CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2018_213
id ecaade2018_213
authors Lohse, Theresa, Fujii, Ryuta and Werner, Liss C.
year 2018
title Multi-Dimensional Interface Based Spatial Adaption - A Prototype For A Multi-Sensory User Interface Employing Elastic Materials
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 169-176
summary Patten and Ishii (2000) discovered that people are employing more versatile strategies for spatial distribution when using a tangible user interface (TUI) as opposed to a graphics user interface (GUI) (Patten & Ishii, 2000). Besides, the generated information outputs of conventional two-dimensional interacting screens are currently almost entirely addressing the visual and acoustic senses but lacking in other sensory stimuli - such as haptic, body equilibrium and sense of gravity. With the experiment described here, the multi-dimensionality of both the input on the interface and the output of the human interaction will be challenged. This paper aims to introduce a method to a real world versatile three-dimensional interface actuating a simulated spatial environment that substantiates the more unconventional sensory perception mentioned above. A physical prototype using an Arduino will be assembled to test the feasibility of the structure.
keywords spatial formation; virtual reality; tangible user interface; body equilibrium; physical computing
series eCAADe
email lohsetheresa@gmx.de
last changed 2018/07/24 10:23

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 57bd
authors Inanc, B. Sinan
year 2000
title Casebook. An Information Retrieval System for Housing Floor Plans
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 389-398
summary Floor plans are representations of choice for spatial information in architectural practice. They are expressive, readable, and familiar. My research examines possible uses of floor plan layouts in architectural information systems. Classification problems that arise are addressed by lazy computation. A prototype in the domain of residential units, CaseBook, has been developed and implemented. CaseBook uses graphical floor plans as core representations for storage, classification and retrieval. To reflect the plasticity of interpretations inherent to the complex and ill-defined architectural domain, the focus is on the flexibility of classification schemes. Flexibility is achieved through the application of adaptable automatic feature extraction and classification-on-demand by user-selected criteria. Queries can be graphically expressed in example layouts. The system ranks layouts according to their similarity to a query based on weighted nearest neighbor algorithm.
series CAADRIA
email s.inanc@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id ga0008
id ga0008
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2000
title Redirecting design generation in architecture
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Design generation has been the traditional culmination of computational design theory in architecture. Motivated either by programmatic and functional complexity (as in space allocation) or by the elegance and power of representational analyses (shape grammars, rectangular arrangements), research has produced generative systems capable of producing new designs that satisfied certain conditions or of reproducing exhaustively entire classes (such as all possible Palladian villas), comprising known and plausible new designs. Most generative systems aimed at a complete spatial design (detailing being an unpopular subject), with minimal if any intervention by the human user / designer. The reason for doing so was either to give a demonstration of the elegance, power and completeness of a system or simply that the replacement of the designer with the computer was the fundamental purpose of the system. In other words, the problem was deemed either already resolved by the generative system or too complex for the human designer. The ongoing democratization of the computer stimulates reconsideration of the principles underlying existing design generation in architecture. While the domain analysis upon which most systems are based is insightful and interesting, jumping to a generative conclusion was almost always based on a very sketchy understanding of human creativity and of the computer's role in designing and creativity. Our current perception of such matters suggests a different approach, based on the augmentation of intuitive creative capabilities with computational extensions. The paper proposes that architectural generative design systems can be redirected towards design exploration, including the development of alternatives and variations. Human designers are known to follow inconsistent strategies when confronted with conflicts in their designs. These strategies are not made more consistent by the emerging forms of design analysis. The use of analytical means such as simulation, couple to the necessity of considering a rapidly growing number of aspects, means that the designer is confronted with huge amounts of information that have to be processed and integrated in the design. Generative design exploration that can combine the analysis results in directed and responsive redesigning seems an effective method for the early stages of the design process, as well as for partial (local) problems in later stages. The transformation of generative systems into feedback support and background assistance for the human designer presupposes re-orientation of design generation with respect to the issues of local intelligence and autonomy. Design generation has made extensive use of local intelligence but has always kept it subservient to global schemes that tended to be holistic, rigid or deterministic. The acceptance of local conditions as largely independent structures (local coordinating devices) affords a more flexible attitude that permits not only the emergence of internal conflicts but also the resolution of such conflicts in a transparent manner. The resulting autonomy of local coordinating devices can be expanded to practically all aspects and abstraction levels. The ability to have intelligent behaviour built in components of the design representation, as well as in the spatial and building elements they signify, means that we can create the new, sharper tools required by the complexity resulting from the interpretation of the built environment as a dynamic configuration of co-operating yet autonomous parts that have to be considered independently and in conjunction with each other.   P.S. The content of the paper will be illustrated by a couple of computer programs that demonstrate the princples of local intelligence and autonomy in redesigning. It is possible that these programs could be presented as independent interactive exhibits but it all depends upon the time we can make free for the development of self-sufficient, self-running demonstrations until December.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0005
