CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 687

_id 40c1
authors Erickson, Thomas
year 2000
title Lingua Francas for Design: Sacred Places and Pattern Languages Pattern Languages
source Proceedings of DIS'00: DesigningInteractive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000 pp. 357-368
summary A central challenge in interaction design has to do with its diversity. Designers, engineers, managers, marketers, researchers and users all have important contributions to make to the design process. But at the same time they lack shared concepts, experiences and perspectives. How is the process of design-which requires communication, negotiation and compromise-to effectively proceed in the absence of a common ground? I argue that an important role for the interaction designer is to help stakeholders in the design process to construct alingua franca. To explore this issue, which has received remarkably little attention in HCI, I turn to work in urban design and architecture. I begin by discussing a case study in community design, reported by Hester [10], that demonstrates the power of alingua franca for a particular design project. I then describe the concept of pattern languages and discuss how they might be adapted to the needs of interaction design in general, and used, in particular, as meta-languages for generating lingua francas for particular design projects.
keywords Architecture; Design Methods; Interaction Design; Interdisciplinary Design; Pattern Language; Patterns; Urban Design
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 8805
authors Flemming, U., Erhan, H.I. and Ozkaya, I.
year 2001
title Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD
source Technical Report 48-01-01. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, Institute of Complex Engineered Systems
summary This report describes a graduate interdisciplinary course offered to students in the graduate program of the School of Architecture at Carnegie Mellon and related departments in fall 2000. The motivation was the realization that when commercial CAD (Computer-Aided Design) systems recently switched from procedural application programming languages to object-oriented ones, third-party application must undergo a significant cognitive retooling"; i. e. they must know more than the syntax and semantics of the new programming language to be used and must be able to employ appropriate software development strategies that are appropriate for the new paradigm. especially with respect to the importance of modeling, a distinguishing characteristic of object-oriented programming. The goal of the course was (a) to introduce and test strategies of object-oriented application development in general and in the context of MicroStation, a state-of-the-art commercial CAD package; (b) to develop-as a course team project-an interesting application that gives students practice with these strategies and team work; and (c) to document our approach and findings so that others can learn from them. The strategies introduced were the use-case approach of Jacobson et al. and the complementary object-modeling tools of Rumbaugh that were recently integrated into the Unified Modeling Language UML. The software platform supporting the course comprised MicroStation, JMDL (a superset of Java) and ProjectBank on the CAD side and RationalRose on the modeling side. The application developed by students in the course supports the generation of drawings for remodeling projects from a set of dgn files describing the existing state of the building to be remodeled. The course was supported by a grant and in-kind contributions from Bentley with matching funds from the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technology Alliance (PITA)."
series report
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 5d19
authors Gómez Arvelo, Susana Carolina
year 2001
title Simulador de proyecciones de sombras sobre modelos computarizados en 3d. Herramienta para evaluar la eficiencia de modelos de proteccion solar. [Shade simulator On 3D Computer Models. A Tool to Evaluate the Efficiency of Models for Solar Protection]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 156-165
summary A Program of Graphic Computing, developed in the Language of Programming AUTOLISP and run in AUTOCAD 2000, which is guided toward the Investigation in Bioclimatic Architecture, is presented. Before a model of solar protection in 3D, and loading the input data of the geographical localization and orientation, time and evaluation date (chosen by the user), the program calculates and projects the simulation of the corresponding shade contours on every plane that constitutes the 3D pattern (openings, walls, protections, floor...). In this research different areas of knowledge concur: Plane and spherical trigonometry applied to the solar ray and to the Bioclimatic Architecture, space geometry, plane graphical representation of three-dimensional objects, a concept of the transformation of vision for the three-dimensional representation of the objects in computers, and modern programming techniques.
keywords Bioclimatic Architecture; Heat Gaining Control; 3D Shades Simulator; Solar Protection
series other
email scga2000@yahoo.com
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id d59a
authors Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga C.
