CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id b4d2
authors Caldas, Luisa G. and Norford, Leslie K.
year 1999
title A Genetic Algorithm Tool for Design Optimization
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 260-271
summary Much interest has been recently devoted to generative processes in design. Advances in computational tools for design applications, coupled with techniques from the field of artificial intelligence, have lead to new possibilities in the way computers can inform and actively interact with the design process. In this paper we use the concepts of generative and goal-oriented design to propose a computer tool that can help the designer to generate and evaluate certain aspects of a solution towards an optimized behavior of the final configuration. This work focuses mostly on those aspects related to the environmental performance of the building. Genetic Algorithms are applied as a generative and search procedure to look for optimized design solutions in terms of thermal and lighting performance in a building. The Genetic Algorithm (GA) is first used to generate possible design solutions, which are then evaluated in terms of lighting and thermal behavior using a detailed thermal analysis program (DOE2.1E). The results from the simulations are subsequently used to further guide the GA search towards finding low-energy solutions to the problem under study. Solutions can be visualized using an AutoLisp routine. The specific problem addressed in this study is the placing and sizing of windows in an office building. The same method is applicable to a wide range of design problems like the choice of construction materials, design of shading elements, or sizing of lighting and mechanical systems for buildings.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id bsct_islami
id bsct_islami
authors Islami, Agron
year 2007
title A Systematic Approach to Thermal Adaptation of Detached Single Family Buildings in Kosovo
source Vienna University of Technology; Building Science & Technology
summary The research focuses on thermal behaviour of non-insulated single detached family units in the region of Kosovo. The region has experienced a massive construction of illegal housing especially after the conflict of 1999. Such construction resulted in poor thermal behaviour of the houses due to the lack of insulation. The poor thermal behaviour resulted in degradation of thermal comfort for the inhabitants of the houses. This phenomenon occurs due to energy savings to heat the house or more accurately, a specific part of the house. The simulation is based on parametric studies in an hourly basis to compute the thermal behavior of three specific houses. The first simulation is performed on a non-insulated house whereas the other simulations are performed with improved thermal insulation in order to understand the importance of a thermal envelope and its impact in this type of houses. The generated results emphasize the energy savings if thermal envelope is improved in existing houses. Simulation program “TAS” was used to extract figures and numbers related to the cases.The research aims to inform the local population on possibilities for increasing the thermal performances of their houses by improvement of the thermal envelope. It raises the quality of living in their dwellings as well as the quality of the environment, subject to a considerable degradation caused by pollution, generated by the outworn power thermal power plants in Kosovo.
keywords Building performance, Non-insulated house, Thermal comfort, Heating, Parametric calculations
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2007/07/16 15:51

_id 6ae4
authors Borde, A., Miyamoto, J., Barki, J., and Conde, M.
year 1999
title New Trends In Graphic Representation
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 501-506
summary In terms of graphic representation, architectural & urban study drawings present some fuzziness related to the multiplicity of scales, to the representation of the urban dynamic and to the means of communicating the contents of these studies for different publics, clearly divided among lay and specialists. Since the 16th century there have been certain stimulating propositions to this theme that have had an enormous, often unacknowleged, impact on the perception and construction of the built environment. Recent experiences in Rio, due to the series of urban projects that are being accomplished, is showing that some architecture offices are adopting new graphic trends in drawings conceived for preliminary studies, diagnoses and inventories. Due to the new possibilities offered by graphic computing they are developing, with diferent softwares, a sort of "patchwork” or "collage” and "sampling” technique for morphological analysis and representantion of places and buildings. This use of graphic computing, as an alternative to the usual realistic depictions that attempts to deal with prosaic simulations of an everyday experience, results in a different type of graphic expression that transcend literalism and appealls to the imagination of the general viewer. It is important to highlight that the analysis of these graphic solutions that attempts to turn visible design problems, could result in the development of new graphic tools that will help the creative design process.