id ga0005
authors Kubasiewicz, Jan and Jang, DK  
year 2000
title InfoGEOMETRY. Conceptual Prototype for Navigating InfoSPACE
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary InfoGEOMETRY  is the word the authors use to describe the concept of utilizing geometric patterns and dynamic symmetry in graphical user interface design for navigating complex information. This paper refers to a specific collaborative project in which the concept of infoGeometry was first introduced as an alternative tool of information architecture. In their design process, the authors tried to reconcile the visual nature of geometric vocabulary with parametric nature of interface design and dynamic nature of information organization. The project resulted in experimental interactive tools for information search and navigating complex information structures. 2. YOU ARE HERE. A study in interactivity. This paper refers to a studio project in interface design, conducted at the Massachusetts College of Art in Boston, where individual designers explored essential concepts in navigating complex structures of information. Taking the notion of You-Are-Here as a point of departure, individual designers explored various definitions and interpretations of the notion's three components: You(We/They, etc)-Are(Will Be/Have Been, etc)-Here(in Time/in Space). Exploring specific instances of parametric design and developing linked, multiple representations for information display resulted in a broad spectrum of contexts associated with navigation. Specific descriptions of individual instances will accompany the final presentation of the project.  
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 03ad
authors Lottaz, C., Smith, I.F.C., Robert-Nicoud, Y. and Faltings, B.V.
year 2000
title Constraint-based support for negotiation in collaborative design
source Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, Vol: 14, Issue: 3, pp. 261-280.
summary Solution spaces are proposed, instead of single solutions only, to support collaborative tasks during design and construction. Currently, partners involved in construction projects typically assign single values for sub-sets of variables and then proceed, often after tedious negotiations with other partners, to integrate these partial solutions into more complete project descriptions. We suggest the use of constraint solving to express possibly large families of acceptable solutions in order to improve the negotiation process in two ways. On one hand, con ict detection can be performed in an automated manner. Through the constraints collaborators impose, they de ne large unfeasible areas where no solution to the problem at hand can be expected. An emty intersectidon of the solution spaces can thus point at a con ict of design goals of the di erent collaborators at an early stage of the design process. On the other hand, important decision support during negotiation is provided. When a solution space is found, collaborators know during negotiation that they are negotiating about feasible solutions. Negotiation is no longer a means to nd a solution to the problem but it takes place in order to nd a good or the best solution. Since the consistency of the design remains ensured, collaborators are expected to be less restrictive towards innovative ideas during negotiation. Moreover, constraint techniques using explicit representations of solution spaces can provide tools to visualize trade-o s and illustrate the impact of certain decisions on other parameters. Thus decision-making is improved during the negotiation. New algorithms have been developed at EPFL for solving multi-dimensional nonlinear inequality constraints on continuous variables. Together with intuitive user interfaces such constraint-based support leads to better change management and easier implementation of least commitment decision strategies. It is expected that the results of this research can improve both the e ciency of negotiation processes and the quality of the achieved results.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ga0004
id ga0004
authors Lund, Andreas
year 2000
title Evolving the Shape of Things to Come - A Comparison of Interactive Evolution and Direct Manipulation for Creative Tasks
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper is concerned with differences between direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design as two fundamentally different interaction styles for creative tasks. Its main contribution to the field of generative design is the treatment of interactive evolutionary design as a general interaction style that can be used to support users in creative tasks. Direct manipulation interfaces, a term coined by Ben Shneiderman in the mid-seventies, are the kind of interface that is characteristic of most modern personal computer application user interfaces. Typically, direct manipulation interfaces incorporate a model of a context (such as a desktop environment) supposedly familiar to users. Rather than giving textual commands (i.e. "remove file.txt", "copy file1.txt file2.txt") to an imagined intermediary between the user and the computer, the user acts directly on the objects of interest to