CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ae61
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1999
title CAAD - Integrated with the First Steps into Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 266-272
summary How and when should CAAD be introduced in the curriculum of the School of Architecture? This paper begins with some arguments for starting CAAD education at the very beginning. At the School of Architecture in Lund teachers in the first year courses have tried to integrate CAAD with the introduction to architectural concepts and techniques. Traditionally the first year is divided by several subjects running courses separatly without any contact for coordination. From the academic year 96/97 the teachers of Aplied aestetics, Building Science, Architectural design and CAAD have decided to colaborate as much as possible to make the role of our different fields as clear as possible to the students. Therefore integrating CAAD was a natural step in the academic year 98/99. The computer techniques were taught one step in advance so that the students can practise their understanding of the programs in their tasks in the other subjects. The results were surprisingly good! The students have quickly learned to mix the manual and computer techniques to make expressive and interesting visual presentations of their ideas. Some students with antipaty to computers have overcome this handicap. Some interesting observations are discussed.
keywords Curriculum, First Year Studies, Integration, CAAD, Modelling
series eCAADe
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 4fa1
authors Lee, E., Ida, Y., Woo, S. and Sasada, T.
year 1999
title Environmental Design Using Fractals in Computer Graphics
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 533-538
summary Computer graphics have developed efficient techniques for visualisation of the real world. Many of the algorithms have a physical basis, such as computational models for the light and the shadow, models of real objects (buildings, mountains, roads and so on) and the simulation of natural phenomenon. Now computer graphics techniques provide the virtual world with a perception of three dimensions. The concept of the virtual world and its technology have been expanding and intensifying in recent years. Almost everything in the real world has been simulated in virtual world. When it comes to a terrain model, what we need is labour and time. But now it is possible to simulate terrain like the real world using fractals in computer graphics with a very small program and small data set. This study aims to show how to build a real world impression in the virtual world. In this paper the authors suggest a landscape design method and show the results of its application.
keywords Fractals, Polygon-Reduction, Computer Graphics, Virtual World, Collaboration
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id c991
authors Moorhouse, Jon and Brown,Gary
year 1999
title Autonomous Spatial Redistribution for Cities
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 678-684
summary The paper investigates an automated methodology for the appropriate redistribution of usable space in distressed areas of inner cities. This is achieved by categorising activity space and making these spaces morphologically mobile in relation to the topography within a representative artificial space. The educational module has been influenced by theories from the natural environment, which possess patterns that have inherent evolutionary programmes in which the constituents are recyclable, Information is strategically related to the environment to produce forms of growth and behaviour. Artificial landscape patterns fail to evolve, the inhabited landscape needs a means of starting from simplicity and building into the most complex of systems that are capable of re-permutation over time. The paper then describes the latest methodological development in terms of a shift from the use of the computer as a tool for data manipulation to embracing the computer as a design partner. The use of GDL in particular is investigated as a facilitator for such generation within a global, vectorial environment.
keywords Animated, Urban, Programme, Education, Visual Database
series eCAADe
email Jonhat@aol.com
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id d8df
authors Naticchia, Berardo
year 1999
title Physical Knowledge in Patterns: Bayesian Network Models for Preliminary Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 611-619
summary Computer applications in design have pursued two main development directions: analytical modelling and information technology. The former line has produced a large number of tools for reality simulation (i.e. finite element models), the latter is producing an equally large amount of advances in conceptual design support (i.e. artificial intelligence tools). Nevertheless we can trace rare interactions between computation models related to those different approaches. This lack of integration is the main reason of the difficulty of CAAD application to the preliminary stage of design, where logical and quantitative reasoning are closely related in a process that we often call 'qualitative evaluation'. This paper briefly surveys the current development of qualitative physical models applied in design and propose a general approach for modelling physical behaviour by means of Bayesian network we are employing to develop a tutoring and coaching system for natural ventilation preliminary design of halls, called VENTPad. This tool explores the possibility of modelling the causal mechanism that operate in real systems in order to allow a number of integrated logical and quantitative inference about the fluid-dynamic behaviour of an hall. This application could be an interesting connection tool between logical and analytical procedures in preliminary design aiding, able to help students or unskilled architects, both to guide them through the analysis process of numerical data (i.e. obtained with sophisticate Computational Fluid Dynamics software) or experimental data (i.e. obtained with laboratory test models) and to suggest improvements to the design.
