CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 740

_id 1f5c
authors Beesley, Philip and Seebohm, Thomas
year 2000
title Digital Tectonic Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 287-290
summary Digital tectonic design is a fresh approach to architectural design methodology. Tectonics means a focus on assemblies of construction elements. Digital tectonics is an evolving methodology that integrates use of design software with traditional construction methods. We see digital tectonic design as a systematic use of geometric and spatial ordinances, used in combination with details and components directly related to contemporary construction. The current approach will, we hope, lead to an architectural curriculum based on generative form making where the computer can be used to produce systems of forms algorithmically. Digital design has tended to remain abstract, emphasizing visual and spatial arrangements often at the expense of materials and construction. Our pursuit is translation of these methods into more fully realized physical qualities. This method offers a rigorous approach based on close study of geometry and building construction elements. Giving a context for this approach, historical examples employing systematic tectonic design are explored in this paper. The underlying geometric ordinance systems and the highly tuned relationships between the details in these examples offer design vocabularies for use within the studio curriculum. The paper concludes with a detailed example from a recent studio project demonstrating particular qualities developed within the method. The method involves a wide range of scales, relating large-scale gestural and schematic studies to detailed assembly systems. Designing in this way means developing geometric strategies and, in parallel, producing detailed symbols or objects to be inserted. These details are assembled into a variety of arrays and groups. The approach is analogous to computer-aided designÕs tradition of shape grammars in which systems of spatial relationships are used to control the insertion of shapes within a space. Using this approach, a three-dimensional representation of a building is iteratively refined until the final result is an integrated, systematically organized complex of symbols representing physical building components. The resulting complex offers substantial material qualities. Strategies of symbol insertions and hierarchical grouping of elements are familiar in digital design practice. However these strategies are usually used for automated production of preconceived designs. In contrast to thsse normal approaches this presentation focuses on emergent qualities produced directly by means of the complex arrays of symbol insertions. The rhyth
keywords 3D CAD Systems, Design Practice, 3D Design Strategies
series eCAADe
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ga0010
id ga0010
authors Moroni, A., Zuben, F. Von and Manzolli, J.
year 2000
title ArTbitrariness in Music
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Evolution is now considered not only powerful enough to bring about the biological entities as complex as humans and conciousness, but also useful in simulation to create algorithms and structures of higher levels of complexity than could easily be built by design. In the context of artistic domains, the process of human-machine interaction is analyzed as a good framework to explore creativity and to produce results that could not be obtained without this interaction. When evolutionary computation and other computational intelligence methodologies are involved, every attempt to improve aesthetic judgement we denote as ArTbitrariness, and is interpreted as an interactive iterative optimization process. ArTbitrariness is also suggested as an effective way to produce art through an efficient manipulation of information and a proper use of computational creativity to increase the complexity of the results without neglecting the aesthetic aspects [Moroni et al., 2000]. Our emphasis will be in an approach to interactive music composition. The problem of computer generation of musical material has received extensive attention and a subclass of the field of algorithmic composition includes those applications which use the computer as something in between an instrument, in which a user "plays" through the application's interface, and a compositional aid, which a user experiments with in order to generate stimulating and varying musical material. This approach was adopted in Vox Populi, a hybrid made up of an instrument and a compositional environment. Differently from other systems found in genetic algorithms or evolutionary computation, in which people have to listen to and judge the musical items, Vox Populi uses the computer and the mouse as real-time music controllers, acting as a new interactive computer-based musical instrument. The interface is designed to be flexible for the user to modify the music being generated. It explores evolutionary computation in the context of algorithmic composition and provides a graphical interface that allows to modify the tonal center and the voice range, changing the evolution of the music by using the mouse[Moroni et al., 1999]. A piece of music consists of several sets of musical material manipulated and exposed to the listener, for example pitches, harmonies, rhythms, timbres, etc. They are composed of a finite number of elements and basically, the