complete a task. Undoubtedly, direct manipulation has played an important role in making computers accessible to non-computer experts. Less certain are the reasons why direct manipulation interfaces are so successful. It has been suggested that this kind of interaction style caters for a sense of directness, control and engagement in the interaction with the computer. Also, the possibilities of incremental action with continuous feedback are believed to be an important factor of the attractiveness of direct manipulation. However, direct manipulation is also associated with a number of problems that make it a less than ideal interaction style in some situations. Recently, new interaction paradigms have emerged that address the shortcomings of direct manipulation in various ways. One example is so-called software agents that, quite the contrary to direct manipulation, act on behalf of the user and alleviate the user from some of the attention and cognitive load traditionally involved in the interaction with large quantities of information. However, this relief comes at the cost of lost user control and requires the user to put trust into a pseudo-autonomous piece of software. Another emerging style of human-computer interaction of special interest for creative tasks is that of interactive evolutionary design (sometimes referred to as aesthetic selection). Interactive evolutionary design is inspired by notions from biological evolution and may be described as a way of exploring a large – potentially infinite – space of possible design configurations based on the judgement of the user. Rather than, as is the case with direct manipulation, directly influencing the features of an object, the user influences the design by means of expressing her judgement of design examples. Variations of interactive evolutionary design have been employed to support design and creation of a variety of objects. Examples of such objects include artistic images, web advertising banners and facial expressions. In order to make an empirical investigation possible, two functional prototypes have been designed and implemented. Both prototypes are targeted at typeface design. The first prototype allows a user to directly manipulate a set of predefined attributes that govern the design of a typeface. The second prototype allows a user to iteratively influence the design of a typeface by means of expressing her judgement of typeface examples. Initially, these examples are randomly generated but will, during the course of interaction, converge upon design configurations that reflect the user’s expressed subjective judgement. In the evaluation of the prototypes, I am specifically interested in users’ sense of control, convergence and surprise. Is it possible to maintain a sense of control and convergence without sacrificing the possibilities of the unexpected in a design process? The empirical findings seem to suggest that direct manipulation caters for a high degree of control and convergence, but with a small amount of surprise and sense of novelty. The interactive evolutionary design prototype supported a lower degree of experienced control, but seems to provide both a sense of surprise and convergence. One plausible interpretation of this is that, on the one hand, direct manipulation is a good interaction style for realizing the user’s intentions. On the other hand, interactive evolutionary design has a potential to actually change the user’s intentions and pre-conceptions of that which is being designed and, in doing so, adds an important factor to the creative process. Based on the empirical findings, the paper discusses situations when interactive evolutionary design may be a serious contender with direct manipulation as the principal interaction style and also how a combination of both styles can be applied.
series other
email andreas.lund@interactiveinstitute.se
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0010
id ga0010
authors Moroni, A., Zuben, F. Von and Manzolli, J.
year 2000
title ArTbitrariness in Music
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Evolution is now considered not only powerful enough to bring about the biological entities as complex as humans and conciousness, but also useful in simulation to create algorithms and structures of higher levels of complexity than could easily be built by design. In the context of artistic domains, the process of human-machine interaction is analyzed as a good framework to explore creativity and to produce results that could not be obtained without this interaction. When evolutionary computation and other computational intelligence methodologies are involved, every attempt to improve aesthetic judgement we denote as ArTbitrariness, and is interpreted as an interactive iterative optimization process. ArTbitrariness is also suggested as an effective way to produce art through an efficient manipulation of information and a proper use of computational creativity to increase the complexity of the results without neglecting the aesthetic aspects [Moroni et al., 2000]. Our emphasis will be in an approach to interactive music composition. The problem of computer generation of musical material has received extensive attention and a subclass of the field of algorithmic composition includes those applications which use the computer as something in between an instrument, in which a user "plays" through the application's interface, and a compositional aid, which a user experiments with in order to generate stimulating and varying musical material. This approach was adopted in Vox Populi, a hybrid made up of an instrument and a compositional environment. Differently from other systems found in genetic algorithms or evolutionary computation, in which people have to listen to and judge the musical items, Vox Populi uses the computer and the mouse as real-time music controllers, acting as a new interactive computer-based musical instrument. The interface is designed to be flexible for the user to modify the music being generated. It explores evolutionary computation in the context of algorithmic composition