keywords Qualitative Physical Modelling, Preliminary Design, Bayesian Networks
series eCAADe
email Naticchia@idau.unian.it
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 9ce0
authors Ozcan, Oguzhan
year 1999
title Education of Interactive Panorama-design in Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 223-229
summary This paper mainly discusses the importance of interactive panorama in design, and its education in the MDes program, which will run at Yildiz Technical University in the year 2000. The first part of the paper summarizes the potentials of current interactive panorama technique, which was "A popular form of the public entertainment" in 19th-century. Then, it compares the real-world experiences with observations in an interactive panorama. This comparison is carried out together with technical aspects i.e. limitations, audio-visual effects, composite techniques, live video input, and conceptual aspects i.e. camera actions, natural phenomenon. The technical discussion in the paper is concentrated on the examples from newly developed tools such as Nodemedia, Electrifier, Wasabi Software, and Skypaint as well as Apple QuickTime VR Authoring Tool. The second part underlines the role of interactive panorama technique in design. In this part, the paper also summarizes how to use the technique at the beginning and, during creation of the design and in its presentation, taking the installation advantages of sound, vision, text and transition effects. The third part concentrates on the interactive panorama design as an individual project, offered in the MDes program. Then it explains how the preliminary courses were planned for this individual project and summarizes the content of the course formulated through the linear and non-linear structures of the media. Finally, considering with the future development of interactive panorama technique, the last part of the paper discusses the possible results of this education method.
keywords Interactive Media, Panoramic Image, Design Education
series eCAADe
email ooczan@yildiz.edu.tr
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id e978
authors [Zupancic] Strojan, Tadeja Z.
year 1999
title CyberUniversity
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 196-200
summary The study of a cyberuniversity derives from an analogy between real urban space and its virtual "substitution". It represents an attempt to balance some views, which seems to be contrary, exclusive, but they are just parts of the same wholeness. Especially the notion of a cyber society is lately considered such an exaggeration, that it is possible to forget the meaning of a real life experience and interactions, which are already threatened. One should contribute to the awarness that is used in such a comparison, it is "just" an analogy, not a real similarity. At the same time it is possible to point out some limitations of a cyberspace and indicate a more realistic view of the meaning of cyber communities. Awarness of the development processes could help to find a balance between reality and virtuality, using cyberfacilities not to destroy us (our identity) but to improve the quality of our (real) life.
keywords University, Cyberuniversity, Space, Cyberspace
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email tadeja.zupancic@guest.arnes.si
last changed 2007/03/04 06:03

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 37c2
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 1999
title Visualisation of Design Using Animation for Virtual Prototyping
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 519-525
summary Although recent technology in time-based representation has vastly improved, animation in virtual prototype design field remains the same. Some designers invest a huge amount of money in the latest visualisation and multimedia technology and yet may create even worse animation. They often cramp sequences resulting in many viewers failing to interpret the design positively as they miss a lot of vital information that explains the design. This paper basically reports the importance of film-making understanding for producing good virtual prototype animation. It will be based on a part of a research project on the use of time-based media in architectural practices. It also includes an empirical analysis of several architectural-based documentary films (including an interview with the film director) and past and present computer animation. This paper then concludes with recommendations of good techniques for making animated visualisation relative to the stage at which the animation is produced for better design decision.
keywords Virtual Prototype, Animation, Time-Based, Film-Making
series eCAADe
email rafi@unitele.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 1071
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1999
title Evolution of Computer Aided Design: Three Generations of CAD
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 94-100
summary This paper describes the three generations of CAD systems. The first generation of (primarily analytical) computer programmes really aided designing. These programmes were the tools for finding a functional solution in different areas of designing, from flat plans to the space organisation of a hospital. One of the shortcomings of these programmes was the lack of graphic interface. With time, however, this kind of interface was developed. As a result of this second generation of CAD systems the computer was transformed into a drafting machine and CAD meant Computer Aided Drafting. The main thesis of this consideration is that only now we have the chance to return to the idea of Computer Aided Design. One of the examples of these trends is the AVOCAAD programme in which Added Value of CAAD is analysed. The development of the third generation of CAD systems will be possible in the near future. Aiding the process of designing will demand the elaboration of new methods of using the computer at the early stages of this process. The computer should be used not for generating variants of functional solutions only but for also for the creation of 3D forms by 3D sketching. For this, the computer should be transformed from a tool into a medium; only then will designing become true Designing in Cyber Space.
