CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id dcb9
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 2000
title Digital Architectures
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 251-256
summary This paper surveys different approaches in contemporary architectural design in which digital media is used not as a representational tool for visualization but as a generative tool for the derivation of form and its transformation. Such approaches are referred to as digital architectures – the computationally based processes of form origination and transformations. The paper examines the digital generative processes based on concepts such as topological space, motion dynamics, parametric design and genetic algorithms. It emphasizes the possibilities for the “finding of form,” which the emergence of various digitally based generative techniques seem to bring about.
series ACADIA
email branko@pobox.upenn.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ga0008
id ga0008
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2000
title Redirecting design generation in architecture
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Design generation has been the traditional culmination of computational design theory in architecture. Motivated either by programmatic and functional complexity (as in space allocation) or by the elegance and power of representational analyses (shape grammars, rectangular arrangements), research has produced generative systems capable of producing new designs that satisfied certain conditions or of reproducing exhaustively entire classes (such as all possible Palladian villas), comprising known and plausible new designs. Most generative systems aimed at a complete spatial design (detailing being an unpopular subject), with minimal if any intervention by the human user / designer. The reason for doing so was either to give a demonstration of the elegance, power and completeness of a system or simply that the replacement of the designer with the computer was the fundamental purpose of the system. In other words, the problem was deemed either already resolved by the generative system or too complex for the human designer. The ongoing democratization of the computer stimulates reconsideration of the principles underlying existing design generation in architecture. While the domain analysis upon which most systems are based is insightful and interesting, jumping to a generative conclusion was almost always based on a very sketchy understanding of human creativity and of the computer's role in designing and creativity. Our current perception of such matters suggests a different approach, based on the augmentation of intuitive creative capabilities with computational extensions. The paper proposes that architectural generative design systems can be redirected towards design exploration, including the development of alternatives and variations. Human designers are known to follow inconsistent strategies when confronted with conflicts in their designs. These strategies are not made more consistent by the emerging forms of design analysis. The use of analytical means such as simulation, couple to the necessity of considering a rapidly growing number of aspects, means that the designer is confronted with huge amounts of information that have to be processed and integrated in the design. Generative design exploration that can combine the analysis results in directed and responsive redesigning seems an effective method for the early stages of the design process, as well as for partial (local) problems in later stages. The transformation of generative systems into feedback support and background assistance for the human designer presupposes re-orientation of design generation with respect to the issues of local intelligence and autonomy. Design generation has made extensive use of local intelligence but has always kept it subservient to global schemes that tended to be holistic, rigid or deterministic. The acceptance of local conditions as largely independent structures (local coordinating devices) affords a more flexible attitude that permits not only the emergence of internal conflicts but also the resolution of such conflicts in a transparent manner. The resulting autonomy of local coordinating devices can be expanded to practically all aspects and abstraction levels. The ability to have intelligent behaviour built in components of the design representation, as well as in the spatial and building elements they signify, means that we can create the new, sharper tools required by the complexity resulting from the interpretation of the built environment as a dynamic configuration of co-operating yet autonomous parts that have to be considered independently and in conjunction with each other.   P.S. The content of the paper will be illustrated by a couple of computer programs that demonstrate the princples of local intelligence and autonomy in redesigning. It is possible that these programs could be presented as independent interactive exhibits but it all depends upon the time we can make free for the development of self-sufficient, self-running demonstrations until December.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddssar0015
id ddssar0015
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2000
title Recognition of spatial grouping in rectangular arrangements
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Rectangular arrangements are an efficient technique for generating an exhaustive catalogue of a class of designs. Moreover, they offer the possibility of retrieving designs from such a catalogue on the basis of geometric or topological features. The paper describes an extension of the possibilities of rectangular arrangements in indexing and retrieving catalogues of architectural floor plans through the recognition of spatial grouping. Using an adaptation of the chain code, each space in a shape arrangement is labeled in terms of its bilateral geometric relationships with contiguous spaces. This means that each space is maximally labeled as many times as the number of its contiguous spaces. The labels of a space are ordered on the basis of a priority list that reflects the stylistic preferences of the particular design class. Grouping of spaces uses the ordered space labels as criteria. The groups returned by this process agree with human intuitive perception of spatial grouping in the floor plan, as well as with expert architectural knowledge. For example, Palladian floor plans are consistently grouped into a central space group flanked by two symmetric space groups.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0017
id ddssar0017
authors Leeuwen, Jos van and Vries, Bauke de
year 2000
title Capturing design knowledge in formal concept definitions
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary For support of creativity in architectural design, design systems must be provided with information models that are flexible enough to follow the dynamic way of designers in handling early design information. This paper discusses a framework for information modelling using Features that answers this need. One of the characteristics of the framework is that designers can define the formalisation of their own design concepts into types of Features. The definition of these Feature Types can be done in different manners; three scenarios for this procedure are presented and discussed.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 96a7
authors Li, Heng and Love, Peter E.D.