and provides a graphical interface that allows to modify the tonal center and the voice range, changing the evolution of the music by using the mouse[Moroni et al., 1999]. A piece of music consists of several sets of musical material manipulated and exposed to the listener, for example pitches, harmonies, rhythms, timbres, etc. They are composed of a finite number of elements and basically, the aim of a composer is to organize those elements in an esthetic way. Modeling a piece as a dynamic system implies a view in which the composer draws trajectories or orbits using the elements of each set [Manzolli, 1991]. Nonlinear iterative mappings are associated with interface controls. In the next page two examples of nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces are shown.The mappings may give rise to attractors, defined as geometric figures that represent the set of stationary states of a non-linear dynamic system, or simply trajectories to which the system is attracted. The relevance of this approach goes beyond music applications per se. Computer music systems that are built on the basis of a solid theory can be coherently embedded into multimedia environments. The richness and specialty of the music domain are likely to initiate new thinking and ideas, which will have an impact on areas such as knowledge representation and planning, and on the design of visual formalisms and human-computer interfaces in general. Above and bellow, Vox Populi interface is depicted, showing two nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces. References [Manzolli, 1991] J. Manzolli. Harmonic Strange Attractors, CEM BULLETIN, Vol. 2, No. 2, 4 -- 7, 1991. [Moroni et al., 1999] Moroni, J. Manzolli, F. Von Zuben, R. Gudwin. Evolutionary Computation applied to Algorithmic Composition, Proceedings of CEC99 - IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, Washington D. C., p. 807 -- 811,1999. [Moroni et al., 2000] Moroni, A., Von Zuben, F. and Manzolli, J. ArTbitration, Las Vegas, USA: Proceedings of the 2000 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Workshop Program – GECCO, 143 -- 145, 2000.
series other
email artemis@ia.cti.br
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 0f8d
authors Pal, Vineeta
year 2000
title Integrated Decision-Making: The Building Design Advisor
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 14-17
summary In this paper we describe an integrated decision-making environment that brings together several different building simulation tools, and provides the data management and process control required for their integrated use, from the initial, schematic phases of building design. The output of one tool is easily used as input to another, either directly, or after appropriate manipulation to ensure compatibility, which makes the whole integrated environment more than the sum of its parts. A simple graphical user interface, common to all simulation tools, allows access to all building parameters and supports multicriterion judegment by allowing side-by-side comparison of multiple alternative designs with respect to multiple performance parameters.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id b34d
authors Russell, P., Kohler, N., Forgber, U., Koch, V. and Rügemer, J.
year 1999
title Interactive Representation of Architectural Design: The Virtual Design Studio as an Architectural Graphics Laboratory
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 459-465
summary This paper introduces the Virtual Design Studio (VDS), an internet based design studio environment established by ifib. VDS transfers lessons learned through research projects in the field of Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) being carried out at ifib into design education. By training for interdisciplinary co-operation within the design process, the students will become better prepared for the flexibility and co-operability required in planning situations. Increasing the communication and co-operation in the planning process can be achieved through the implementation of IT based virtual workspaces. In the design studio setting, this is done through the use of available internet software and technologies. The methodology of the VDS is briefly described including specific assignments intended to focus student investigations into specific areas including the representation of their work using the world wide web. The pedagogical expectations are discussed and anecdotal evidence precedes an general evaluation of the teaching method. The authors postulate that one of the unintended by-products of the studio is the evolution of an effective use of interactivity in the presentation of design concepts, ideas and solutions. A handful of student work is presented to describe the different approaches taken in using the world wide web (WWW) to display project work. A description of the local evolution (VDS specific) of graphical methods and technologies is followed by a comparison with those used in traditional settings. Representation is discussed with focus on the ability of the WWW to replace, augment or corrupt other methods of presentation. The interactive nature of web based presentations induces alterations to the narration of architectural work and can enhance the spatial perception of design space. Space Perception can be enabled through geometrically true VRML representations, the inclusion of auditory sensations, the abstraction of representation through the use of advertising techniques as well as the introduction of non-linear narrative concepts. Examples used by students are shown. A critical assessment of these new representational methods and the place of current new media within the context of architectural representation is discussed.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, Architectural Graphics, Teaching
series eCAADe
email peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ń either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Đ seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 456a
authors Alvarado, R.G., Parra, J.C., Vergara, R.L. and Chateau, H.B.