keywords Graphic Representation, Architecture, Urbanism
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 9dff
authors Van Berkel, Ben
year 1999
title Mediation
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 41-46
summary New media have been successfully taken up in music, films, car design, fashion, magazine and book publishing, the sex industry, and education. Only architecture and urban design are slow to incorporate new media technologies. To some extent, architecture and mediation are locked into a conflicting, for the most part mutually excluding, relationship. At first sight this looks logical; architecture is a place, a real, once-only place, which you experience by visiting it. You do not experience architecture through dissolving a building and electronically replicating it a billion times in the air. But all technology is social before it becomes a technique; the technology of mediation needs to be more deeply incorporated within the practice of architecture, and to be more widely understood and supported before it can be fully exploited as a tool. This process is just beginning; as yet there is no fully evolved ideological scope which incorporates the new mediated position as an essential part of architecture. New mediation technologies have taken over some of the functions of buildings, such as security, surveillance, and communication with the outside, but these are not the most relevant aspects for the practice of architecture itself.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id cfcd
authors Shaviv, E.
year 1999
title Integrating energy consciousness in the design process
source Automation in Construction 8 (4) (1999) pp. 463-472
summary The design process for an intelligent, energy conscious building which was built, along with the design tools that were applied, is presented. The building, situated in the hot–humid climate of Rehovot, Israel, houses the laboratories and offices of the Weizmann Institute's Environmental Science and Energy Research Department. Alternative bio-climatic design options were proposed and evaluated throughout the detailed design stage. A building energy performance index (BEPI) was established for each alternative. This index reflects the total amount of energy consumption for heating, cooling, ventilating and lighting used per square meter of floor area. Thermal modeling for the different design alternatives were carried out by means of an hourly dynamic simulation model. The model solves simultaneously the heat transfer equations through all exterior walls, taking into account the thermal mass of each external wall as well as internal partitions. The model was extended to include hourly calculations of daylighting and geometrical shading coefficient of the windows, as well as automated and `smart' control strategies.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id c041
authors Vakalo, E., Malkawi, A.M. and Emdanat, S.S.
year 1999
title An AI-based shell for linking thermal and form-making considerations
source Automation in Construction 8 (4) (1999) pp. 455-462
summary Over the past few years, our team has developed several computer-based models in the areas of architectural form-making and thermal analysis. These programs were designed to deal with specific problems and use a range of techniques including machine vision, knowledge-based systems, and artificial intelligence techniques. Recently, a project that integrates these systems was initiated. Its objective is to design an intelligent computer shell that forms the basis for this integration in the domain of architecture. The paper discusses the development of the shell and its use to analyze and study architectural form and its determinants. The shell accommodates modules that link the morphological structure of architectural design with more of its determinants (e.g., structural, acoustical, and lighting considerations, as well as code requirements). The paper presents and discusses the background of the shell, its structure, its methods of knowledge representation, and an example of its use.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 36d3
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1999
title A CAVE-Interface in CAAD-Education?
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 313-323
summary The so called "CAVE-interface" is a very interesting and thrilling development for architects! It supports a better illusion of space by exposing almost a 270° view of a computer model than the 60° which can be viewed on an ordinary computer screen. At the Lund University we have got the possibility to experiment with a CAVE-installation, using it in research and the education of CAAD. The technique and three experiments are discribed. The possibilities are discussed and some problems and questions are put forward.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 3cde
authors Alik, B.
year 1999
title A topology construction from line drawings using a uniform plane subdivision technique
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 31 (5) (1999) pp. 335-348
summary The paper describes an algorithm for constructing the topology from a set of line segments or polylines. The problem appears for example at land-maps that have been drawnby general-purpose drawing packages or captured from blue-prints by digitalisation. The solution comprises two steps; in the first step inconsistencies in the input data aredetected and removed, and in the second step the topology is constructed. The algorithm for topology construction consists of two phases: determination of a concave hull,and generation of polygons. It is shown that the running-time of the presented algorithm is better than O(n2), where n is the number of input points. Because of a largenumber of geometric elements being expected, the geometric search needed at the first step of the algorithm is speeded up by an acceleration techniquea uniform planesubdivision.
keywords Computational Geometry, Topology Construction, Uniform Space Subdivision
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 0f1e
authors Barrionuevo, Luis F.