year 2000
title Genetic search for solving construction site-level unequal-area facility layout problems
source Automation in Construction 9 (2) (2000) pp. 217-226
summary A construction site represents a conflux of concerns, constantly calling for a broad and multi-criteria approach to solving problems related to site planning and design. As an important part of site planning and design, the objective of site-level facility layout is to allocate appropriate locations and areas for accommodating temporary site-level facilities such as warehouses, job offices, workshops and batch plants. Depending on the size, location and nature of the project, the required temporary facilities may vary. The layout of facilities can influence on the production time and cost in projects. In this paper, a construction site-level facility layout problem is described as allocating a set of predetermined facilities into a set of predetermined places, while satisfying layout constraints and requirements. A genetic algorithm system, which is a computational model of Darwinian evolution theory, is employed to solve the facilities layout problem. A case study is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the genetic algorithm system in solving the construction site-level facility layout problems.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 0995
authors Liapi, Katherine A.
year 2000
title Computer Simulation and Visualization of Geometrically Changing Structures
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 267-271
summary The design of building structures that change shape and form to adapt to different functions or weather conditions requires the application of innovative building technologies, as well as the invention of a new architectural morphology. This morphology is directly related to the kinematic conception of the structure. A computer simulation of the motion of the structure and the display of the structure as an animation of moving parts can identify problems in its initial geometric and kinematic conception. It can also assess the effect of the changing geometry of the structure on space definition, building morphology, and functionality.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id 00d5
authors Liou, ShuennRen and Chyn, TaRen
year 2000
title Constructing Geometric Regularity underlying Building Facades
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 313-315
summary Geometric regularity constitutes a basis for designers to initiate the formulation of building shapes and urban forms. For example, Le Corbusier considers the regulating line "an inevitable element of architecture" and uses it as a "means" for understanding and creating good designs. Thomas Beeby argues that the acquisition of knowledge on geometric construction plays a crucial role in the education of architecture design. This paper illustrates a computational approach to constructing the regularity of architectural geometry. The formal structure underlying a single façade and continuous façades are examined.
keywords Geometric Regularity, Building Facades, Cluster Analysis, CAAD
series eCAADe
email shuenn@mail.thu.edu.tw
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 52a4
authors Llavaneras S., Gustavo J.
year 2000
title Bases para el desarrollo de un Asistente Inteligente que ayude a los diseñadores con las fenestraciones (Base for the Development of an Intelligent Assistant Who Helps the Designers with Fenestrations)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 230-235
summary In this paper we discuss the basis for the design of an Intelligent Design Assistants system, as for the development and application of an intelligent agent for design, predict and evaluate fenestrations. Its main goal is to answer our worries about the possibility of the implementation of the Partnership Paradigm through the development of one Intelligent Design Assistant. The paper deals from the difficulties of defining what design is, through its two main Paradigms, their instrumentation in CAAD systems, definition and explanation of the Partnership Paradigm, as proposed by Swerdloff y Kalay, agents approach, to the Intelligent Design Assistants system, in special one Assistant for Designing fenestrations. The paper finishes with the author’s vision on what the future on the Architecture profession will be in a world of Intelligent Design Assistants.