aim of a composer is to organize those elements in an esthetic way. Modeling a piece as a dynamic system implies a view in which the composer draws trajectories or orbits using the elements of each set [Manzolli, 1991]. Nonlinear iterative mappings are associated with interface controls. In the next page two examples of nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces are shown.The mappings may give rise to attractors, defined as geometric figures that represent the set of stationary states of a non-linear dynamic system, or simply trajectories to which the system is attracted. The relevance of this approach goes beyond music applications per se. Computer music systems that are built on the basis of a solid theory can be coherently embedded into multimedia environments. The richness and specialty of the music domain are likely to initiate new thinking and ideas, which will have an impact on areas such as knowledge representation and planning, and on the design of visual formalisms and human-computer interfaces in general. Above and bellow, Vox Populi interface is depicted, showing two nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces. References [Manzolli, 1991] J. Manzolli. Harmonic Strange Attractors, CEM BULLETIN, Vol. 2, No. 2, 4 -- 7, 1991. [Moroni et al., 1999] Moroni, J. Manzolli, F. Von Zuben, R. Gudwin. Evolutionary Computation applied to Algorithmic Composition, Proceedings of CEC99 - IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, Washington D. C., p. 807 -- 811,1999. [Moroni et al., 2000] Moroni, A., Von Zuben, F. and Manzolli, J. ArTbitration, Las Vegas, USA: Proceedings of the 2000 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Workshop Program – GECCO, 143 -- 145, 2000.
series other
email artemis@ia.cti.br
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddssar0028
id ddssar0028
authors Uysal, V. Safak and Wilsing, Markus
year 2000
title Embodying architecture, studying dance: movement as means of studying body-space relationship
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Body, even at its most still form, is the most violent against the acclamations of architectural space formulated in terms of a “search for the order in the environment”. It leans against the wall, hits the table, falls over the bed, approaches the window case, shakes and trembles in empty space: in short, it moves; it is alive. However violently, the presence of the human being is the fundamental input for the architectural practice since it is an art of creating spaces to enhance the living conditions of the human being. In recognizing the violent character of the body, we must include not only the real bodily movement, but also the extensions of that movement which we make in imagination. In this study, the authors discuss the possibilities of studying theatrical dance in order to understand the body-space relationship, constructing an analogy to the contact improvisation technique. Use of space in performance is examined on a two dimensional model: one dimension marked by body and space at its extremes, and the other marked by the affirmative and the negative types of interaction. The schema provides one with a general categorization that classifies space as (1) background, (2) motivator, (3) partner in dialogue, (4) mental counterpart. The limitations brought about by the universal approach are mentioned at the end, in order to be approached within the following study.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0001
id ddssar0001
authors Achten, Henri and Leeuwen, Jos van
year 2000
title Towards generic representations of designs formalised as features
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Feature-Based Modelling (FBM) is an information modelling technique that allows the formalisation of design concepts and using these formal definitions in design modelling. The dynamic nature of design and design information calls for a specialised approach to FBM that takes into account flexibility and extensibility of Feature Models of designs. Research work in Eindhoven has led to a FBM framework and implementation that can be used to support design.. Feature models of a design process has demonstrated the feasibility of using this information modelling technique. To develop the work on FBM in design, three tracks are initiated: Feature model descriptions of design processes, automated generic representation recognition in graphic representations, and Feature models of generic representations. The paper shows the status of the work in the first two tracks, and present the results of the research work.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 88a1
authors Brenner, Claus
year 2000
title Towards Fully Automatic Generation of City Models
source IAPRS Vol. XXXIII, Part B3/1, Comm. III [ISPRS Congress], pp. 85-92
summary Once thought of being useful primarily for planning the location of telecommunication antennas, it has become clear in the meantime that three-dimensional city models are of importance in their own right. This paper presents some of our latest results on the reconstruction of building models from laser scanning DSM’s and digital ground plans. First, we show how buildings can be reconstructed from ground plans and generalize the standard straight skeleton algorithm. In a second step, we introduce the information which can be obtained from DSM segmentation in order to recover building structures which cannot be inferred directly from the ground plan. The work presented in this paper is actually part of our larger ATOP approach, a new framework for the fully automatic generation of city models.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id ga0020