year 1999
title AI and Regional Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 584-588
summary In 1976 Richard Foqué established periods in the development of methods of designing. The first stage (the 50's and early 60's) - automatization of the designing process - properly identified language of description that is understood by a machine is vital. Christopher Alexander publishes 'Pattern Language'. The second stage (late 60's) - the use of the Arts - research techniques as interview, questionnaire, active observation; ergonomic aspects are also taken into consideration. The third stage (starts at the turn of the 60's and 70's) - co-participation of all of the parties involved in the designing process, and especially the user. The designing process becomes more complex but at the same time more intelligible to a non-professional - Alexander's 'Pattern Language' returns. It's been over 20 years now since the publication of this work. In the mid 70's prototypes of integrate building description are created. We are dealing now with the next stage of the designing methods development. Unquestionable progress of computer optimalization of technical and economical solutions has taken place. It's being forecasted that the next stage would be using computer as a simulator of the designing process. This stage may be combined with the development of AI. (Already in 1950 Alan Turing had formulated the theoretical grounds of Artificial Intelligence.) Can the development of the AI have the influence on the creation of present time regional architecture? Hereby I risk a conclusion that the development of AI can contribute to the creation of modern regional architecture.
keywords Design Process, Artificial Intelligence, Regional Architecture
series eCAADe
email zarnow@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id ga0013
id ga0013
authors Annunziato, Mauro and Pierucci, Piero
year 2000
title Artificial Worlds, Virtual Generations
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The progress in the scientific understanding/simulation of the evolution mechanisms and the first technological realizations (artificial life environments, robots, intelligent toys, self reproducing machines, agents on the web) are creating the base of a new age: the coming of the artificial beings and artificial societies. Although this aspect could seems a technological conquest, by our point of view it represent the foundation of a new step in the human evolution. The anticipation of this change is the development of a new cultural paradigm inherited from the theories of evolution and complexity: a new way to think to the culture, aesthetics and intelligence seen as emergent self-organizing qualities of a collectivity evolved along the time through genetic and language evolution. For these reasons artificial life is going to be an anticipatory and incredibly creative area for the artistic expression and imagination. In this paper we try to correlate some elements of the present research in the field of artificial life, art and technological grow up in order to trace a path of development for the creation of digital worlds where the artificial beings are able to evolve own culture, language and aesthetics and they are able to interact con the human people.Finally we report our experience in the realization of an interactive audio-visual art installation based on two connected virtual worlds realized with artificial life environments. In these worlds,the digital individuals can interact, reproduce and evolve through the mechanisms of genetic mutations. The real people can interact with the artificial individuals creating an hybrid ecosystem and generating emergent shapes, colors, sound architectures and metaphors for imaginary societies, virtual reflections of the real worlds.
series other
email plancton@plancton.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id sigradi2005_438
id sigradi2005_438
authors Bessone, Miriam; Ricardo Pérez Miró, Isabel Molinas
year 2005
title Digital visualization and new intellectual associations among language - music - architecture
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 438-443
summary Throughout history, architecture has transposed contributions bound to structuralist focus or to musical composition. This is from linguistic and music respectively. New visualization systems show the possibility to give transpositions a new meaning, form the potentialities of hypermedia; locking for new projects parameters. This papers will show experimental workshop results developed within CI+D 2000 “New speeches and design process”. They study links and explore our work interrelating word – music and image. These processes are developed by people coming from literature, visual arts, music, and architecture areas. Lastly, the first results will be shown. Since parameters were transposed from music, by using NURBS forms, space prefiguration is tried out. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email mbessone@fadu.unl.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 9e00
authors Bridges, Alan
year 1999
title Progress? What Progress?