series SIGRADI
email gustavo@posta.arq.ucv.ve
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 97fc
authors Lonsway, Brian
year 2000
title Testing the Space of the Virtual
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 51-61
summary Various modes of electronically mediated communication, perception, and immersive bodily engagement, generally categorized as “virtual experiences,” have offered the designer of space a new array of spatial conditions to address. Each of these modes of virtual experience, from text-based discussion forums to immersive virtual reality environments, presents challenges to traditional assumptions about space and its inhabitation. These challenges require design theorization which extends beyond the notions of design within the electronic space (the textual description of the chat forum, the appearance of the computer generated imagery, etc.), and require a reconsideration of the entire electronic and physical apparatus of the mediating devices (the physical spaces which facilitate the interaction, the manner of their connection to the virtual spaces, etc.). In light of the lack of spatial theorization in this area, this paper presents both an experimental framework for understanding this complete space of the virtual and outlines a current research project addressing these theoretical challenges through the spatial implementation of a synthetic environment.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id ddssar0018
id ddssar0018
authors Loon, Peter Paul van
year 2000
title Team design from the individual points of viewa humanistic approach
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper deals with design in teams from the individual points of view of all the parties involved in the process: principals, investors, owners, specialists, experts, advisors, officials, builders, users and residents. Taken together, these different points of view enable us to describe decentralised design in its pure form.Discussion of the individual points of view is possible only if one assumes that the parties involved have their own standpoints in the form of a collection of definable goals (all their wishes, efforts, principles, standards etc.), that they will endeavour to achieve those goals and that they will adjust their actions and decisions during the design process to serve those goals. For the elaboration of this individual point of view (of team design in a matrix structure) I shall take as a basis two concepts from decision theory: ‘methodological individualism’ and ‘the actor’s viewpoint’.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ga0004
id ga0004
authors Lund, Andreas
year 2000
title Evolving the Shape of Things to Come - A Comparison of Interactive Evolution and Direct Manipulation for Creative Tasks
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper is concerned with differences between direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design as two fundamentally different interaction styles for creative tasks. Its main contribution to the field of generative design is the treatment of interactive evolutionary design as a general interaction style that can be used to support users in creative tasks. Direct manipulation interfaces, a term coined by Ben Shneiderman in the mid-seventies, are the kind of interface that is characteristic of most modern personal computer application user interfaces. Typically, direct manipulation interfaces incorporate a model of a context (such as a desktop environment) supposedly familiar to users. Rather than giving textual commands (i.e. "remove file.txt", "copy file1.txt file2.txt") to an imagined intermediary between the user and the computer, the user acts directly on the objects of interest to complete a task. Undoubtedly, direct manipulation has played an important role in making computers accessible to non-computer experts. Less certain are the reasons why direct manipulation interfaces are so successful. It has been suggested that this kind of interaction style caters for a sense of directness, control and engagement in the interaction with the computer. Also, the possibilities of incremental action with continuous feedback are believed to be an important factor of the attractiveness of direct manipulation. However, direct manipulation is also associated with a number of problems that make it a less than ideal interaction style in some situations. Recently, new interaction paradigms have emerged that address the shortcomings of direct manipulation in various ways. One example is so-called software agents that, quite the contrary to direct manipulation, act on behalf of the user and alleviate the user from some of the attention and cognitive load traditionally involved in the interaction with large quantities of information. However, this relief comes at the cost of lost user control and requires the user to put trust into a pseudo-autonomous piece of software. Another emerging style of human-computer interaction of special interest for creative tasks is that of interactive evolutionary design (sometimes referred to as aesthetic selection). Interactive evolutionary design is inspired by notions from biological evolution and may be described as a way of exploring a large – potentially infinite – space of possible design configurations based on the judgement of the user. Rather than, as is the case with direct manipulation, directly influencing the features of an object, the user influences the design by means of expressing her judgement of design examples. Variations of interactive evolutionary design have been employed to support design and creation of a variety of objects. Examples of such objects include artistic images, web advertising banners and facial expressions. In order to make an empirical investigation possible, two functional prototypes have been designed and implemented. Both prototypes are targeted at typeface design. The first prototype allows a user to directly manipulate a set of predefined attributes that govern the design of a typeface. The second prototype allows a user to iteratively influence the design of a typeface by means of expressing her judgement of typeface examples. Initially, these examples are randomly generated but will, during the course of interaction, converge upon design configurations that reflect the user’s expressed subjective judgement. In the evaluation of the prototypes, I am specifically interested in users’ sense of control, convergence and surprise. Is it possible to maintain a sense of control and convergence without sacrificing the possibilities of the unexpected in a design process? The empirical findings seem to suggest that direct manipulation caters for a high degree of control and convergence, but with a small amount of surprise and sense of novelty. The interactive evolutionary design prototype supported a lower degree of experienced control, but seems to provide both a sense of surprise and convergence. One plausible interpretation of this is that, on the one hand, direct manipulation is a good interaction style for realizing the user’s intentions. On the other hand, interactive evolutionary design has a potential to actually change the user’s intentions and pre-conceptions of that which is being designed and, in doing so, adds an important factor to the creative process. Based on the empirical findings, the paper discusses situations when interactive evolutionary design may be a serious contender with direct manipulation as the principal interaction style and also how a combination of both styles can be applied.