year 1999
title Posicionamiento de Volúmenes Arquitectónicos Mediante Algoritmos Evolucionistas (Positioning of Architectural Volumes by Means of Evolutionist Algorithms)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 176-181
summary Configurational studies involve the groups of elements fulfilling restrictions defined by the designer in Architectural design. According to its necessities and intentions, the planner distributes the components of the group in a certain tridimensional way, establishing a composition. This operative procedure implies a classification system according to typologies that respond to a bigger system, and this in turn to another, until the whole is obtained. From the beginning the pattern should satisfy form restrictions, as well as dimensional and positional restrictions for each part that conforms the whole. Functional requirements are attended for each object satisfying relationships of connectivity and adjacency among them. In this work the parts are restricted by their relative position to a central element. Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are used to solve this type of problem. Using evolutionary metaphors they originate concepts such as "genes", "chromosomes", "mutation", "crosses” and " population " (among other), which come closer to one of the solutions looked for by the designer, under combinatory stochastic methods. The most appropriate use of EA corresponds to problems of complexity NP-completeness (for example, problems of generation of cases of composition), allowing an efficient although not exhaustive analysis. Applying this technique to the generation of architectural volumes, some obtained results are exemplified.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ecc5
authors Bassanino, May Nahab
year 1999
title The perception of computer generated architectural images
source Liverpool University
summary The broad aim of the research is to examine the role of computer generated architectural images on the way different people perceive architecture, and within this field of interest I have established a list of specific tasks to define the specific points of interest to examine. The following list of the main research objectives served as a guide in designing the experimental tests undertaken as part of this research: (*) Study the effect of both representation techniques and the used media on perceiving architecture. (*) Establish the differences (if there are any) of perception between different groups of people; principally architects and non-architects, but also subsets of each of these two groups. (*) To suggest the appropriate technique for presenting architecture for a particular group in a particular stage in the design process. (*) To investigate the influence of CAAD in architectural education on the students’ perception for architectural images.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 328d
authors Bassanino, May Nahab and Brown, Andre
year 1999
title Computer Generated Architectural Images: A Comparative Study
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 552-556
summary This work is part of a long term research programme (Brown and Horton, 1992; Brown and Nahab, 1996; Bassanino, 1999) in which tests and studies have been carried out on various groups of people to investigate their reaction to, and interpretation of different forms of architectural representation. In the work described here a range of architectural schemes were presented using particular representational techniques and media. An experiment was then undertaken on two different groups; architects and lay people. They were presented with a number of schemes displayed using the various techniques and media. The responses are summarised and some comments are made on the effect of computers on perceiving architecture and on communicating architectural ideas arising from an analysis of the responses.
keywords Subject, Image Type, Presentation Technique, Medium, SD Scales, Factors
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f51a
authors Del Pup, Claudio
year 1999
title Carbon Pencil, Brush and Mouse, Three Tools in the Learning Process of New University Art Designers
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 420-425
summary This article develops the introduction of computer technologies in the fine arts environment the use of these new tools, sharing the process of creation and interacting at the same level with older technics, breaks the myth of technology and tries to reach the right place according to current or modern advances. As an introduction, it explains the insertion in the current courses of study of the "computer languages area", its implementation, present situation and future stages. An important point we have developed is the teaching methodology, to solve the transition of those who, challenging their investigations in different areas, like fire arts, graphic arts, film or video, need the support of computers. The first steps consist in designing sample courses, which allow the measurement of results, the definition of concepts like extension, capacities, teaching hours and the most important, a methodology to share the enthusiasm of creation with the difficulties of learning a new technique it is necessary to discover limits, to avoid easy results as a creative tool one of the most important problems we have faced is the necessity of coordinating the process of creation with the individual time of a plastic artist, finding the right way that allows the integration of all the group, minimizing desertion and losing of motivation. Two years later, the first results in the field of digital image investigations and assistance in form design. Volume as a challenge and solutions supported in techniques of modeling in 3D (experiences of modeling a virtual volume from a revolution profile, its particular facts and the parallelism with potter's lathe the handling of image as the most important element, as an work of art itself, but also as a support in the transmission of knowledge (design of a CD as a tool for the department of embryology of medical school with the participation of people from the medical school, engineering school and school of fine arts). Time as a variable, movement, animation and its techniques, multimedia (design of short videos for the 150th anniversary of the Republic University). Conclusions, good hits, adjustments, new areas to include, problems to solve, the way of facing a constantly evolving technology.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id 80f0
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang
year 1999
title Three Dimensional Computer Models in Development Planning
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 685-693
summary The paper shows a way to use computer generated spatial models in planning to increase the quality of development planning inside a community and to enable a better vision of future developments in showing the spatial impact of possible solutions inside a bandwidth of surface utilisation and density. It describes the application of this technique to give the specialists and the members of a community a comparatively easy to use tool to show the impact of planning decisions and therefore increase the discussion about a desirable future.