keywords Generations of CAAD, Design Process, Creation, Medium
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:46

_id 328d
authors Bassanino, May Nahab and Brown, Andre
year 1999
title Computer Generated Architectural Images: A Comparative Study
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 552-556
summary This work is part of a long term research programme (Brown and Horton, 1992; Brown and Nahab, 1996; Bassanino, 1999) in which tests and studies have been carried out on various groups of people to investigate their reaction to, and interpretation of different forms of architectural representation. In the work described here a range of architectural schemes were presented using particular representational techniques and media. An experiment was then undertaken on two different groups; architects and lay people. They were presented with a number of schemes displayed using the various techniques and media. The responses are summarised and some comments are made on the effect of computers on perceiving architecture and on communicating architectural ideas arising from an analysis of the responses.
keywords Subject, Image Type, Presentation Technique, Medium, SD Scales, Factors
series eCAADe
email andygbp@liv.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7da7
authors Benedetti, Cristina and Salvioni, Giulio
year 1999
title The Use of Renewable Resource in Architecture: New Teaching Methodologies
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 751-756
summary The program is organized into four parts. Each is very much connected, both logically and methodologically, so that the unit as a whole consists of a content and method of access that are not divided up. This method is not in a chronological order that simply goes in one direction, rather it allows the user to "refer back", in real time and in different directions. For the simple purpose of explanation, the sections of the program are listed as follows: (-) "Basic information" concerns the basics of bioclimatic and timber architecture. Without this knowledge, the other two sections would be difficult to understand; (-) "Actual buildings throughout the world"; give examples of architectural quality; they concretize the basics of bioclimatic and timber architecture; (-) "Students' Masters Theses", that follow on from the basic information and the learning experience "in the field", and guided by the lecturer, have a critical approach to actual buildings throughout the world. (-) A multimedia data-sheet organized to ensure a clear and straightforward presentation of information about the construction products. It relies on a tab-based navigation interface that gives users access to eight different stacked windows.
keywords Architecture, Multimedia, Timber, Bioclimatic, Classification
series eCAADe
email benedetti@axrma.uniroma1.it
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f288
authors Bille, Pia
year 1999
title Integrating GIS and Electronic Networks In Urban Design and Planning
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 722-728
summary In 1998 I undertook an inquiry into the use of information technology in Urban Design and Planning in Danish municipalities and among planning consultants. The aim was to find out who was working with the IT and for what purposes it was used. In education there seems to be barriers to a full integration of the new media, and I wanted to find out if that was also the case in the practise of architects and planners. Surprisingly I discovered that there was a computer on almost every desk, - but there were big differences in the use of the technology. The investigation described here is based on interviews with planners in selected municipalities and with urban planning consultants, and the results have been summarised in a publication.
keywords Urban Planning, Electronic Collaboration, GIS, Data Bases
series eCAADe
email pia.bille@a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id bbb9
authors Blaise, Jean-Yves and Dudek, Iwona
year 1999
title SOL: Spatial and Historical Web-Based Interface for On Line Architectural Documentation of Krakow's Rynek Gowny
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 700-707
summary Our paper presents recent developments of a co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France), specialised in computer science and the HAiKZ Institute of Krakow's Faculty of Architecture, specialised in architectural heritage and conservation. Before undertaking any action to a listed building or interventions in its neighbourhood, it is vital to gain a clear understanding of the building in question. Numerous heterogeneous data detained by diverse institutions has to be handled. This process can be greatly eased by enhanced classification of the information. The development we present is a multidisciplinary platform independent information tool dedicated to education and research. SOL uses an http protocol centred computer architecture connecting a relational database, a VRML 2.0 representation module and a web search interface. It allows searches and updating of the database through a standard text based interface, a VRML 2.0 graphical module and a thematic interface. SOL is experienced on the urban fabric of the Main Square (Rynek Gówny) in Kraków. The choice of a web-centred development, both in the search and updating interface and in the representation module provides platform independence and distant access to the database, and enables successive contributions of students or researchers.
