CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 740

_id 34f7
authors Ehrhardt, Mark A. and Gross, Mark D.
year 2000
title Place Based Web Resources for Historic Buildings
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 177-179
summary Web sites with animations, panoramic images, sound, and virtual reality can provide a strong sense of place, richer than text and photographs and more interactive than cinema. Constructing these sites demands a great deal of visual and textual information, which must be organized, integrated, and coded for delivery. Existing authoring packages are general-purpose, not specifically for architectural applications, and require technical sophistication. In our process for building Place Based Web Resources (PBWRs), after assembling photographic, drawing, text, and audio resources, the author follows a straightforward series of steps. The Hagia Sophia Web Resource resulted from this process; it includes panoramic pictures, photographs and interpretive text about the building and a VRML model.
keywords Historic Documentation, Web Authoring Tools, Representations of Place
series eCAADe
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 837b
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2000
title Using the World Wide Web as a Communication and Presentation Forum for Students of Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 61-64
summary Since 1997, the Institute for Industrial Building Production (ifib) has been carrying out upper level design studios under the framework of the Netzentwurf or Net-Studio. The Netzentwurf is categorized as a virtual design studio in that the environment for presentation, criticism and communication is web based. This allows lessons learned from research into Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) to be adapted to the special conditions indigenous to the architectural design studio. Indeed, an aim of the Netzentwurf is the creation and evolution of a design studio planing platform. In the Winter semester 1999-2000, ifib again carried out two Netzentwurf studios. involving approximately 30 students from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Karlsruhe. The projects differed from previous net studios in that both studios encompassed an inter-university character in addition to the established framework of the Netzentwurf. The first project, the re-use of Fort Kleber in Wolfisheim by Strasbourg, was carried out as part of the Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture (VuuA) involving over 140 students from various disciplines in six institutions from five universities in France, Switzerland and Germany. The second project, entitled "Future, Inc.", involved the design of an office building for a scenario 20 years hence. This project was carried out in parallel with the Technical University Cottbus using the same methodology and program for two separate building sites.
keywords Virtual Design Studios, Architectural Graphics, Presentation Techniques
series eCAADe
email dietrich.elger@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 8805
authors Flemming, U., Erhan, H.I. and Ozkaya, I.
year 2001
title Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD
source Technical Report 48-01-01. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, Institute of Complex Engineered Systems
summary This report describes a graduate interdisciplinary course offered to students in the graduate program of the School of Architecture at Carnegie Mellon and related departments in fall 2000. The motivation was the realization that when commercial CAD (Computer-Aided Design) systems recently switched from procedural application programming languages to object-oriented ones, third-party application must undergo a significant cognitive retooling"; i. e. they must know more than the syntax and semantics of the new programming language to be used and must be able to employ appropriate software development strategies that are appropriate for the new paradigm. especially with respect to the importance of modeling, a distinguishing characteristic of object-oriented programming. The goal of the course was (a) to introduce and test strategies of object-oriented application development in general and in the context of MicroStation, a state-of-the-art commercial CAD package; (b) to develop-as a course team project-an interesting application that gives students practice with these strategies and team work; and (c) to document our approach and findings so that others can learn from them. The strategies introduced were the use-case approach of Jacobson et al. and the complementary object-modeling tools of Rumbaugh that were recently integrated into the Unified Modeling Language UML. The software platform supporting the course comprised MicroStation, JMDL (a superset of Java) and ProjectBank on the CAD side and RationalRose on the modeling side. The application developed by students in the course supports the generation of drawings for remodeling projects from a set of dgn files describing the existing state of the building to be remodeled. The course was supported by a grant and in-kind contributions from Bentley with matching funds from the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technology Alliance (PITA)."
