CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers
References

Hits 1 to 20 of 724

_id ga0007
id ga0007
authors Coates, Paul and Miranda, Pablo
year 2000
title Swarm modelling. The use of Swarm Intelligence to generate architectural form
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary .neither the human purposes nor the architect's method are fully known in advance. Consequently, if this interpretation of the architectural problem situation is accepted, any problem-solving technique that relies on explicit problem definition, on distinct goal orientation, on data collection, or even on non-adaptive algorithms will distort the design process and the human purposes involved.' Stanford Anderson, "Problem-Solving and Problem-Worrying". The works concentrates in the use of the computer as a perceptive device, a sort of virtual hand or "sense", capable of prompting an environment. From a set of data that conforms the environment (in this case the geometrical representation of the form of the site) this perceptive device is capable of differentiating and generating distinct patterns in its behavior, patterns that an observer has to interpret as meaningful information. As Nicholas Negroponte explains referring to the project GROPE in his Architecture Machine: 'In contrast to describing criteria and asking the machine to generate physical form, this exercise focuses on generating criteria from physical form.' 'The onlooking human or architecture machine observes what is "interesting" by observing GROPE's behavior rather than by receiving the testimony that this or that is "interesting".' The swarm as a learning device. In this case the work implements a Swarm as a perceptive device. Swarms constitute a paradigm of parallel systems: a multitude of simple individuals aggregate in colonies or groups, giving rise to collaborative behaviors. The individual sensors can't learn, but the swarm as a system can evolve in to more stable states. These states generate distinct patterns, a result of the inner mechanics of the swarm and of the particularities of the environment. The dynamics of the system allows it to learn and adapt to the environment; information is stored in the speed of the sensors (the more collisions, the slower) that acts as a memory. The speed increases in the absence of collisions and so providing the system with the ability to forget, indispensable for differentiation of information and emergence of patterns. The swarm is both a perceptive and a spatial phenomenon. For being able to Interact with an environment an observer requires some sort of embodiment. In the case of the swarm, its algorithms for moving, collision detection, and swarm mechanics conform its perceptive body. The way this body interacts with its environment in the process of learning and differentiation of spatial patterns constitutes also a spatial phenomenon. The enactive space of the Swarm. Enaction, a concept developed by Maturana and Varela for the description of perception in biological terms, is the understanding of perception as the result of the structural coupling of an environment and an observer. Enaction does not address cognition in the currently conventional sense as an internal manipulation of extrinsic 'information' or 'signals', but as the relation between environment and observer and the blurring of their identities. Thus, the space generated by the swarm is an enactive space, a space without explicit description, and an invention of the swarm-environment structural coupling. If we consider a gestalt as 'Some property -such as roundness- common to a set of sense data and appreciated by organisms or artefacts' (Gordon Pask), the swarm is also able to differentiate space 'gestalts' or spaces of some characteristics, such as 'narrowness', or 'fluidness' etc. Implicit surfaces and the wrapping algorithm. One of the many ways of describing this space is through the use of implicit surfaces. An implicit surface may be imagined as an infinitesimally thin band of some measurable quantity such as color, density, temperature, pressure, etc. Thus, an implicit surface consists of those points in three-space that satisfy some particular requirement. This allows as to wrap the regions of space where a difference of quantity has been produced, enclosing the spaces in which some particular events in the history of the Swarm have occurred. The wrapping method allows complex topologies, such as manifoldness in one continuous surface. It is possible to transform the information generated by the swarm in to a landscape that is the result of the particular reading of the site by the swarm. Working in real time. Because of the complex nature of the machine, the only possible way to evaluate the resulting behavior is in real time. For this purpose specific applications had to be developed, using OpenGL for the Windows programming environment. The package consisted on translators from DXF format to a specific format used by these applications and viceversa, the Swarm "engine", a simulated parallel environment, and the Wrapping programs, to generate the implicit surfaces. Different versions of each had been produced, in different stages of development of the work.
series other
email p.s.coates@uel.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id a136
authors Blaise, J.Y., Dudek, I. and Drap, P.