series other
email andreas.lund@interactiveinstitute.se
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddssar0019
id ddssar0019
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 2000
title Networking: media, representation and architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary In this paper we present a pedagogic work, carried out in a third year architecture course, focused on the relationship between teaching content and media. The subject-matter of the course is the concept of representation; an eminently philosophical issue which transcends the limits of a particular discipline. The media that have been used are mostly the web, along with other standard programs to process text and images, create models and animations. The core of this research work is the course ‘Sistemas de Representación’, which has taken place for the first time in the academic year 1999/00. The course is structured in six themes, each one standing for a system of representation: TEXT, FIGURE, OBJECT, IMAGE, SPACE and LIGHT. Within every system, a variety of topics dealing with the concept of representation are addressed in an interdisciplinary manner. A web based learning environment named NETWORKING has been created especially for the course. This environment allows students to perform a variety of collaborative works: drawing visual and linguistic relationships, developing further the works of other students, and participating in collective processes of form generation and space perception.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2720
authors Magyar, Peter and Temkin, Aron
year 2000
title Developing an Algorithm for Topological Transformation
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 203-205
summary This research intends to test the architectural application of Jean Piaget’s clinical observations, described in the book: The Child’s Conception of Space (Piaget, 1956), according to which topology is an ordering discipline, active in the human psyche. Earlier attempts, based on the principles of graph-theory, were able to cover only a narrow aspect of spatial relations, i.e. connectivity, and were mostly a-perceptional, visually mute. The “Spaceprint” method, explained and illustrated in co-author’s book: Thought Palaces (Magyar, 1999), through dimensional reduction, investigates volumetric, 3D characteristics and relationships with planar 2D configurations. These configurations, however, represent dual values: they are simultaneously the formal descriptors of both finite matter and (fragments of) infinite space. The so- called “Particular Spaceprint”, as a tool of design development in building, object, or urban scales, with the help of digital technology, could express - again simultaneously - qualities of an idea-gram and the visual, even tactile aspects of material reality. With topological surface-transformations, the “General Spaceprints”, these abstract yet visually active spatial formulas can be obtained.
series SIGRADI
email pmagyar@fau.edu, atemkin@fau.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 53c6
authors Mardaljevic, John
year 2000
title Daylight Simulation: Validation, Sky Models and Daylight Coefficients
source De Montfort University, Leicester, UK
summary The application of lighting simulation techniques for daylight illuminance modelling in architectural spaces is described in this thesis. The prediction tool used for all the work described here is the Radiance lighting simulation system. An overview of the features and capabilities of the Radiance system is presented. Daylight simulation using the Radiance system is described in some detail. The relation between physical quantities and the lighting simulation parameters is made clear in a series of progressively more complex examples. Effective use of the inter-reflection calculation is described. The illuminance calculation is validated under real sky conditions for a full-size office space. The simulation model used sky luminance patterns that were based directly on measurements. Internal illuminance predictions are compared with measurements for 754 skies that cover a wide range of naturally occurring conditions. The processing of the sky luminance measurements for the lighting simulation is described. The accuracy of the illuminance predictions is shown to be, in the main, comparable with the accuracy of the model input data. There were a number of predictions with low accuracy. Evidence is presented to show that these result from imprecision in the model specification - such as, uncertainty of the circumsolar luminance - rather than the prediction algorithms themselves. Procedures to visualise and reduce illuminance and lighting-related data are presented. The ability of sky models to reproduce measured sky luminance patterns for the purpose of predicting internal illuminance is investigated. Four sky models and two sky models blends are assessed. Predictions of internal illuminance using sky models/blends are compared against those using measured sky luminance patterns. The sky model blends and the Perez All-weather model are shown to perform comparably well. Illuminance predictions using measured skies however were invariably better than those using sky models/blends. Several formulations of the daylight coefficient approach for predicting time varying illuminances are presented. Radiance is used to predict the daylight coefficients from which internal illuminances are derived. The form and magnitude of the daylight coefficients are related to the scene geometry and the discretisation scheme. Internal illuminances are derived for four daylight coefficient formulations based on the measured luminance patterns for the 754 skies. For the best of the formulations, the accuracy of the daylight coefficient derived illuminances is shown to be comparable to that using the standard Radiance calculation method. The use of the daylight coefficient approach to both accurately and efficiently predict hourly internal daylight illuminance levels for an entire year is described. Daylight coefficients are invariant to building orientation for a fixed building configuration. This property of daylight coefficients is exploited to yield hourly internal illuminances for a full year as a function of building orientation. Visual data analysis techniques are used to display and process the massive number of derived illuminances.