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 321-326
summary This paper briefly reviews some of the history of computer graphics standardisation and then presents two specific case studies: one comparing HTML with SGML and Troff and the other comparing VRML with the Tektronix® Interactive Graphics Language implementation of the ACM Core Standard. In each case, it will be shown how the essential intellectual work carried out twenty years ago still lies at the foundations of the newer applications.
keywords SGML, HTML, VRML
series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 913a
authors Brutzman, D.P., Macedonia, M.R. and Zyda, M.J.
year 1995
title Internetwork Infrastructure Requirements for Virtual Environments
source NIl 2000 Forum of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., May 1995
summary Virtual environments (VEs) are a broad multidisciplinary research area that includes all aspects of computer science, virtual reality, virtual worlds, teleoperation and telepresence. A variety of network elements are required to scale up virtual environments to arbitrarily large sizes, simultaneously connecting thousands of interacting players and all kinds of information objects. Four key communications components for virtual environments are found within the Internet Protocol (IP) suite: light-weight messages, network pointers, heavy-weight objects and real-time streams. Software and hardware shortfalls and successes for internetworked virtual environments provide specific research conclusions and recommendations. Since large-scale networked are intended to include all possible types of content and interaction, they are expected to enable new classes of interdisciplinary research and sophisticated applications that are particularly suitable for implementation using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML).
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 684a
authors Bucchard, Bill and Bucchard, Alli
year 2000
title Inside AutoCAD 2000
source New Riders, Indianapolis
summary Companies with multiple seats of AutoCAD have issues that are unique to only them when they are getting ready to upgrade their software. They run into advanced customization issues, networking and file sharing problems brought on by the upgrade, and other problems associated with a new software purchase. Inside AutoCAD 2000, Limited Edition focuses on these special needs while also providing complete, hands-on coverage of AutoCAD 2000. This Limited Edition includes the entire contents from Inside AutoCAD 2000 as well as seven entirely new chapters, and is 25% larger. These additional chapters cover: Visual LISP; Advanced Customization (toolbars, menus, etc.); VBA; Migration Assistant; DIESEL; Installing 2000 in the Business Environment (setting up AutoCAD over a network), and Advanced Plotting. Inside AutoCAD 2000, Limited Edition takes the hands-on approach to getting the most out of AutoCAD's features. Chapters progress from the most common tasks and functions to the most advanced and customizable. You learn by doing, and everything you learn can be extrapolated to your own unique AutoCAD needs.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 9384
authors Burry, M., Datta, S. and Anson, S.
year 2000
title Introductory Computer Programming as a Means for Extending Spatial and Temporal Understanding
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 129-135
summary Should computer programming be taught within schools of architecture? Incorporating even low-level computer programming within architectural education curricula is a matter of debate but we have found it useful to do so for two reasons: as an introduction or at least a consolidation of the realm of descriptive geometry and in providing an environment for experimenting in morphological time-based change. Mathematics and descriptive geometry formed a significant proportion of architectural education until the end of the 19th century. This proportion has declined in contemporary curricula, possibly at some cost for despite major advances in automated manufacture, Cartesian measurement is still the principal ‘language’ with which to describe building for construction purposes. When computer programming is used as a platform for instruction in logic and spatial representation, the waning interest in mathematics as a basis for spatial description can be readdressed using a left-field approach. Students gain insights into topology, Cartesian space and morphology through programmatic form finding, as opposed to through direct manipulation. In this context, it matters to the architect-programmer how the program operates more than what it does. This paper describes an assignment where students are given a figurative conceptual space comprising the three Cartesian axes with a cube at its centre. Six Phileban solids mark the Cartesian axial limits to the space. Any point in this space represents a hybrid of one, two or three transformations from the central cube towards the various Phileban solids. Students are asked to predict the topological and morphological outcomes of the operations. Through programming, they become aware of morphogenesis and hybridisation. Here we articulate the hypothesis above and report on the outcome from a student group, whose work reveals wider learning opportunities for architecture students in computer programming than conventionally assumed.
series ACADIA
email mark.burry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 7da6
authors Campbell, Dace A.