id ga0020
authors Codignola, G.Matteo
year 2000
title [Title missing]
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper is a summary of my last degree in architecture (discussed in December 1999) with Prof. Celestino Soddu and Prof. Enrica Colabella. In this work I had the possibility to reach complexity by a generative approach with the construction of a paradigm that organizes the different codes of project identity. My general objective was to design shape complexity in variable categories : 3d space surfaces, 2d drawings and 2d textures. I was to discover the identity of one of my favourite architects of the 20th century : Antoni Gaudì, by constructing codes relative to shape complexity. I defined my particular objective in the possibility to abduct from Gaudì's imaginary reference the generatives codes that operate in the logical processing I use to create a possible species project. The next step was to verify the exact working of the new generative codes by means of 3d scenaries, that are recognizable as "Antoni Gaudì specie's architecture". Whit project processing on the generative codes and not on a possible resulting shape design, I was able to organize by my general paradigm the attributes of the project's species : different shapes, different attributes (color, scale, proportion), to get to possible and different scenarys, all recognizable by the relative class codes. I chose three examples in Barcellona built during the period 1902 to 1914 : The Parco Guell, Casa Batllò and Casa Milà are the three reference sceneryes that I used to create the generative codes. In the second step I defined different codes that operate in sequence (it is defined in the paradigm) : The generatives codes are only subjective; they are one possible solution of my interpretation of Antoni Gaudì's identity. This codes operate in four differents ways : Geometrical codes for 2d shapes Geometrical codes for interface relations Spatial codes for 3d extrusion of 2d shapes Geometrical codes for 2d and 3d texturing of generated surfaces. By a stratified application of this codes I arrived at one idea for all the generative processes but many different, possible scenaryes, all recognizable in Gaudì's species. So, my final result has made possible sceneryes belonging to related species defined previously. At the end of my research I designed a project by combination : using Antoni Gaudì's generative codes on a new 3d scenary with a shape catalyst : the Frank Lloyd Wright Guggenheim Museum of New York. In this process I created a "hybrid scenary" : a new species of architectural look; a Guggenheim museum planned by Wright with a god pinch of Gaudì.
series other
email coddoc@tin.it
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 958e
authors Coppola, Carlo and Ceso, Alessandro
year 2000
title Computer Aided Design and Artificial Intelligence in Urban and Architectural Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 301-307
summary In general, computer-aided design is still limited to a rather elementary use of the medium, as it is mainly used for the representation/simulation of a design idea w an electronic drawing-table. hich is not computer-generated. The procedures used to date have been basically been those of an electronic drawing-table. At the first stage of development the objective was to find a different and better means of communication, to give form to an idea so as to show its quality. The procedures used were 2D design and 3D simulation models, usually used when the design was already defined. The second stage is when solid 3D modelling is used to define the formal design at the conception stage, using virtual models instead of study models in wood, plastic, etc. At the same time in other connected fields the objective is to evaluate the feasibility of the formal idea by means of structural and technological analysis. The third stage, in my opinion, should aim to develop procedures capable of contributing to both the generation of the formal idea and the simultaneous study of technical feasibility by means of a decision-making support system aided by an Artificial Intelligence procedure which will lead to what I would describe as the definition of the design in its totality. The approach to architectural and urban design has been strongly influenced by the first two stages, though these have developed independently and with very specific objectives. It is my belief that architectural design is now increasingly the result of a structured and complex process, not a simple act of pure artistic invention. Consequently, I feel that the way forward is a procedure able to virtually represent all the features of the object designed, not only in its definitive configuration but also and more importantly in the interactions which determine the design process as it develops. Thus A.I. becomes the means of synthesis for models which are hierarchically subordinated which together determine the design object in its developmental process, supporting decision-making by applying processing criteria which generative modelling has already identified. This trend is currently being experimented, giving rise to interesting results from process design in the field of industrial production.