year 1998
title Java collaborative interface for architectural simulations A case study on wooden ceilings of Krakow
source International Conference On Conservation - Krakow 2000, 23-24 November 1998, Krakow, Poland
summary Concern for the architectural and urban preservation problems has been considerably increasing in the past decades, and with it the necessity to investigate the consequences and opportunities opened for the conservation discipline by the development of computer-based systems. Architectural interventions on historical edifices or in preserved urban fabric face conservationists and architects with specific problems related to the handling and exchange of a variety of historical documents and representations. The recent development of information technologies offers opportunities to favour a better access to such data, as well as means to represent architectural hypothesis or design. Developing applications for the Internet also introduces a greater capacity to exchange experiences or ideas and to invest on low-cost collaborative working platforms. In the field of the architectural heritage, our research addresses two problems: historical data and documentation of the edifice, methods of representation (knowledge modelling and visualisation) of the edifice. This research is connected with the ARKIW POLONIUM co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France) and the Institute HAiKZ of Kraków's Faculty of Architecture. The ARKIW programme deals with questions related to the use of information technologies in the recording, protection and studying of the architectural heritage. Case studies are chosen in order to experience and validate a technical platform dedicated to the formalisation and exchange of knowledge related to the architectural heritage (architectural data management, representation and simulation tools, survey methods, ...). A special focus is put on the evolution of the urban fabric and on the simulation of reconstructional hypothesis. Our contribution will introduce current ARKIW internet applications and experiences: The ARPENTEUR architectural survey experiment on Wieża Ratuszowa (a photogrammetrical survey based on an architectural model). A Gothic and Renaissance reconstruction of the Ratusz Krakowski using a commercial modelisation and animation software (MAYA). The SOL on line documentation interface for Kraków's Rynek G_ówny. Internet analytical approach in the presentation of morphological informations about Kraków's Kramy Bogate Rynku Krakowskiego. Object-Orientation approach in the modelling of the architectural corpus. The VALIDEUR and HUBLOT Virtual Reality modellers for the simulation and representation of reconstructional hypothesis and corpus analysis.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8805
authors Flemming, U., Erhan, H.I. and Ozkaya, I.
year 2001
title Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD
source Technical Report 48-01-01. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, Institute of Complex Engineered Systems
summary This report describes a graduate interdisciplinary course offered to students in the graduate program of the School of Architecture at Carnegie Mellon and related departments in fall 2000. The motivation was the realization that when commercial CAD (Computer-Aided Design) systems recently switched from procedural application programming languages to object-oriented ones, third-party application must undergo a significant cognitive retooling"; i. e. they must know more than the syntax and semantics of the new programming language to be used and must be able to employ appropriate software development strategies that are appropriate for the new paradigm. especially with respect to the importance of modeling, a distinguishing characteristic of object-oriented programming. The goal of the course was (a) to introduce and test strategies of object-oriented application development in general and in the context of MicroStation, a state-of-the-art commercial CAD package; (b) to develop-as a course team project-an interesting application that gives students practice with these strategies and team work; and (c) to document our approach and findings so that others can learn from them. The strategies introduced were the use-case approach of Jacobson et al. and the complementary object-modeling tools of Rumbaugh that were recently integrated into the Unified Modeling Language UML. The software platform supporting the course comprised MicroStation, JMDL (a superset of Java) and ProjectBank on the CAD side and RationalRose on the modeling side. The application developed by students in the course supports the generation of drawings for remodeling projects from a set of dgn files describing the existing state of the building to be remodeled. The course was supported by a grant and in-kind contributions from Bentley with matching funds from the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technology Alliance (PITA)."
series report
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 3e51
authors Cerulli, C., Peng, C. and Lawson, B.
year 2001
title Capturing Histories of Design Processes for Collaborative Building Design Development. Field Trial of the ADS Prototype
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 427-437
summary The ADS Project - Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process - builds on the technological results of the previous COMMIT Project to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD based Design Decision Support System. COMMIT provides a system for storing knowledge about knowledge within the design process. It records design decisions, the actors who take them and the roles they play when doing so. ADS links COMMIT to an existing object-oriented CAD system, MicroStation/J from Bentley Systems. The project focuses on tackling the problem of managing design information without intruding too much on the design process itself. It provides the possibility to effectively link design decisions back to requirements, to gather rationale information for later stages of the building lifecycle, and to gather knowledge of rationale for later projects. The system enables members of the project team, including clients and constructors, to browse and search the recorded project history of decision making both during and after design development. ADS aims to facilitate change towards a more collaborative process in construction design, to improve the effectiveness of decision-making throughout the construction project and to provide clients with the facility to relate design outcomes to design briefs across the whole building life cycle. In this paper we will describe the field trials of the ADS prototype carried out over a three-month period at the Building Design Partnership (BDP) Manchester office. The objective of these trials is to assess the extent, to which the approach underlying ADS enhances the design process, and to gather and document the views and experiences of practitioners. The ADS prototype was previously tested with historical data of real project (Peng, Cerulli et al. 2000). To gather more valuable knowledge about how a Decision Support System like ADS can be used in practice, the testing and evaluation will be extended to a real project, while it is still ongoing. The live case study will look at some phases of the design of a mixed residential and retail development in Leeds, UK, recording project information while it is created. The users’ feedback on the system usability will inform the continuous redevelopment process that will run in parallel to the live case study. The ADS and COMMIT Projects were both funded by EPSRC.
keywords Design Rationale, Design Support Systems, Usability Evaluation
series CAAD Futures
email c.cerulli@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ddssar0022
id ddssar0022
authors Peng, C., Cerulli, C., Lawson, B., Cooper, G., Rezqui, Y. and Jackson, M.