series report
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id gerardgabriel_phd
id gerardgabriel_phd
authors Gabriel, Gerard Caesar
year 2000
title COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION IN DESIGN
source PhD Thesis, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sydney
summary Up till now, architects collaborating with other colleagues did so mostly face-to-face (FTF). They had to be in the same space (co-located) at the same time. Communication was ‘spontaneous’ and ideas were represented, whether verbal or nonverbal, by talking and using ‘traditional drawing tools’. If they were geographically displaced, the interaction was then space affected as well as the probability of being time affected. In this case communication was usually mediated through the telephone, and graphically represented ideas were sent by Fax or posted documents. Recently, some architectural firms started using modems and Internet connections to exchange information, by transferring CAD drawings as well as design information, through e-mail and file transfer protocol (FTP). Discussing ideas in architecture, as a more abstract notion, is different from discussing other more concrete arguments using video conferencing. It is more important to ‘see’ what is being discussed at hand than ‘watch’ the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the mode of communication. Taking into consideration recent developments in computer and communication technologies this thesis investigates different communication channels utilised in architectural collaboration through Computer Mediated Collaborative Design (CMCD) sessions as opposed to FTF sessions. This thesis investigates the possible effects these different channels have on collaborative design in general and collaborative design communication in particular. We argue that successful CMCD does not necessarily mean emulating close proximity environments. Excluding certain communication channels in a CMCD environment might affect the flow and quantity of synchronous collaborative communication, but not necessarily the quality and content of mutually communicated and represented design ideas. Therefore different communication channels might affect the type of communication and not necessarily the content of the communication. We propose that audio and video are not essential communication channels in CMCD environments. We posit that architects will collaborate and communicate design representations effectively although with some differences, since those two channels might cause interruptions and successful collaborative sessions can take place without them. For this purpose we conducted twenty-four one-hour experiments involving final year architecture students all working to the same design brief. The experiments were divided into three categories, FTF, full computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-a; audio-video conferencing plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space) and limited computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-b; with Lambda MOO used as a chat medium plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space). The experiments were video and audio taped, transcribed and coded into a custom developed coding scheme. The results of the analysed coded data and observations of the videotapes provided evidence that there were noticeable differences between the three categories. There was more design communication and less communication control in the CMCD-b category compared to the FTF and CMCD-a categories. Verbal communication became shorter and straight to the point in CMCD-b as opposed to spontaneous non-stop chat in the other two categories. Moreover in CMCD-b the subjects were observed to be more reflective as well as choosing and re-examining their words to explain ideas to their partners. At times they were seen scrolling back through the text of the conversation in order to re-analyse or interpret the design ideas at hand. This was impossible in FTF and CMCD-a sessions, since the subjects were more spontaneous and audio representations were lost as soon as they were uttered. Also the video channel in the CMCD-a category was ignored and hardly used except for the first few minutes of the experiments, for a brief exchange of light humour on the appearance of each subject. The results obtained from analysing the experiments helped us conclude that different communication channels produce different collaborative environments. The three categories of communication for architectural collaboration explored in our experiments are indicative of the alternatives available to architects now. What is not clear to architects is why they would choose one category over another. We propose that each category has its own strengths and difficulties for architectural collaboration, and therefore should be selected on the basis of the type of communication considered to be most effective for the stage and tasks of the design project.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email gerard.gabriel@usyd.edu.au
last changed 2005/09/09 11:02

_id 6f41
authors Gambao, E., Balaguer, C. and Gebhart, F.
year 2000
title Robot assembly system for computer-integrated construction
source Automation in Construction 9 (5-6) (2000) pp. 479-487
summary The construction industry demands a productivity increase that cannot be attained by means of traditional methods for masonry that have already reached their system limits and cannot contribute to further effectiveness. Further rationalisation can only be achieved by the reduction of labour and construction times. Therefore, a certain innovative leap is required by a system approach that combines the already existing construction technologies with new information, automation and robot technologies. An integrated automation system has been developed in the European ESPRIT III Robot Assembly System for Computer Integrated Construction (ROCCO) Project. Industrial partners and research centres from Germany, Spain and Belgium that are linked to the construction industry and robotics have formed the consortium. Block assembly tasks are performed by means of two robotics systems. One of the many challenges of these systems is related with the development of the control approach of large-range robots with hydraulic actuators. Conventional control strategies, based on PID or PD controllers and linear models, are unsuitable and prove completely inefficient for these robots. New control methods are necessary in order to achieve high performance with a reasonable time-consuming algorithm, useful in a real time control system. The most significant aspects related to the development of these robotic systems and their control systems are presented in this paper.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id aabc
authors Ha, Q.P., Nguyen, Q.H., Rye, D.C. and Durrant-Whyte, H.F.