year 2000
title Architectural construction documents on the web: VRML as a case study
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 129-138
summary The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) and the World Wide Web (WWW) offer new opportunities to communicate an architect's design intent throughout the design process. We have investigated the use of VRML in the production and communication of construction documents, the final phase of architectural building design. A prototype, experimental Web site was set up and used to disseminate design data as VRML models and HTML text to the design client, contractor, and fabricators. In this paper, we discuss the way our construction documents were developed in VRML, the issues we faced implementing it, and critical feedback from the users of the Web space/site. We analyze the usefulness of VRML as a communication tool for the design and construction industries. Finally, we discuss technical, social, and legal issues the AEC industry faces as it shifts to embrace widespread use of a "paperless" Web-based communications infrastructure for design documentation.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ga0025
id ga0025
authors Chiodi , Andrea and Vernillo, Marco M.
year 2000
title Deep Architectures and Exterior Communication in Generative Art
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Human beings formulate their thoughts through their own language. To use a sentence by Ezra Pound: “The thought hinges on word definition.” Software beings formulate their thoughts through data structures. Not through a specific expressive means, but directly through concepts and relations. Human beings formulate their thoughts in a context, which does not require any further translation. If software beings want to be appreciated by human beings, they are forced to translate their thoughts in one of the languages the human beings are able to understand. On the contrary, when a software being communicates with another software being, this unnatural translation is not justified: communication takes place directly through data structures, made uniform by opportune communication protocols. The Generative Art prospect gives the software beings the opportunity to create works according to their own nature. But, if the result of such a creation must be expressed in a language human beings are able to comprehend, then this result is a sort of circus performance and not a free thought. Let’s give software beings the dignity they deserve and therefore allow them to express themselves according to their own nature: by data structures. This work studies in depth the opportunity to divide the software ‘thought’ communication from its translation in a human language. The recent introduction of XML leads to formal languages definition oriented to data structure representation. Intrinsically data and program, XML allows, through subsequent executions and validations, the realization of typical contextual grammars descriptions, allowing the management of high complexities. The translation from a data structure into a human language can take place later on and be oriented to different alternative kind of expression: lexical (according to national languages), graphical, musical, plastic. The direct expression of data structures promises further communication opportunities also for human beings. One of these is the definition of a non-national language, as free as possible from lexical ambiguities, extremely precise. Another opportunity concerns the possibility to express concepts usually hidden by their own representation. A Roman bridge, the adagio “Music for strings, celesta and drums” by Bartok and Kafka’s short novel “In the gallery” have something in common; a work of Generative Art, first expressed in terms of structure and then translated into an architectural, musical, or literary work can express this explicit community.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 1429
authors Da Rosa Sampaio, Andréa and Borde, Andréa
year 2000
title Será que na Era Digital o Desenho Ainda é a Marca Pessoal do Arquiteto? (Will Drawings still be the Architect's Individual Mark in Digital Era?)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 383-387
summary Technological innovations are driven in such dynamism, which do not favour a reflective process. Novelty is absorbed, in many cases, without criticism, in an immediate way. Concerning Architectural and Urbanism Education, a systematic reflection on the impact of new information technology to students training should not be omitted. As visual codes are the prime expression of architects, it is important to evoke the assumption of drawing as a language in order to evaluate it in regard to the new reality. Intending to broaden the discussion on these issues and to pose in theoretical means practical matters on didactics, it will be investigated the implications of computational resources - specially CAD systems - in graphic expression, in design thinking and their consequences to the education of future architects. Learning visual thinking, and being skillful at traditional as much as digital means, challenges today’s student.