year 2000
title Architectural References to Virtual Environments Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 151-155
summary Based on a comparison between the perception of digital and real construction, the development of virtual systems and the review of additional sources, this paper states some differences between the design of virtual environments and architectural spaces. Virtual-reality technologies provide advanced capabilities to simulate real situations, and also to create digital worlds not referred to physical places, such as imaginary landscapes or environments devoted to electronic activities, like entertainment, learning or commerce. Some on-line services already use 3D-stages, resembling building halls and domestic objects, and several authors have mentioned virtual modeling as a job opportunity to architects. But it will argue in this paper that the design of those environments should consider their own digital characteristics. Besides, the use of virtual installations on networks impells a convergence with global media, like Internet or TV. Virtual environments can be a 3Devolution of communicational technologies, which have an increasing participation in culture, reaching a closer relationship to contemporary architecture.
keywords Virtual Environments, Spatial Perception, Design Methodology
series eCAADe
email rgarcia@ubiobio.cl
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id df49
authors Barbosa, Adriana Simeone
year 2000
title Roteiro e Interface: Elementos Fundamentais para a Representaçăo das Cidades Virtuais - (Story-board and Interface: Fundamental Elements for the Virtual Cities Representaion)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 322-324
summary This paper derives from the project "A Evolucao do Sistemas simbólicos da Cidade Latino-Americana" by the team at the Laboratório de Analises Graficas e Representaçio Digital, PROURB (Programa de Pósgraduacio em Urbanismo) at the Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. In a period of five years the CD-ROMs Havana Colonial, Rio de Janeiro Colonial and the websites Um Palacio na Cidade and Favela-Bairro were produced. Based on that experience this paper intends to demonstrate that there was a conceptual and technological evolution related to representation and through the analysis of a few of the screens of the above mentioned works we will discuss the importance of integrating navigation script and creation of the interfaces through which the user accesses the product.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 1f5c
authors Beesley, Philip and Seebohm, Thomas
year 2000
title Digital Tectonic Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 287-290
summary Digital tectonic design is a fresh approach to architectural design methodology. Tectonics means a focus on assemblies of construction elements. Digital tectonics is an evolving methodology that integrates use of design software with traditional construction methods. We see digital tectonic design as a systematic use of geometric and spatial ordinances, used in combination with details and components directly related to contemporary construction. The current approach will, we hope, lead to an architectural curriculum based on generative form making where the computer can be used to produce systems of forms algorithmically. Digital design has tended to remain abstract, emphasizing visual and spatial arrangements often at the expense of materials and construction. Our pursuit is translation of these methods into more fully realized physical qualities. This method offers a rigorous approach based on close study of geometry and building construction elements. Giving a context for this approach, historical examples employing systematic tectonic design are explored in this paper. The underlying geometric ordinance systems and the highly tuned relationships between the details in these examples offer design vocabularies for use within the studio curriculum. The paper concludes with a detailed example from a recent studio project demonstrating particular qualities developed within the method. The method involves a wide range of scales, relating large-scale gestural and schematic studies to detailed assembly systems. Designing in this way means developing geometric strategies and, in parallel, producing detailed symbols or objects to be inserted. These details are assembled into a variety of arrays and groups. The approach is analogous to computer-aided designŐs tradition of shape grammars in which systems of spatial relationships are used to control the insertion of shapes within a space. Using this approach, a three-dimensional representation of a building is iteratively refined until the final result is an integrated, systematically organized complex of symbols representing physical building components. The resulting complex offers substantial material qualities. Strategies of symbol insertions and hierarchical grouping of elements are familiar in digital design practice. However these strategies are usually used for automated production of preconceived designs. In contrast to thsse normal approaches this presentation focuses on emergent qualities produced directly by means of the complex arrays of symbol insertions. The rhyth
keywords 3D CAD Systems, Design Practice, 3D Design Strategies
series eCAADe
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id bbb9
authors Blaise, Jean-Yves and Dudek, Iwona
year 1999
title SOL: Spatial and Historical Web-Based Interface for On Line Architectural Documentation of Krakow's Rynek Gowny
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 700-707
summary Our paper presents recent developments of a co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France), specialised in computer science and the HAiKZ Institute of Krakow's Faculty of Architecture, specialised in architectural heritage and conservation. Before undertaking any action to a listed building or interventions in its neighbourhood, it is vital to gain a clear understanding of the building in question. Numerous heterogeneous data detained by diverse institutions has to be handled. This process can be greatly eased by enhanced classification of the information. The development we present is a multidisciplinary platform independent information tool dedicated to education and research. SOL uses an http protocol centred computer architecture connecting a relational database, a VRML 2.0 representation module and a web search interface. It allows searches and updating of the database through a standard text based interface, a VRML 2.0 graphical module and a thematic interface. SOL is experienced on the urban fabric of the Main Square (Rynek Gówny) in Kraków. The choice of a web-centred development, both in the search and updating interface and in the representation module provides platform independence and distant access to the database, and enables successive contributions of students or researchers.