year 2000
title Impedance control of a hydraulically actuated robotic excavator
source Automation in Construction 9 (5-6) (2000) pp. 421-435
summary In robotic excavation, hybrid position/force control has been proposed for bucket digging trajectory following. In hybrid position/force control, the control mode is required to switch between position- and force-control depending on whether the bucket is in free space or in contact with the soil during the process. Alternatively, impedance control can be applied such that one control mode is employed in both free and constrained motion. This paper presents a robust sliding controller that implements impedance control for a backhoe excavator. The control law consists of three components: an equivalent control, a switching control and a tuning control. Given an excavation task in world space, inverse kinematic and dynamic models are used to convert the task into a desired digging trajectory in joint space. The proposed controller is applied to provide good tracking performance with attenuated vibration at bucket–soil contact points. From the control signals and the joint angles of the excavator, the piston position and ram force of each hydraulic cylinder for the axis control of the boom, arm, and bucket can be determined. The problem is then how to find the control voltage applied to each servovalve to achieve force and position tracking of each electrohydraulic system for the axis motion of the boom, arm, and bucket. With an observer-based compensation for disturbance force including hydraulic friction, tracking of the piston ram force and position is guaranteed using robust sliding control. High performance and strong robustness can be obtained as demonstrated by simulation and experiments performed on a hydraulically actuated robotic excavator. The results obtained suggest that the proposed control technique can provide robust performance when employed in autonomous excavation with soil contact considerations.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 10e9
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title DYNAMO in Action - Development and Use of a Web-Based Design Tool
source J. Pohl & T. Fowler (eds.), Proceedings of the Focus Symposium on Advances in Computer-Based and Web-Based Collaborative Systems - InterSymp-2000 International Conference On Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, Baden-Baden (Germany), July 31 - Aug 4, 2000 (ISBN 0-921836-88-0), pp. 233-242
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Design (CBD), the paper describes the development and use of a Web-based design tool called DYNAMO. The tool is firmly rooted in the Dynamic Memory Theory underlying the CBD approach. Yet, rather than adopting it as such, we have tried to enrich this approach by extrapolating it beyond the individual. This extrapolation stimulates and intensifies several modes of interaction. Doing so, DYNAMO tries to kill two birds with one stone. At short notice, it provides architects and architecture students with a rich source of inspiration, ideas and design knowledge for their present design task, as it is filled with a permanently growing collection of design cases that is accessible on-line. Its long-term objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by the cognitive model underlying CBD, and Case-Based Reasoning in general. DYNAMO is therefore conceived as an (inter-)active workhouse rather than a passive warehouse: it is interactively developed by and actively develops the user's design knowledge. Whereas previous papers have focused on the theoretical ideas of DYNAMO, this paper points out how Web technology enables us to implement these ideas as a working prototype. Furthermore, an annotated scenario of the system in use is described.
keywords Case-Based Design, Web Technology, Architectural Design
series journal paper
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/11/22 13:50

_id 326c
authors Hirschberg, U., Gramazio, F., H¾ger, K., Liaropoulos Legendre, G., Milano, M. and Stöger, B.