series eCAADe
email carlo.coppola@unina2.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 389b
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2000
title Sketch that Scene for Me: Creating Virtual Worlds by Freehand Drawing
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 265-268
summary With the Web people can now view virtual threedimensional worlds and explore virtual space. Increasingly, novice users are interested in creating 3D Web sites. Virtual Reality Modeling Language gained ISO status in 1997, although it is being supplanted by the compatible Java3D API and alternative 3D Web technologies compete. Viewing VRML scenes is relatively straightforward on most hardware platforms and browsers, but currently there are only two ways to create 3D virtual scenes: One is to code the scene directly using VRML. The other is to use existing CAD and modeling software, and save the world in VRML format or convert to VRML from some other format. Both methods are time consuming, cumbersome, and have steep learning curves. Pen-based user interfaces, on the other hand, are for many an easy and intuitive method for graphics input. Not only are people familiar with the look and feel of paper and pencil, novice users also find it less intimidating to draw what they want, where they want it instead of using a complicated tool palette and pull-down menus. Architects and designers use sketches as a primary tool to generate design ideas and to explore alternatives, and numerous computer-based interfaces have played on the concept of "sketch". However, we restrict the notion of sketch to freehand drawing, which we believe helps people to think, to envision, and to recognize properties of the objects with which they are working. SKETCH employs a pen interface to create three-dimensional models, but it uses a simple language of gestures to control a three-dimensional modeler; it does not attempt to interpret freehand drawings. In contrast, our support of 3D world creation using freehand drawing depend on users’ traditional understanding of a floor plan representation. Igarashi et al. used a pen interface to drive browsing in a 3D world, by projecting the user’s marks on the ground plane in the virtual world. Our Sketch-3D project extends this approach, investigating an interface that allows direct interpretation of the drawing marks (what you draw is what you get) and serves as a rapid prototyping tool for creating 3D virtual scenes.
keywords Freehand Sketching, Pen-Based User Interface, Interaction, VRML, Navigation
series eCAADe
email ellendo@cmu.edu
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 9f5b
authors Dokonal, W., Martens, B. and Ploesch, R.
year 2000
title Graz: The Creation of a 3-D City Model for Architectural Education
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 171-175
summary This paper describes experiences with the creation of a 3-D City Model at Graz University of Technology. It presents an innovative approach in establishing a city model with the support of the students in the study fields of Architecture and Surveying. The main goal of this work is directed at the implementation within the framework of architectural education. This contribution presents the concept in detail resp.; also discusses matters concerning the level of detail for different uses of such a 3-D model.
keywords 3D City Modeling, City of Graz, Urban Modeling, Architectural Education, Collaboration
series other
email dokonal@stdb.tu-graz.ac.at, b.martens@tuwien.ac.at, ploesch@zid.tu-graz.ac.at
more http://www.digcity.tu-graz.ac.at/
last changed 2001/06/04 12:16

_id ddssar0011
id ddssar0011
authors Hartog, J.P. den, Koutamanis, A. and Luscuere, P.G.
year 2000
title Possibilities and limitations of CFD simulation for indoor climate analysis
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary With the democratization of information and communication technologies, simulation techniques that used to be computationally expensive and time-consuming are becoming feasible instruments for the analysis of architectural design. Simulation is an indispensable ingredient of the descriptive design approach, which provides the designer with precise and accurate projections of the performance and behavior of a design. The paper describes the application of a particular class of simulation techniques, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to the analysis and evaluation of indoor climate. Using two different CFD systems as representatives of the class, we describe: relevant computational possibilities and limitations of CFD simulation; the accessibility of CFD simulation for architects, especially concerning the handling of simulation variables; the compatibility of CFD representations of built space with similar representations in standard CAD and modeling systems, including possibilities for feedback; The relations between geometric representation and accuracy / precision in CFD simulation. We propose that CFD simulation can become an operational instrument for the designer, provided that CFD simulation does not become a trial and error game trying to master computational techniques. A promising solution to this problem is the use of case based reasoning. A case base of analyzed, evaluated and verified buildings provides a flexible source of information (guidance and examples) for both the CFD simulation and the designer.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ca8f
authors Lieberman, Oren
year 2000
title The Application of Object-oriented Software Concepts in Architectural Pedagogy
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 27-33
summary Architecture, a complex discipline that involves many people and things and the relationships amongst them, requires a pedagogical approach by which the student, even in her first year, must be able to think "complexly" across many subjects. The object-oriented analysis and design software programming paradigm, which models complex "realities", or "models the way people understand and process reality", holds promising concepts for architectural education. It is not my intention to extract slavishly all possible concepts from object-orientation (OO) and accept them as a "recipe" for educating the architect. Indeed, one of the reasons I find OO so elegant is that it provides a strategy, a non-prescriptive framework, with which both teachers and students can explore their own architectural investigations. It also provides the possibility of a common language, offering a structure in which, for example, certain standards can be measured within departments, or with which we can negotiate compatibility across different national credit systems to facilitate and encourage cross-cultural (border) exchange.