series thesis:PhD
email jm@dmu.ac.uk
more http://www.iesd.dmu.ac.uk/~jm/thesis/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6722
authors Marques, Sandra Oliveira and Goulette, Jean-Pierre
year 2000
title Architecture and Cyberspace: Reciprocal Spatial Contamination (Architecture and Cyberspace: Reciprocal Spatial Contamination)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 81-83
summary Fascinated by the possibility of designing the world, human being has always searched for tools to mediate this process. Cyberspace became one of this tools. Virtual technologies associated to communicational technologies are changing human’s cultural, social, and material context, consequently changing the idea of architecture itself. The decreasing material content of our activities and their increasing perceptual, communicative and cognitive contents are drawing a new framework to our spatial experiences. Objects, spaces, buildings and institutions can now be constructed, navigated, experienced and manipulated across cyberspace. The particular focus in this paper is to discuss the architectural aspects of the Virtual Architectures (VAs) and an initial framework for its design.
series SIGRADI
email sandra.marques@toulouse.archi.fr, jean-pierre.goulette@toulouse.archi.fr
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 8666
authors Martínez, A.C., Vigo, L., Cabral, J., Folchi, A. and Palacio, M.
year 2000
title Seminario/Taller de Investigacón Proyectual:Estructura de taller activo para enseñar a proyectar asistido por la tipología y de software de mercado (Design Research Seminar/Workshop: A Structure of Active Studio for the Teaching of Design Aided by Typology and Commercial Software)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 377-379
summary General outline: Typology has provided architects basic design resources in the past. Repertories have been created by comparing and establishing relations among a multiplicity of examples: these repertories have been used as the basis for new inventions. Research on type establishes the foundations for organized knowledge that can be accumulated, shared, and enriched by successive designs. We are testing our assumption that CAD is a specially adequate tool for the transformation and manipulation of type in the early stages of the design process. Goals: Our Seminar/Studio gives those who take part in it a renewed vision of type as a basic disposition that can be subject to dynamic transformations. The use of CAD will allow the participants to experiment and verify design decisions on the grounds of a systematic use of typological precedents. Methodology: Starting with definite examples of contemporary architecture and the design theory backing the examples selected, the seminar/ studio is developed in eight studio sessions, exploring different dimensions leading to the “parti”. It is meant for experienced designers, both advanced students and graduates. The first experimental seminar of two sessions took place in November 1999. A more developed version is under way in August, 2000.
series SIGRADI
email corona@cvtci.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 55ca
authors Mase, Jitsuro
year 2000
title Moderato: 3D Sketch CAD with Quick Positioned Working Plane and Texture Modelling
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 269-272
summary The lack of computer systems that can be easily used during the early stages of the architectural design process has been discussed for many years. The usual argument starts with the recognition that hand drawn sketches are an important tool in the early stage of both professional and student design because they can be used to visualise the designer’s ideas quickly and have the flexibility to handle any shape the designer imagines. Research has then mostly focused on using computer based sketch recognition to directly produce three dimensional models from hand drawn sketches. However sketch recognition still has certain problems that require the drawing action of users to be constrained in some way in order to be solved. If sketch recognition is still imperfect, the possibility of directly sketching within digital 3D space should be considered. Some systems allowing user to sketch in digital 3D space have been developed which do not depend on sketch recognition. Although Piranesi does not aim to support sketch design, it does allow the user to paint in the Z-buffer space - an unique idea termed "interactive rendering." SketchVRML tries to generate 3D geometrical data automatically from 2D hand drawn sketches by adding the depth value to the drawn lines according to the strength of line strokes. SketchBoX provides translucent surfaces in digital 3D space which can be glued onto existing objects or arranged anywhere in space. These surfaces have texture map data which can be modified by painting onto the texture. Transparent textures can be painted onto the surfaces to create see-through portions. Moderato also uses this technique to model a polygonÕs shape.
keywords Sketch, Early Stage, Interface, 3D Modelling
series eCAADe
email mase@kure-nct.ac.jp
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ga0017
id ga0017
authors McLean, A., Ward, A. and Cox, G.