keywords 3D City Modeling, Planning, Spatial Models, Development
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/06/04 12:16

_id 04fd
authors Karhu, V. and Lahdenpera, P.
year 1999
title A formalised process model of current Finnish design and construction practice
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 7(1), pp. 51-71
summary There is a need for improved co-ordination to enhance the performance of the building process. The process involves many parties and the communication and interfaces need special attention. Conventionally, the processes of parties are carried out independently, each discipline having its own activities and limits. As a precursor to improving the overall process, formal process modelling may be used to clarify the activities, information flows and the responsibilities of the different parties. The model presented in this paper divides the Finnish construction process into six main stages: briefing, programming, global design, detailed design, construction and hand-over. In developing the model, all these stages were covered - the main focus being on the functions and flows of the process since these were found to be the most critical in the development of the building procedures. The IDEF0 method was used as the modelling technique. It is shown how the developed reference model can be subjected to various view-dependent examinations and that the modelling approach supports process re-engineering and improvement efforts as well as a new means of building process management, especially when combined with modern computer-aided applications.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 5919
authors Lentz, Uffe
year 1999
title Integrated Design with Form and Topology Optimizing
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 116-121
summary The topic of this paper is to describe the ability of 3D CAD systems to integrate designers and engineers into a simultaneous process developing a functional and aesthetic concept in a close and equal interdisciplinary process. We already have the Finite Element Method, FEM systems for analyzing the mechanical behavior of constructions. This technique is suitable for justifying design aspects in the final part of the design process. A new group of CAE systems under the generic term Topology optimizing has the potentials to handle aspects of conceptual design and aesthetic criteria. Such interactive design tools do not eliminate the designer, but the relationship between the designer and other professions and the professional consciousness of the designer will change. It is necessary to develop common ideas able to connect the scientific and the artistic fields. The common aesthetic values must be clarified and the corresponding formal ideas be developed. These tools could be called "Construction tools for the intelligent user" (Olhoff, 1998) because the use of optimizing is based on a profound knowledge of the techniques.
keywords Form, Topology, Optimizing
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 41d4
authors Medjdoub, Benachir
year 1999
title Interactive 2D Constraint-Based Geometric Construction System
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 197-212
summary This paper presents a 2D Constraint-Based Geometric Construction System where positioning and manipulating geometry is very precise. An unusually simple interface makes this system particularly interactive and easy to use. In our approach, the geometry types supported are: points, lines, circles, ellipses, circular arcs and b-spline curves. All the fundamental topologic constraints, i.e. tangent, parallel, perpendicular, coincident and concentric, are provided. Metric constraints, i.e. dividing the shapes into equal parts or fixing the geometric parameters, are also provided. These constraints are automatically applied by the application in response to the implied intentions of the end- user. Dynamic modifications of partially dimensioned models are supported, whereby the design is modified while enforcing the constraints. A graph-constructive approach is used to solve the model. As we are dealing with partial modifications, this resolution technique is quite sufficient, and makes our system stable and flexible. Our approach focuses highly on interactivity. Positioning a shape constrained to another is made directly through the graphic interface. Constraint relaxation is also done by direct manipulations. Modifications are made by dragging the geometry, or by typing into a numerical panel displaying the free shape parameters. Again, existing constraints are maintained as those numbers are applied. Well -constrained and under-constrained problems are discussed. This approach was developed in Java, JDK 3.0.1 of SGI's Java software.