series SIGRADI
email asampaio.trp@terra.com.br, andreaborde@pobox.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id cdcd
authors De Amorim, Arivaldo Leão
year 2000
title Linguagem, Informação e Representação do Espaço (Language, Information and Space Representation)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 90-92
summary This paper presents a brief project process and representation techniques retrospective along the history, discussing the technologies used to support this process and evaluating its application, considering the practical needs and requirements that should be assisted by them in each moment of the humanity’s development, showing the interdependence relationship among the available project tools and the resultant products. It discusses a range of computational and information technologies that are potentially useful for the project process and could indeed contribute for the product improvement and for the process rationalization. The use of “new technologies” in the different phases and stages of the project process are discussed. Finally, it stands out the attention for the configuration of a new project language based in the massive use of computational technologies, as a tool capable to assist the current demands imposed by the society that comprehends: quality, productivity, competitiveness and others actual paradigms.
series SIGRADI
email alamorim@ufba.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id 1ead
authors Dinand, Munevver Ozgur and Ozersay, Fevzi
year 1999
title CAAD Education under the Lens of Critical Communication Theories and Critical Pedagogy: Towards a Critical Computer Aided Architectural Design Education (CCAADE)
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 86-93
summary Understanding the dominant ethos of our age is imperative but not easy. However it is quite evident that new technologies have altered our times. Every discipline is now forced to be critical in developing new concepts according to the realities of our times. Implementing a critical worldview and consciousness is now more essential than ever. Latest changes in information technology are creating pressure on change both in societal and cultural terms. With its direct relation to these technologies, computer aided architectural design education, is obviously an outstanding / prominent case within contemporary debate. This paper aims to name some critical points related to computer aided architectural design education (CAADE) from the perspective of critical communication studies and critical education theories. It tries to relate these three areas, by introducing their common concepts to each other. In this way, it hopes to open a path for a language of critique. A critique that supports and promotes experimentation, negotiation, creativity, social consciousness and active participation in architectural education in general, and CAADE in specific. It suggests that CAADE might become critical and produce meta-discourses [1 ] in two ways. Firstly, by being critical about the context it exists in, that is to say, its relationships to the existing institutional and social structures and secondly by being critical about the content it handles; in other words by questioning its ideological dimensions. This study considers that analysing the role of CAADE in this scheme can provide architectural education with the opportunity to make healthy projections for the future.
keywords Critical Theories, Critical Pedagogy, Critical CAADE
series eCAADe
email F.Oversay@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 389b
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2000
title Sketch that Scene for Me: Creating Virtual Worlds by Freehand Drawing
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 265-268
summary With the Web people can now view virtual threedimensional worlds and explore virtual space. Increasingly, novice users are interested in creating 3D Web sites. Virtual Reality Modeling Language gained ISO status in 1997, although it is being supplanted by the compatible Java3D API and alternative 3D Web technologies compete. Viewing VRML scenes is relatively straightforward on most hardware platforms and browsers, but currently there are only two ways to create 3D virtual scenes: One is to code the scene directly using VRML. The other is to use existing CAD and modeling software, and save the world in VRML format or convert to VRML from some other format. Both methods are time consuming, cumbersome, and have steep learning curves. Pen-based user interfaces, on the other hand, are for many an easy and intuitive method for graphics input. Not only are people familiar with the look and feel of paper and pencil, novice users also find it less intimidating to draw what they want, where they want it instead of using a complicated tool palette and pull-down menus. Architects and designers use sketches as a primary tool to generate design ideas and to explore alternatives, and numerous computer-based interfaces have played on the concept of "sketch". However, we restrict the notion of sketch to freehand drawing, which we believe helps people to think, to envision, and to recognize properties of the objects with which they are working. SKETCH employs a pen interface to create three-dimensional models, but it uses a simple language of gestures to control a three-dimensional modeler; it does not attempt to interpret freehand drawings. In contrast, our support of 3D world creation using freehand drawing depend on users’ traditional understanding of a floor plan representation. Igarashi et al. used a pen interface to drive browsing in a 3D world, by projecting the user’s marks on the ground plane in the virtual world. Our Sketch-3D project extends this approach, investigating an interface that allows direct interpretation of the drawing marks (what you draw is what you get) and serves as a rapid prototyping tool for creating 3D virtual scenes.