year 2000
title The aesthetics of generative code
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Aesthetics, in general usage, lays an emphasis on subjective sense perception associated with the broad field of art and human creativity. This paper suggests that it might be useful to revisit the troubled relationship between art and aesthetics for the purpose of discussing the value of generative code. It is now generally accepted that sense perception alone is simply not enough unless contextualised within the world of ideas. Similarly, the world of multimedia is all too easily conflated with a multi-sensory experience (of combining still and moving image, sound, interaction and so on). Thus the limits of traditional aesthetics is emphasised in the problem of defining which of the senses the highest of the arts adheres to -according to Kant and Hegel - the ‘arts of speech’. Poetry throws such crude classificatory distinctions into question as it is both read and heard; or written and spoken/performed. Hegel suggests a way out of this paradox by employing dialectical thinking; as we do not hear speech by simply listening to it. He suggests that we need to represent speech to ourselves in written form in order to grasp what it essentially is. Thus poetry can neither be reduced to audible signs (the time of the ear) nor visible signs (the space of the eye) but is composed of language itself. This suggests that written and spoken forms work together to form a language that we appreciate as poetry. But does code work in the same way? By analogy, generative code has poetic qualities too, as it does not operate in a single moment in time and space but as a series of consecutive ‘actions’ that are repeatable, the outcome of which might be imagined in different contexts. Code is a notation of an internal structure that the computer is executing, expressing ideas, logic, and decisions that operate as an extension of the author's intentions. The written form is merely a computer-readable notation of logic, and is a representation of this process. Yet the written code isn't what the computer really executes, since there are many levels of interpreting and compiling and linking taking place. Code is only really understandable with the context of its overall structure – this is what makes it a language (be it source code or machine code, or even raw bytes). It may be hard to understand someone else’s code but the computer is, after all, multi-lingual. In this sense, understanding someone else's code is very much like listening to poetry in a foreign language - the appreciation goes beyond a mere understanding of the syntax or form of the language used, and as such translation is infamously problematic. Code itself is clearly not poetry as such, but retains some of its rhythm and metrical form. Code is intricately crafted, and expressed in multitudinous and idiosyncratic ways. Like poetry, the aesthetic value of code lies in its execution, not simply its written form. To appreciate it fully we need to ‘see’ the code to fully grasp what it is we are experiencing and to build an understanding of the code’s actions. To separate the code and the resultant actions would simply limit the aesthetic experience, and ultimately the study of these forms - as a form of criticism (what might be better called ‘poetics’).
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 858c
authors Medjdoub, B. and Yannou, B.
year 2000
title Separating topology and geometry in space planning
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 32 (1) (2000) pp. 39-61
summary We are dealing with the problem of space layout planning here. We present an architectural conceptual CAD approach. Starting with design specifications in terms ofconstraints over spaces, a specific enumeration heuristics leads to a complete set of consistent conceptual design solutions named topological solutions. These topologicalsolutions which do not presume any precise definitive dimension correspond to the sketching step that an architect carries out from the Design specifications on a preliminarydesign phase in architecture.
keywords Layout, Heuristic, Optimization, Constraints, Conceptual Design, Topological Solutions
series journal paper
email bm230@cam.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id fdb8
authors Montagu, A., Rodriguez Barros, D. and Chernobilsky, L.
year 2000
title The New Reality through Virtuality
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 225-229
summary In this paper we want to develop some conceptual reflections of the processes of virtualization procedures with the aim to indicate a series of misfits and mutations as byproducts of the “digital-graphic culture” (DGC) when we are dealing with the perception of the “digital space”. Considering the present situation, a bit chaotic from a pedagogical point of view, we also want to propose a set of “virtual space parameters” in order to organize in a systemic way the teaching procedures of architectural design when using digital technology. Nowadays there is a great variety of computer graphics applications comprising practically all the fields of “science & technology”, “architecture, design & urbanism”, “video & film”, “sound” and the massive amount of information technology protocols. This fact obliges us to have an overall view about the meaning of “the new reality through virtuality”. The paper is divided in two sections and one appendix. In the first section we recognise the relationships among the sensory apparatus, the cognitive structures of perception and the cultural models involved in the process of understanding the reality. In the second section, as architects, we use to have “a global set of social and technical responsabilities” to organize the physical space, but now we must also be able to organize the “virtual space” obtained from a multidimensional set of computer simulations. There are certain features that can be used as “sensory parameters” when we are dealing with architectural design in the “virtual world”, taking into consideration the differences between “immersive virtual reality” and “non inmersive virtual reality”. In the appendix we present a summary of some conclusions based on a set of pedagogical applications analysing the positive and the negative consequences of working exclusively in a “virtual world”.
keywords Virtualisation Processes, Simulation, Philosophy, Space, Design, Cyberspace
series eCAADe
email amontagu@fadu.uba.ar
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

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