year 2000
title EventSpaces. A Multi-Author Game And Design Environment
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 65-72
summary EventSpaces is a web-based collaborative teaching environment we developed for our elective CAAD course. Its goal is to let the students collectively design a prototypical application - the EventSpaces.Game. The work students do to produce this game and the process of how they interact is actually a game in its own right. It is a process that is enabled by the EventSpaces.System, which combines work, learning, competition and play in a shared virtual environment. The EventSpaces.System allows students to criticize, evaluate, and rate each otherÕs contributions, thereby distributing the authorship credits of the game. The content of the game is therefore created in a collaborative as well as competitive manner. In the EventSpaces.System, the students form a community that shares a common interest in the development of the EventSpaces.Game. At the same time they are competing to secure as much credit as possible for themselves. This playful incentive in turn helps to improve the overall quality of the EventSpaces.Game, which is in the interest of all authors. This whole, rather intricate functionality, which also includes a messaging system for all EventSpaces activities, is achieved by means of a database driven online working environment that manages and displays all works produced. It preserves and showcases each authorÕs contributions in relation to the whole and allows for the emergence of coherence from the multiplicity of solutions. This Paper first presents the motivation for the project and gives a short technical summary of how the project was implemented. Then it describes the nature of the exercises and discusses possible implications that this approach to collaboration and teaching might have.
series eCAADe
email hirschberg@arch.ethz.ch, gramazio@arch.ethz.ch, hoeger@arch.ethz.ch, georgell@gsd.harvard.edu, milano@arch.ethz.ch, staeger@arch.ethz.ch
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 2004_024
id 2004_024
authors Holmgren, S., Rüdiger, B., Storgaard, K. and Tournay, B.
year 2004
title The Electronic Neighbourhood - A New Urban Space
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 24-34
summary During the event Cultural Market Days on 23 and 24 August 2003 at Noerrebro Park in Copenhagen, visitors could also enter the marketplace from their home via the Internet, as a digital 3D model had been constructed that showed the marketplace with all its information booths and activities. This virtual marketplace functioned as an extension of the urban space, allowing you to take part in the flow of information, activities and experiences that were offered in the marketplace. And this just by a click on the Internet address: http://www.e-kvarter.dk. Furthermore at certain times of the day you could chat with people from some of the many working groups of the urban regeneration project in Noerrebro. The digital 3D model is similar to the marketplace, but it creates its own universe in the green surroundings of Noerrebro Park. And now, when the Cultural Market Days are finished and the booths and people have gone, the Electronic Marketplace still remains on the Internet, with a potential for developing a new public space for information, dialogue and cooperation between the actors of the urban regeneration project. This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project, The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban regeneration project in Copenhagen. The Danish Agency for Enterprise and Housing, the Ministry for Refugees, Immigration and Integration and Copenhagen Municipality have financed the research, which is planned to be published 2004. The results can also be followed on the Internet www.e-kvarter.dk.
keywords 3D Modelling; Virtual Environments; Design Process; Human-Computer Interaction; Collaborative Design; Urban Planning
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id d83d
authors Hsu, Ying-Chun
year 2000
title Constraint Based Space Planning: A Case Study
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 2-3
summary The initial design process usually requires a long incubation time for architects to bring together form and function. In this exciting and painful process, architects use their professional training to adjust the relationship between spaces, and include the requirements from the clients. The computer has the potential to be the key and the most powerful tool in this long process. In the software market, the software packages for architecture now are mostly for computing values or drafting. They are not very helpful in the design process.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id 437d
authors Hsu, Ying-Chun
year 2000
title Constraint Based Space Planning: A Case Study
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 2-3
summary The initial design process usually requires a long incubation time for architects to bring together form and function. In this exciting and painful process, architects use their professional training to adjust the relationship between spaces, and include the requirements from the clients. The computer has the potential to be the key and the most powerful tool in this long process. In the software market, the software packages for architecture now are mostly for computing values or drafting. They are not very helpful in the design process.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id c839
authors Hwang, Jie-Eun
year 2002
title SpaceScope: Developing a Spatial Information Retrieval System - Focused on Apartment Unit Floor Plans -
source Yonsei University, Dept. of Housing & Interior Design
summary This research investigates the spatial information retrieval (IR) in architecture focused on constructing efficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is ‘structured data about data’ to describe resources especially in a digital format. In this research, metadata is a sort of data object to be useful in searching spatial information. Metadata is also used to describe raw spatial data object as not only attribute data but also content structurally and semantic ally. There are two issues that motivate this research; 1) what is the spatial information – that materializes the intangible space as a data object, and 2) how we can search the information efficiently – the content-based information retrieval. Although knowledge of a building’s spatial content is most important in architecture, there has been no logical method to manage it.