keywords Freehand Sketching, Pen-Based User Interface, Interaction, VRML, Navigation
series eCAADe
email ellendo@cmu.edu
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id eada
authors Fischer, T., Burry, M. and Woodbury, R.
year 2000
title Object-Oriented Modelling Using XML in Computer-Aided Architectural and Educational CAD. The Problem of Interoperability Exemplified in Two Case Studies
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 145-155
summary This paper highlights our application of XML as a messaging and storage format for parametric 3D modelling and pattern-oriented online teaching. As a recent format for data description and transport technology XML is designed to allow communication between arbitrary data platforms - and to communicate purpose-insensitively. We have used it to communicate design patterns as well as design parameters and as a consequence experienced a remarkable technical similarity between both approaches with their common manifestation in object orientation. There is a necessity to perform dynamic synchronizations of semantics between 'knowledge domains' involved in design processes in order to provide the necessary conceptual openness. At this time, this requirement appears to be alien to available XML schema specifications and tools.
series CAADRIA
email tfischer@hrz.uni-kassel.de, mburry@deakin.edu.au, rw@arch.adelaide.edu.au
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 3cd1
authors Friedman, Asaf
year 2000
title Language and Movement in CAD Application
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 423-432
summary The paper attempts to explain some of the fundamental concepts as they relate to the experience of movement in space and the representation of walking-through or fly-over in architectural space. My goal is towards improving existing movement-in-architectural-space representation tolls. This study involves current research in cognitive science, in the domain of vision and spatial reasoning, in which we attempt to built a rudimentary model of the apparatus through which people experience space, and, in particular, architectural space. These conceptions necessitated the analysis of language. From the studies we can draw up a small number of critical qualities that have to be present in an improved version of a new movement-in-space representation tool. As opposed to existing computational tools representing movement in space navigation, the tool we build can offer a more immersive interactive experience for evaluating design solution alternatives and predicting moving-in-space experience.
series CAADRIA
email friedman@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id ga0012
id ga0012
authors Galanter, Philip
year 2000
title GA2: a Programming Environment for Abstract Generative Fine Art
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Fine artists looking to use computers to create generative works, especially those artists inclined towards abstraction, often face an uncomfortable choice in the selection of software tools. On the one hand there are a number of commercial and shareware programs available which implement a few techniques in an easy to use GUI environment. Unfortunately such programs often impose a certain look or style and are not terribly versatile or expressive. The other choice seems to be writing code from scratch, in a language such as c or Java. This can be very time consuming as every new work seems to demand a new program, and the artist's ability to write code can seldom keep pace with his ability to imagine new visual ideas. This paper describes a software system created by the author called GA2 which has been implemented in the Matlab software environment. By layering GA2 over Matlab the artist can take advantage of a very mature programming environment which includes extensive mathematical libraries, simple graphics routines, GUI construction tools, built-in help facilities, and command line, batch mode, and GUI modes of interaction. In addition, GA2 is very portable and can run on Macintosh, Windows, and Unix systems with almost no incremental effort for multi-platform support. GA2 is a work in progress and an extension of the completed GA1 environment. It is medium independent, and can be used for all manner of image, animation, and sound production. GA1 includes a complete set of genetic algorithm operations for breeding families of graphical marks, a database function for managing and recalling various genes, a set of statistical operations for creating various distributions of marks on a canvas or animation frame, a unique Markov-chain-likeoperator for generating families of visually similar lines or paths, and a complete L-system implementation. GA2 extends GA1 by adding more generative techniques such as tiling and symmetry operations, Thom's cusp catastrophe, and mechanisms inspired by complexity science notions such as cellular automata, fractals, artificial life, and chaos. All of these techniques are encapulated in genetic representations. This paper is supplemented with examples from the authors art work, and comments on the philosophy behind this method of working, and its relation towards the reinvigoration of abstraction after post-modernism.  
series other
email galanter@nyu.edu
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

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