keywords Web Interface, Database, Architectural Heritage Environment, Information Module, Historical Evolutions
series eCAADe
email jyb@gamsau.archi.fr, idu@gamsau.archi.fr
more http://alberti.gamsau.archi.fr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 3d30
authors Castańé, D., Dehó, C. and Tessier, C.
year 2000
title Consecuencias y Alcances de los Procesos de Modelizacion: Una visión pedagógica-experimental del desarrollo de imágenes virtuales (Consequences and Potentiality of Modeling Processes : A pedagogical-experimental Vision on the Development of Virtual Images)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 292-294
summary The proposal is a discussion of the present limits offered by the modeling systems used in the educational environment. The perception of the space in the Renaissance period (Benevolo 92) and the multidimensional spaces observed in several design experiments (Bermúdez-Neiman 98), (Schmitt 99), (Eisenman 99) allow us to infer that the applications of 3D modeling procedures, has a vast spectrum of possibilities It is possible to distinguish six operative gradients according to the level of complexity when representing 3D spatial organization in architecture, according the architecture design strategy using Takes in consideration the factors that affects the “simulation” of reality according to several perceptive conditions that could alter the conventional visions of the 3D models.
series SIGRADI
email dcastane@elsitio.net
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 61af
authors Castello, Iára Regina
year 2000
title A Coletivizaçăo do Patrimônio Percebido (The Collectivization of the Experienced Heritage)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 179-181
summary This work highlights the application of GIS in the registration of resources identified as the environmental heritage of urban areas. To begin with, a brief description of the data collection method, based on local communities’ perception, is provided. It is maintained that the consideration of social values attributed by the population results in a more legitimate spatial knowledge, allowing for the identification of the more relevant elements, according to local inhabitants' statements. Finally, an emphasis is given to data processing techniques, asserting that the use of computer aided tools can ease the diffusion of knowledge about the society’s environmental heritage. This, in turn, may activate the recollection - and the preservation - of the cultural memory and, eventually, the formulation of strategies for recovering built heritage. It also opens the way to expand upon political conscience and social participation, enlarging the concept of citizenship.
series SIGRADI
email kastello@conex.com.br, s_tonelotto@yahoo.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 3b4c
authors Chung, Misun
year 2000
title A Sacred Space in Cyberspace
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 7-8
summary Sometimes we hold an object in our hand or look at a 2D drawing and wonder what would be like to be inside that space? Mentally, we are able to transcend ourselves into another dimension. That is the reality of our physical space. But in this new cyberspace, we are able to share that experience with others. Through visual, sound, color, and spatial stimulation, we are able to share what used to be only an imaginable space with others in “real time”. The technology of multi-user 3D environment is still cumbersome and unstable but the future expansion and opportunities far weights its current limitations.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 9a1e
authors Clayton, Mark J. and Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo
year 1999
title Stumbling, Backtracking, and Leapfrogging: Two Decades of Introductory Architectural Computing
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 151-158
summary Our collective concept of computing and its relevance to architecture has undergone dramatic shifts in emphasis. A review of popular texts from the past reveals the biases and emphases that were current. In the seventies, architectural computing was generally seen as an elective for data processing specialists. In the early eighties, personal computers and commercial CAD systems were widely adopted. Architectural computing diverged from the "batch" world into the "interactive" world. As personal computing matured, introductory architectural computing courses turned away from a foundation in programming toward instruction in CAD software. By the late eighties, Graphic User Interfaces and windowing operating systems had appeared, leading to a profusion of architecturally relevant applications that needed to be addressed in introductory computing. The introduction of desktop 3D modeling in the early nineties led to increased emphasis upon rendering and animation. The past few years have added new emphases, particularly in the area of network communications, the World Wide Web and Virtual Design Studios. On the horizon are topics of electronic commerce and knowledge markets. This paper reviews these past and current trends and presents an outline for an introductory computing course that is relevant to the year 2000.
keywords Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Computer-Aided Design, Computing Education, Introductory Courses
series eCAADe
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

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