keywords Web Interface, Database, Architectural Heritage Environment, Information Module, Historical Evolutions
series eCAADe
email jyb@gamsau.archi.fr, idu@gamsau.archi.fr
more http://alberti.gamsau.archi.fr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 7674
authors Bourdakis, Vassilis and Charitos, Dimitrios
year 1999
title Virtual Environment Design - Defining a New Direction for Architectural Education
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 403-409
summary This paper considers the design and development of virtual environments (VEs) and the way that it relates to traditional architectural education and practice. The need for practitioners who will contribute to the design of 3D content for multimedia and virtual reality applications is identified. The design of space in a VE is seen as being partly an architectural problem. Therefore, architectural design should play an important role in educating VE designers. Other disciplines, intrinsically related to the issue of VE design, are also identified. Finally, this paper aims at pointing out the need for a new direction within architectural education, which will lead towards a generation of VE architects.
keywords Virtual Environments, Architectural Design, Architectural Education
series eCAADe
email V.Bourdakis@prd.uth.gr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9e00
authors Bridges, Alan
year 1999
title Progress? What Progress?
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 321-326
summary This paper briefly reviews some of the history of computer graphics standardisation and then presents two specific case studies: one comparing HTML with SGML and Troff and the other comparing VRML with the Tektronix® Interactive Graphics Language implementation of the ACM Core Standard. In each case, it will be shown how the essential intellectual work carried out twenty years ago still lies at the foundations of the newer applications.
keywords SGML, HTML, VRML
series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aef9
authors Brown, A., Knight, M. and Berridge, P. (Eds.)
year 1999
title Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7 / Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, 773 p.
summary The core theme of this book is the idea of looking forward to where research and development in Computer Aided Architectural Design might be heading. The contention is that we can do so most effectively by using the developments that have taken place over the past three or four decades in Computing and Architectural Computing as our reference point; the past informing the future. The genesis of this theme is the fact that a new millennium is about to arrive. If we are ruthlessly objective the year 2000 holds no more significance than any other year; perhaps we should, instead, be preparing for the year 2048 (2k). In fact, whatever the justification, it is now timely to review where we stand in terms of the development of Architectural Computing. This book aims to do that. It is salutary to look back at what writers and researchers have said in the past about where they thought that the developments in computing were taking us. One of the common themes picked up in the sections of this book is the developments that have been spawned by the global linkup that the worldwide web offers us. In the past decade the scale and application of this new medium of communication has grown at a remarkable rate. There are few technological developments that have become so ubiquitous, so quickly. As a consequence there are particular sections in this book on Communication and the Virtual Design Studio which reflect the prominence of this new area, but examples of its application are scattered throughout the book. In 'Computer-Aided Architectural Design' (1977), Bill Mitchell did suggest that computer network accessibility from expensive centralised locations to affordable common, decentralised computing facilities would become more commonplace. But most pundits have been taken by surprise by just how powerful the explosive cocktail of networks, email and hypertext has proven to be. Each of the ingredients is interesting in its own right but together they have presented us with genuinely new ways of working. Perhaps, with foresight we can see what the next new explosive cocktail might be.