keywords Sketching, Geometric Constraints, Interactivity, Geometric construction, Dynamic Modifications
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 338a
authors Noble, Douglas and Hsu, Jason
year 1999
title Computer Aided Animation in Architecture: Analysis of Use and the Views of the Profession
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 109-114
summary A traditional way to present three-dimensional representations of architectural design has been through the use of manually drawn perspective drawings. The perspective representation assists in the comprehension of the forms and spaces, but is difficult to manually generate. The computer revolution made perspectives much easier to generate and led to a dramatically increased use of three-dimensional representation as a presentation technique. We are just now seeing substantial uses of animation as a communication and presentation tool in architecture. This paper documents the results of two surveys of the architectural profession that sought to discover the current and near future intentions for the use of computer animation. Our belief is that current levels of computer animation use are low, but that many firms intend to start using animation both as a design and presentation tool. In early 1998 we conducted a survey of the uses of computer animation by architectural firms. We posited a set of 14 related hypotheses. This paper represents the tabulated results from 82 completed surveys out of 620 requests. While some level of confidence can be obtained from this sample size, we are publishing in the hope of encouraging continued response to the survey.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id 9ce0
authors Ozcan, Oguzhan
year 1999
title Education of Interactive Panorama-design in Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 223-229
summary This paper mainly discusses the importance of interactive panorama in design, and its education in the MDes program, which will run at Yildiz Technical University in the year 2000. The first part of the paper summarizes the potentials of current interactive panorama technique, which was "A popular form of the public entertainment" in 19th-century. Then, it compares the real-world experiences with observations in an interactive panorama. This comparison is carried out together with technical aspects i.e. limitations, audio-visual effects, composite techniques, live video input, and conceptual aspects i.e. camera actions, natural phenomenon. The technical discussion in the paper is concentrated on the examples from newly developed tools such as Nodemedia, Electrifier, Wasabi Software, and Skypaint as well as Apple QuickTime VR Authoring Tool. The second part underlines the role of interactive panorama technique in design. In this part, the paper also summarizes how to use the technique at the beginning and, during creation of the design and in its presentation, taking the installation advantages of sound, vision, text and transition effects. The third part concentrates on the interactive panorama design as an individual project, offered in the MDes program. Then it explains how the preliminary courses were planned for this individual project and summarizes the content of the course formulated through the linear and non-linear structures of the media. Finally, considering with the future development of interactive panorama technique, the last part of the paper discusses the possible results of this education method.
keywords Interactive Media, Panoramic Image, Design Education
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id ga9918
id ga9918
authors Pedeferri, Pietro
year 1999
title Nobili's Art: an Example of Generative Art of 1826
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary In 1826 Leopoldo Nobili obtained colors of interference on metallic surfaces through electrochemical oxidation and studied them and technique to obtain them not only for scientific reasons but also for "the advantages that these colors and new technique of coloring metals may lend to the arts". Nobili's work can be considered an is example of generative art.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id f851
authors Ramasubramanian, Pattanaik and Greenberg
year 1999
title A perceptually based physical error metric for realistic image synthesis
source Alyn Rockwood, editor, SIGGRAPH 99 Conference Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, ACM SIGGRAPH, Addison Wesley
summary We introduce a new concept for accelerating realistic image synthesis algorithms. At the core of this procedure is a novel physical error metric that correctly predicts the perceptual threshold for detecting artifacts in scene features. Built into this metric is a computational model of the human visual system's loss of sensitivity at high background illumination levels, high spatial frequencies, and high contrast levels (visual masking). An important feature of our model is that it handles the luminance-dependent processing and spatiallydependent processing independently. This allows us to precompute the expensive spatially-dependent component, making our model extremely efficient. We illustrate the utility of our procedure with global illumination algorithms used for realistic image synthesis. The expense of global illumination computations is many orders of magnitude higher than the expense of direct illumination computations and can greatly benefit by applying our perceptually based technique. Results show our method preserves visual quality while achieving significant computational gains in areas of images with high frequency texture patterns, geometric details, and lighting variations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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