keywords Object-Oriented, Aspect, Subject-Oriented, Concern Spaces, Reusability, Abstraction/Compression, Encapsulation, Maintenance
series eCAADe
email oren.lieberman@strath.ac.uk
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ddssar0022
id ddssar0022
authors Peng, C., Cerulli, C., Lawson, B., Cooper, G., Rezqui, Y. and Jackson, M.
year 2000
title Recording and managing design decision-making processes through an object-oriented framework
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary In this paper we describe our current research into an object-oriented approach to the recording and managing of design decision-making in the processes of building design. The Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process (ADS) project, funded under the Innovative Manufacturing Initiative by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), aims to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD-based Design Decision Support System. The research focuses on how to provide designers with tools for recording and managing the group dynamics of design decision making in a project's life time without intruding too much on the design process itself. In collaboration with Building Design Partnership, a large multidisciplinary construction design practice, we look at design projects that require decision-making on an extraordinarily wide range of complex issues, and many different professional consultants were involved in making and approving these decisions. We are interested in developing an advanced CAD tool that will facilitate capturing designers' rationales underlying their design decision making throughout the project. The system will also enable us to explore how a recorded project history of decision-making can be searched and browsed by members of the project team during and after design development.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id b34d
authors Russell, P., Kohler, N., Forgber, U., Koch, V. and Rügemer, J.
year 1999
title Interactive Representation of Architectural Design: The Virtual Design Studio as an Architectural Graphics Laboratory
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 459-465
summary This paper introduces the Virtual Design Studio (VDS), an internet based design studio environment established by ifib. VDS transfers lessons learned through research projects in the field of Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) being carried out at ifib into design education. By training for interdisciplinary co-operation within the design process, the students will become better prepared for the flexibility and co-operability required in planning situations. Increasing the communication and co-operation in the planning process can be achieved through the implementation of IT based virtual workspaces. In the design studio setting, this is done through the use of available internet software and technologies. The methodology of the VDS is briefly described including specific assignments intended to focus student investigations into specific areas including the representation of their work using the world wide web. The pedagogical expectations are discussed and anecdotal evidence precedes an general evaluation of the teaching method. The authors postulate that one of the unintended by-products of the studio is the evolution of an effective use of interactivity in the presentation of design concepts, ideas and solutions. A handful of student work is presented to describe the different approaches taken in using the world wide web (WWW) to display project work. A description of the local evolution (VDS specific) of graphical methods and technologies is followed by a comparison with those used in traditional settings. Representation is discussed with focus on the ability of the WWW to replace, augment or corrupt other methods of presentation. The interactive nature of web based presentations induces alterations to the narration of architectural work and can enhance the spatial perception of design space. Space Perception can be enabled through geometrically true VRML representations, the inclusion of auditory sensations, the abstraction of representation through the use of advertising techniques as well as the introduction of non-linear narrative concepts. Examples used by students are shown. A critical assessment of these new representational methods and the place of current new media within the context of architectural representation is discussed.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, Architectural Graphics, Teaching
series eCAADe
email peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id ddssar0026
id ddssar0026
authors Steadman, Philip and Waddoups, Linda
year 2000
title A catalogue of built forms, using a binary representation