series eCAADe
email andygbp@liv.ac.uk, mknight@liv.ac.uk, p.berridge@liverpool.ac.uk
more http://www.ecaade.org
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 8802
authors Burry, Mark, Dawson, Tony and Woodbury, Robert
year 1999
title Learning about Architecture with the Computer, and Learning about the Computer in Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 374-382
summary Most students commencing their university studies in architecture must confront and master two new modes of thought. The first, widely known as reflection-in-action, is a continuous cycle of self-criticism and creation that produces both learning and improved work. The second, which we call here design making, is a process which considers building construction as an integral part of architectural designing. Beginning students in Australia tend to do neither very well; their largely analytic secondary education leaves the majority ill-prepared for these new forms of learning and working. Computers have both complicated and offered opportunities to improve this situation. An increasing number of entering students have significant computing skill, yet university architecture programs do little in developing such skill into sound and extensible knowledge. Computing offers new ways to engage both reflection-in-action and design making. The collaboration between two Schools in Australia described in detail here pools computer-based learning resources to provide a wider scope for the education in each institution, which we capture in the phrase: Learn to use computers in architecture (not use computers to learn architecture). The two shared learning resources are Form Making Games (Adelaide University), aimed at reflection-in-action and The Construction Primer (Deakin University and Victoria University of Wellington), aimed at design making. Through contributing to and customising the resources themselves, students learn how designing and computing relate. This paper outlines the collaborative project in detail and locates the initiative at a time when the computer seems to have become less self-consciously assimilated within the wider architectural program.
keywords Reflection-In-Action, Design Making, Customising Computers
series eCAADe
email mburry@deakin.edu.au
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id a9b0
authors Cha, Myung Yeol and Gero, John
year 1999
title Style Learning: Inductive Generalisation of Architectural Shape Patterns
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 629-644
summary Art historians and critics have defined the style as common features appeared in a class of objects. Abstract common features from a set of objects have been used as a bench mark for date and location of original works. Common features in shapes are identified by relationships as well as physical properties from shape descriptions. This paper will focus on how the computer recognises common shape properties from a class of shape objects to learn style. Shape representation using schema theory has been explored and possible inductive generalisation from shape descriptions has been investigated.
keywords Style, Inductive Generalisation, Knowledge Representation, Shape
series eCAADe
email chasaem@netsgo.com
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 0dc3
authors Chambers, Tom and Wood, John B.
year 1999
title Decoding to 2000 CAD as Mediator
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 210-216
summary This paper will present examples of current practice in the Design Studio course of the BDE, University of Strathclyde. The paper will demonstrate an integrated approach to teaching design, which includes CAD among other visual communication techniques as a means to exploring design concepts and the presentation of complex information as part of the design process. It will indicate how the theoretical dimension is used to direct the student in their areas of independent study. Projects illustrated will include design precedents that have involved students in the review and assessment of landmarks in the history of design. There will be evidence of how students integrate DTP in the presentation of site analysis, research of appropriate design precedents and presentation of their design solutions. CADET underlines the importance of considering design solutions within the context of both our European cultural context and of assessing the environmental impact of design options, for which CAD is eminently suited. As much as a critical method is essential to the development of the design process, a historical perspective and an appreciation of the sophistication of communicative media will inform the analysis of structural form and meaning in a modem urban context. Conscious of the dynamic of social and historical influences in design practice, the student is enabled "to take a critical stand against the dogmatism of the school "(Gadamer, 1988) that inevitably insinuates itself in learning institutions and professional practice.
keywords Design Studio, Communication, Integrated Teaching
series eCAADe
email j.b.wood@strath.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 9a1e
authors Clayton, Mark J. and Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo
year 1999
title Stumbling, Backtracking, and Leapfrogging: Two Decades of Introductory Architectural Computing
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 151-158
summary Our collective concept of computing and its relevance to architecture has undergone dramatic shifts in emphasis. A review of popular texts from the past reveals the biases and emphases that were current. In the seventies, architectural computing was generally seen as an elective for data processing specialists. In the early eighties, personal computers and commercial CAD systems were widely adopted. Architectural computing diverged from the "batch" world into the "interactive" world. As personal computing matured, introductory architectural computing courses turned away from a foundation in programming toward instruction in CAD software. By the late eighties, Graphic User Interfaces and windowing operating systems had appeared, leading to a profusion of architecturally relevant applications that needed to be addressed in introductory computing. The introduction of desktop 3D modeling in the early nineties led to increased emphasis upon rendering and animation. The past few years have added new emphases, particularly in the area of network communications, the World Wide Web and Virtual Design Studios. On the horizon are topics of electronic commerce and knowledge markets. This paper reviews these past and current trends and presents an outline for an introductory computing course that is relevant to the year 2000.
keywords Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Computer-Aided Design, Computing Education, Introductory Courses
series eCAADe
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

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