract machines
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary conditions a time-spatial discontinuity in the urban grid, ancient walls casually discovered in a substrate of the contemporary town needs a surplus of information to be understood and interfaced with their current condition. diagrams diverse chronological stages of the urban evolution are mapped on the area, in order to read the historical stratifications as a multiplicity of signs; this abstract approach leads to consider the roman space as guided by metrics, a system of measure superimposed on the landscape, vs. medioeval spatial continuity, where more fluid relations between the same urban elements create a completely different pattern.assemblage (time sections) a surface, automatically displaced from the medioeval diagram, moves along the z axis, the historical stratification direction, intersecting in various, unpredictable, manners a series of paths; these paths start as parallels, allowing an undifferentiated access to the area, and mutate along their developing direction, intertweening and blending each other; linear openings are cut on the surface, virtually connecting the two levels by light, following the roman grid in rhythm and measure. Projected on the lateral wall, the cadence of the vertical and horizontal elements becomes a temporal diagram of the design process.movement time takes part into the process through two kinds of movement: the first one, freezed when reaches the best results, in terms of complexity, is given by the surface intersecting the tubular paths; the second one is represented by multiple routes walking on which the project can be experienced (in absence of any objective, fixed, point of view, movement becomes the only way to understand relations). Thresholds between typical architectural categories (such as inside-outside, object-landscape etc.) are blurred in favour of a more supple condition, another kind of continuity (re)appears, as a new media, between the different historical layers of the city.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id f154
authors Amor, Robert and Newnham, Leonard
year 1999
title CAD Interfaces to the ARROW Manufactured Product Server
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 1-11
summary The UK national project ARROW (Advanced Reusable Reliable Objects Warehouse) provides an Internet based framework through which it is possible to identify any of a range of manufactured products meeting specific design criteria. This open framework (based upon the IAI's IFCs) provides a mechanism for users to search for products from any participating manufacturer or supplier based both on specific attributes of a product or on any of the textual descriptions of the product. The service returns the closest matching products and allows the user to navigate to related information including manufacturer, suppliers, CAD details, VR displays, installation instructions, certificates, health and safety information, promotional information, costings, etc. ARROW also provides a toolkit to enable manufacturers and suppliers to more easily map and publish their information in the format utilised by the ARROW system. As part of the ARROW project we have examined the ability to interface from a design tool through to ARROW to automatically retrieve information required by the tool. This paper describes the API developed to allow CAD and simulation tools to communicate directly with ARROW and identify appropriate manufactured information. The demonstration system enables CAD systems to identify the closest matching manufactured product to a designed product and replacing the designed product with the details supplied by the manufacturer for the manufactured product as well as pulling through product attributes utilised by the design application. This paper provides a description of the ARROW framework and issues faced in providing information based upon standards as well as containing information not currently modelled in public standards. The paper looks at issues of enabling manufacturers and suppliers to move from their current world-view of product information to a more data-rich and user accessible information repository (even though this enables a uniform comparison across a range of manufacturer's products). Finally the paper comments on the likely way forward for ARROW like systems in providing quality information to end users.
keywords Computer-aided Design, Product Retrieval
series CAAD Futures
email trebor@cs.auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 93a8
authors Anders, P.
year 1999
title Envisioning Cyberspace: Designing 3D Electronic Spaces
source McGraw-Hill, NY
summary Free of the constraints of physical form and limited only by imagination, new environments spring to life daily in a fantastic realm called cyberspace. The creators of this new virtual world may be programmers, designers, architects, even children. In this invigorating exploration of the juncture between cyberspace and the physical world, architect Peter Anders brings together leading-edge cyberspace art and architecture ... inspiring new techniques and technologies ... unexpected unions of reality and virtuality ... and visions of challenges and opportunities as yet unexplored. More than an invitation to tour fantastic realms and examine powerful tools, this book is a hard-eyed look at cyberspace's impact on physical, cultural, and social reality, and the human-centered principles of its design. This is a book that will set designers and architects thinkingNand a work of importance to anyone fascinated with the fast-closing space between the real and the virtual.
series other
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id becb
authors Anders, Peter
year 1999
title Electronic Extension: Some implications of cyberspace for the practice of architecture
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 276-289
summary This white-paper builds upon previous research to present hybrids of electronic and physical spaces as extensions of current design practice. It poses an hypothetical project - a hybrid of physical and cyberspaces - to be developed through an extrapolation of current architectural practice by fully exploiting new information technologies. The hybrid's attributes not only affect the scope of development but the very activities of the design team and client during - and after - deployment. The entire life cycle of the project is affected by its dual material and media presence. The paper concludes by discussing the effect the hybrid - here called a "cybrid" - on the occupant, and its local and global communities. It reviews the economics, administration, marketing, operation, flexibility, and extension of the project to assess its effects on these scales. The conclusions are provisional owing to the youth of the technologies. However, in laying out these issues, the author hopes to begin a discussion on effects computation will have on our built environment.
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2fe1
authors Arroyo, Julio and Chiarella, Mauro
year 1999
title Infographic: Its Incorporation and Relativity in Architectural Design Process
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 313-318
summary This paper is about an architectural design workshop regularly held at a public university in Santa Fe, Argentina. The class is about 150 students large, with different informatic capabilities and hardware facilities. The design problem of the workshop, which is one year long, is the relationship between architectural project and the construction of the urbanity. This implies both a physical intervention and a cultural expression. Pedagogy seeks students to overcome individualism, characteristic that is hardly induced by PCs, making a socialized design experience. A complementary and simultaneous use of graphic and infographic data is one of the main criteria of the workshop. The idea is to look for students to reach a wide vision by means of the use of different representation systems and means of information. Digital graphic is introduced early in the design process as an electronic model of urban context. It is considered as a one among many other graphic resources and is used together with ordinary models, geometric drawings, aerial and regular photography and hand made sketches. This paper relates the results that have been obtained when students were asked to make an analytic and sensitive approach to the relationship site - urban situation. This relationship has a great importance for the workshop since its goal is to make students to understand the the value of designing in and for the city.
series SIGRADI
email jarroyo@fadu.unl.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id f317
authors Arvin, Scott A. and House, Donald H.
year 1999
title Modeling Architectural Design Objectives in Physically Based Space Planning
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 212-225
summary Physically based space planning is a means for automating the conceptual design process by applying the physics of motion to space plan elements. This methodology provides for a responsive design process, which allows a designer to easily make decisions whose consequences immediately propagate throughout the design. It combines the speed of automated design methods with the flexibility of manual design methods, while adding a highly interactive quality and a sense of collaboration with the design itself. In our approach, the designer creates a space plan by specifying and modifying graphic design objectives rather than by directly manipulating primitive geometry. The plan adapts to the changing state of objectives by applying the physics of motion to its elements. For design objectives to have an effect on a physically based space plan, they need to be able to apply appropriate forces to space plan elements. Space planning can be separated into two problems, determining topological properties and determining geometric properties. Design objectives can then be categorized as topological or geometric objectives. Topological objectives influence the location of individual spaces, affecting how one space relates to another. Geometric objectives influence the size and shape of space boundaries, affecting the dimensions of individual walls. This paper focuses on how to model a variety of design objectives for use in a physically based space planning system. We describe how topological objectives, such as adjacency and orientation, can be modeled to apply forces to space locations, and how geometric objectives, such as area, proportion, and alignment, can be modeled to apply forces to boundary edges.
series ACADIA
email arvin@viz.tamu.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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