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary A technique is described for the representation of a class of rectangular built forms. Each individual form is produced by applying a series of transformations to a single generic or ‘archetypal’ form, which is designed to take care of the broad constraints, on built space, of close-packing and the requirements for natural light and views. Parts of the archetype which are selected for inclusion in any particular built form are then designated by 1s, and parts which are suppressed by 0s. This makes it possible to assign a unique binary code to each different (undimensioned) built form produced from the archetype. Binary codes corresponding to all legitimate forms may then be arranged in ascending order, to create a comprehensive catalogue. The paper describes such a catalogue comprising forms with up to four courtyards, described by 22-digit binary strings. Metric values may be assigned to the various dimensions of each form, making it a matter of simple arithmetic to compute such attributes as volume, surface area, minimum site area or floor space index. From logical operations on the binary strings it is possible to identify a series of configurational characteristics of the corresponding forms, such as their overall plan shapes, the number of courtyards or the potential for symmetry. The catalogue may thus be searched for built forms fulfilling some set of specifications, for example total floor area, site size and certain desired shape attributes. Worked examples are illustrated from the design of multi-storey office buildings. Possible applications are suggested for this approach, in architectural science and the early strategic stages of architectural design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id f727
authors Stouffs, Rudi and Krishnamur, Ramesh
year 2000
title Alternative Computational Design Representations
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 200-202
summary Supporting data sharing among different disciplines, applications, and users in the building industry is a complex and difficult task. Standardization efforts and research into product models have since long attempted to facilitate data exchange among building partners, with little result so far. Different technologies have resulted in different approaches, in particular, an object-oriented approach has led to the specification of IFCs as a basis for information sharing, while other initiatives adopt XML as a flexible language for marking up and describing project information. We propose a concept for representational flexibility, named sorts, that combines many of the advantages of both approaches. Based on an extensible vocabulary of representational classes and compositional relationships and grounded in an object-oriented framework that has each of the representational classes specify its own operational behavior, it will enable a designer to define, develop, and adopt alternative design representations that can suit a specific purpose or task at hand.
series SIGRADI
email r.stouffs@bk.tudelft.nl, ramesh+@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id d267
authors Verbeke, J. Provoost, T., Verleye, J., Nys, K., Van Zutphen, R., Achten, H., Turksma, A., Pittioni, G., Asanowicz, A., Jakimowicz A. and Af Klercker, J.
year 1999
title AVOCAAD, The Experience
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 244-251
summary The Leonardo da Vinci project AVOCAAD (Added Value of Computer Aided Architectural Design) aims at stimulating creative and experimental use of computers in the field of Architecture and Construction by the use of new technologies. For this purpose, a large set of exercises and exercise materials was developed and is now available through an interactive web-site. This allows regular students as well as architects in practice to continuously seek for a more interesting and inspiring use of computers and IC-technology, adding value in their own field of interest and work. The interactive web-site generates a virtual forum for exchange of ideas. The AVOCAAD partners as well as the newly joined partners are currently using and testing the available teaching materials (exercises, foreground and background information) with students. Moreover a small design exercise in the context of the project has been the theme of a workshop held at the AVOCAAD 1999 conference. Students and architects were asked to create a design in a predefined space based on experimental architectural music. This paper intends to report on the experiences we gained in using the interactive web-site, the exercises and also doing the workshop. We will address the pedagogical implications of issues like learning environment, continuous and distance learning, and focus on their impact towards CAAD curricula. Examples and results will illustrate the general framework.