From the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, the researcher analyzes spatial information of a floor plan, with a focus on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then the metadata items are extracted in a structured manner. To manage the items efficiently, the researcher develops a data model for spatial information according to the concept of the “Structured Floor Plan”. The main object of content to retrieve is a spatial network that consists of nodes of spaces and their linkages. There are two ways to organize the metadata: the traditional index files and the RDF (Resource Description Framework). While the index files are still efficient with computability, the RDF applies greater options to retrieve, such as fuzzy predicates, semantic predicates, and so on. To exploit the metadata, this research shows several possibilities of query operations that present a set of sample queries about L-DK(Living room – Dining room – Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) a modeling module using Vitruvius; 2) an indexing module using MS SQL Server? 2000 in conjunction XML; and 3) a browsing module using the SpaceScope browser.

The future works may consider XML-based databases and a knowledge based query language, such as RQL/XQL, working on such databases. The more specific domain knowledge is involved, the more practical systems would be. Even in architecture, there may be a diverse range of domain knowledge, such as design, building performance, facility management, energy management, post occupied evaluation, historical research, and so on. Also the issue of interface should be investigated in depth, so that it will be adequate to the needs of the architectural field.

keywords Content-based Information Retrieval; Metadata; RDF; XML; Spatial Information; Apartment Floor Plan; Semantics
series thesis:MSc
email curiozen@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2003/04/25 05:27

_id 9554
authors Jagbeck, A.
year 2000
title Field test of a product-model-based construction planning tool
source CIDAC, Volume 2 Issue 2 May 2000, pp. 80-91
summary Over the past decade, more than a dozen papers describing proposals for product-model-based planning models have been published, but only a few of these proposals have been implemented in prototypes that have been tested in full-scale tests. PreFacto is a research-based software for production planning based on product model data, which has been developed and tested in close cooperation with a construction company. It is operational but still under development. Assessing the degree of functionality achieved so far is a natural part of a modern cyclical software development process. This paper describes a 6-month full-scale field trial of the PreFacto system undertaken by the site management in cooperation with the author. It was carried out as a parallel planning activity on a real ongoing project. The trial was documented and the system's usability for the construction planning process was analysed and evaluated using mainly qualitative methods. The evaluated planning activities include importing product model data and performing a range of planning activities. The evaluation addressed such usability aspects as system capacity, ease of use of the interface, and conceptual compliance with the use context and the various planning tasks. The test method was useful for checking the conceptual model from the user's point of view. At the same time, the field trial worked equally as a case study for developers, a study of a degree of reality that would not have been possible in a laboratory situation. Apart from the evaluation of the features of the software itself, there are some results of general interest. the main result was that all the advantages of the system derive from the connection between design and planning, i.e. the use of a product model as a basis for defining the result of production tasks. Allowing production managers to freely structure tasks and to apply resource recipes were the most relevant functions.
keywords Integration, Information, Construction, Planning, Field Trial, Product Model
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id ddssar0014
id ddssar0014
authors Janssen, P., Frazer, J. and Ming-xi, T.