keywords AVOCAAD, CAAD, Creativity, LLL, ODL
series eCAADe
email info@avocaad.org
more http://www.avocaad.org
last changed 2005/09/09 08:46

_id 20ab
authors Yakeley, Megan
year 2000
title Digitally Mediated Design: Using Computer Programming to Develop a Personal Design Process
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Architecture
summary This thesis is based on the proposal that the current system of architectural design education confuses product and process. Students are assessed through, and therefore concentrate on, the former whilst the latter is left in many cases to chance. This thesis describes a new course taught by the author at MIT for the last three years whose aim is to teach the design process away from the complexities inherent in the studio system. This course draws a parallel between the design process and the Constructionist view of learning, and asserts that the design process is a constant learning activity. Therefore, learning about the design process necessarily involves learning the cognitive skills of this theoretical approach to education. These include concrete thinking and the creation of external artifacts to develop of ideas through iterative, experimental, incremental exploration. The course mimics the Constructionist model of using the computer programming environment LOGO to teach mathematics. It uses computer programming in a CAD environment, and specifically the development of a generative system, to teach the design process. The efficacy of such an approach to architectural design education has been studied using methodologies from educational research. The research design used an emergent qualitative model, employing Maykut and Morehouses interpretive descriptive approach (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994) and Glaser and Strausss Constant Comparative Method of data analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Six students joined the course in the Spring 1999 semester. The experience of these students, what and how they learned, and whether this understanding was transferred to other areas of their educational process, were studied. The findings demonstrated that computer programming in a particular pedagogical framework, can help transform the way in which students understand the process of designing. The following changes were observed in the students during the course of the year: Development of understanding of a personalized design process; move from using computer programming to solve quantifiable problems to using it to support qualitative design decisions; change in understanding of the paradigm for computers in the design process; awareness of the importance of intrapersonal and interpersonal communication skills; change in expectations of, their sense of control over, and appropriation of, the computer in the design process; evidence of transference of cognitive skills; change from a Behaviourist to a Constructionist model of learning Thesis Supervisor: William J. Mitchell Title: Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and Planning
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id bb5f
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Mohd Fazidin, J.
year 2001
title Creating a City Administration System (CAS) using Virtual Reality in an Immersive Collaborative Environment (ICE)
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 449-453
summary Current problems in administration of a city are found to be decentralized and noninteractive for an effective city management. This usually will result in inconsistencies of decision-making, inefficient services and slow response to a particular action. City administration often spends more money, time and human resource because of these problems. This research demonstrates our research and development of creating a City Administration System (CAS) to solve the problems stated above. The task of the system is to use information, multimedia and graphical technologies to form a database in which the city administrators can monitor, understand and manage an entire city from a central location. The key technology behind the success of the overall system uses virtual reality and immersive collaborative environment (ICE). This system employs emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to ensure effective decisionmaking process, improved communication, and collaboration, error reduction, (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2000) between multi disciplinary users and approaches. This multi perspective approach allows planners, engineers, urban designers, architects, local authorities, environmentalists and general public to search, understand, process and anticipate the impact of a particular situation in the new city. It is hoped that the CAS will benefit city administrators to give them a tool that gives them the ability to understand, plan, and manage the business of running the city.
keywords City Administration System (CAS), Virtual Reality, Immersive Collaborative Environment (ICE), Database
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my, fazidin@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddssar0002
id ddssar0002
authors Aoki, Yoshitsugu and Inage, Makoto
year 2000
title Linguistic Operation System for Design of Architectural Form
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary In a process of architectural design, an architect not only draws by himself/herself but also lets another person modify a design by given a linguistic instruction expressing how the design ought to be. In the case of utilization of CAD systems, it is useful if the system modifies the design according to the linguistic instruction. On the other hand, because of the recent increase of the opportunities of designing a building whose roof has complicated curved surface, it extremely takes labor to change the design. This paper proposes a linguistic operation system that modifies a design according to the linguistic instruction of the modification by the user to support design of a complicated form with curved surface. The proposed system is expected to be integrated with a CAD system. First, the system presents a perspective sketch of a designed form. From the values of the design variables that characterize the form in the system, the system calculates the position of the form in “the association image space.” Second, the designer puts a linguistic instruction i.e., words as like as “let it be more light” to modify the form. The words used for the instruction have the position in the association image space. In the association image space, the system moves the position of the form to a new position that gets to be near the position of the given word. The system calculates the values of the design variables of the form corresponding to the new position. We need a mapping from every vector representing the position of the changed form in the association image space to the corresponding vector representing the values of the design variables. To find the mapping, we construct a neural network system with three levels. Finally, the system presents a perspective sketch of changed form using the calculated values of design variables.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

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