year 2000
title Evolutionary design systems: a conceptual framework for the creation of generative processes
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper presents an conceptual framework for the construction of generative mapping processes as a basis for creating active design tools in the domain of architecture. Such generative processes are seen as key components within evolutionary systems that manipulate populations of alternative solutions in order to discover previously unexplored possibilities. Solutions are represented in two forms: as highly encoded genotypes referred to as design seeds and as decoded phenotypes referred to as design proposals. The generative process maps the design seed to the design proposal. The discussion of generative processes is in two parts. In the first part it is argued that any generative process that aims to create a wide range of solutions that differ from each other in fundamental ways must focus on a limited subcategory of possible designs. It is proposed that the endeavour to create active design tools demands that the focus be on the designer's highly personalised style, called a design-schema. The second part discusses how to uncover the essence of an architectural design-schema. In particular, it is argued that implicit and familiar aspects of buildings must be scrutinised in order to reveal the knowledge that is essential to capturing and codifying a design-schema. A range of rationalisations and conceptualisations of built form are presented with examples to illustrate possible routes of analysis. Finally, in conclusion, the possibility of discovering universal generators common to many divers generative processes are discussed.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 27e1
authors Janssen, P., Frazer, J. and Tang, M.X.
year 2000
title Evolutionary design systems: a conceptual framework for the creation of generative processes
source Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Design Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Nijkerk, The Netherlands, pp. 190-200
summary Design tools that aim not only to analyse and evaluate, but also to generate and explore alternative design proposals are now under development. An evolutionary paradigm is presented as a basis for creating such tools. First, the evolutionary paradigm is shown to be the only successful design system on which this new phase of design tool could be based. Secondly, any characterisation of design as a search problem is argued to be a serious misconception. Instead it is proposed that evolutionary design systems should be seen as generative processes that are able to evaluate their own output. Thirdly, a generic framework for generative evolutionary design systems is presented. Fourth, the generative process is introduced as key element within this generic framework. The role of the environment within this process is fundamental. Finally, the direction of future research within the evolutionary design paradigm is discussed with possible short and long term goals being presented.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id d64b
authors Kieferle, Joachim B.
year 2000
title Virtual Space - New Tasks for Architects
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 205-208
summary The meaning of architecture is extended due to the new media. As never before, computers help architects to handle huge amounts of information or give them a freedom to handle complex shaped models. However, it is not the shapes, but the space and its qualities they are created in, that imposes a new kind of architecture. This article focuses in an abridged version on some attributes of virtual space, its expanding features for real space and what the chances for architecture might be. But - what is space? Is it something objective? How is it perceived by man? This questions have to be answered first to understand the following hypothesis.
series eCAADe
email kieferle@igp.uni-stuttgart.de
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 96d0
authors Knight, Mike W. and Brown, André
year 2000
title Towards Naturalistic Navigation Metaphors for large scale Virtual Environments
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 247-250
summary This paper looks at the background to the development of alternative interfaces to Virtual Environments and suggests a reappraisal of some of the early work which allowed a sense of presence in the ‚real’ world. Initial work, the virtual exercise bike, is appraised, and new work is described which further develops the development of a low-cost interface system. Work in progress is described which is a combination of hard- and software. The solution described is a ‚hands free’ interface enabling the user to experience a VE in a similar manner to a physical environment, using movements of the head and feet for navigation. Whilst this is possible using expensive, proprietary equipment, the presented solution concentrates on a low cost approach. In line with this, the system uses a low cost gaming environment which is described and evaluated.
series SIGRADI
email m.w.knight@liv.ac.uk, andygpb@liv.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id ac16
authors Kokosalakis, Jen
year 2000
title Researching Local Architect Preferences of Mode of CPD Learning
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 73-76
summary Curriculum development of a new learning/training package to encourage greater use of computers to architects in NorthWest England will be founded on research to identify what is needed and the most effective way to deliver and disseminate the learning material. Employing the research technique of "Focus Groups" local architects (the consumers) will identify the way they prefer to learn. This approach, emergent background to local CAAD usage and attitudes and early indications of learning mode preference is presented here.
series eCAADe
email j.kokosalakis@livjm.ac.uk
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

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