year 2000
title Recording and managing design decision-making processes through an object-oriented framework
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary In this paper we describe our current research into an object-oriented approach to the recording and managing of design decision-making in the processes of building design. The Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process (ADS) project, funded under the Innovative Manufacturing Initiative by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), aims to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD-based Design Decision Support System. The research focuses on how to provide designers with tools for recording and managing the group dynamics of design decision making in a project's life time without intruding too much on the design process itself. In collaboration with Building Design Partnership, a large multidisciplinary construction design practice, we look at design projects that require decision-making on an extraordinarily wide range of complex issues, and many different professional consultants were involved in making and approving these decisions. We are interested in developing an advanced CAD tool that will facilitate capturing designers' rationales underlying their design decision making throughout the project. The system will also enable us to explore how a recorded project history of decision-making can be searched and browsed by members of the project team during and after design development.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 3a3d
authors Coors, Volker
year 2002
title Resource-Adaptive 3D Maps for Location Based Services
source UMDS '02 Proceedings, Prague (Czech Republic) 2-4 October 2002, I.29-I.38
summary In this paper, we present a database driven approach for managing and visualizing 3D urban city models and related multimedia content. Such a 3D database is a core component of a 3D Cadastre system (Coors 2002a). In the TellMaris project (IST 2000- 28249, www.tellmaris.com), we will make use of the 3D database to generate 3D maps. The objective of TellMaris is the development of a generic 3D-map interface to tourist information on mobile computers. The interface provides a new concept for creating value added information services on mobile computers for the European citizens related to geographical information. The interface is in the project used for accessing tourist information relevant for boat tourism in the Baltic Sea and Aegean Sea area in the Mediterranean. In this paper we focus on the online generation and compression of 3D-maps in order to make use of these maps in a mobile enviroment.
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
email Volker.Coors@igd.fhg.de
more www.udms.net
last changed 2003/03/29 09:42

_id 1f5c
authors Beesley, Philip and Seebohm, Thomas
year 2000
title Digital Tectonic Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 287-290
summary Digital tectonic design is a fresh approach to architectural design methodology. Tectonics means a focus on assemblies of construction elements. Digital tectonics is an evolving methodology that integrates use of design software with traditional construction methods. We see digital tectonic design as a systematic use of geometric and spatial ordinances, used in combination with details and components directly related to contemporary construction. The current approach will, we hope, lead to an architectural curriculum based on generative form making where the computer can be used to produce systems of forms algorithmically. Digital design has tended to remain abstract, emphasizing visual and spatial arrangements often at the expense of materials and construction. Our pursuit is translation of these methods into more fully realized physical qualities. This method offers a rigorous approach based on close study of geometry and building construction elements. Giving a context for this approach, historical examples employing systematic tectonic design are explored in this paper. The underlying geometric ordinance systems and the highly tuned relationships between the details in these examples offer design vocabularies for use within the studio curriculum. The paper concludes with a detailed example from a recent studio project demonstrating particular qualities developed within the method. The method involves a wide range of scales, relating large-scale gestural and schematic studies to detailed assembly systems. Designing in this way means developing geometric strategies and, in parallel, producing detailed symbols or objects to be inserted. These details are assembled into a variety of arrays and groups. The approach is analogous to computer-aided designŐs tradition of shape grammars in which systems of spatial relationships are used to control the insertion of shapes within a space. Using this approach, a three-dimensional representation of a building is iteratively refined until the final result is an integrated, systematically organized complex of symbols representing physical building components. The resulting complex offers substantial material qualities. Strategies of symbol insertions and hierarchical grouping of elements are familiar in digital design practice. However these strategies are usually used for automated production of preconceived designs. In contrast to thsse normal approaches this presentation focuses on emergent qualities produced directly by means of the complex arrays of symbol insertions. The rhyth
keywords 3D CAD Systems, Design Practice, 3D Design Strategies
series eCAADe
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensión Fenotípica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Análisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension – An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
email mail@maurocosta.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 06e8
authors Knight, Michael W. and Brown, Andre G.P.
year 2000
title Interfaces for Virtual Environments; A Review Recent Developments and Potential Ways forward
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 215-219
summary The physical and visual nature of the interface devices and media that enable the human agent to interact with a virtual world have evolved over the past few years. In this paper we consider the different lines of development that have taken place in the refinement of these interfaces and summarise what has been learned about the appropriate nature of the interface for such interaction. In terms of the physical aspects we report on the kind of devices that have been used to enable the human agent to operate within the computer generated environment. We point out the successes and failures in the systems that have been tried out in recent years. Likewise we consider the kinds of software generated interface that have been used to represent virtual worlds. Again, we review the efficacy of the environments that have been devised; the quality of the Cyberplace. Our aim is to be able to comment on the effectiveness of the systems that have been devised from a number of points of view. We consider the physical and software-based aids for navigation; the nature of the representation of architectural worlds; strengthening “groundedness”; the inclusion of “otherness”; and reinforcement of the idea of “presence”
keywords Virtual Environments, Games Engines, Collaborative Design, Navigation Metaphors
series eCAADe
email mknight@liv.ac.uk
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ca8f
authors Lieberman, Oren
year 2000
title The Application of Object-oriented Software Concepts in Architectural Pedagogy
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 27-33
summary Architecture, a complex discipline that involves many people and things and the relationships amongst them, requires a pedagogical approach by which the student, even in her first year, must be able to think "complexly" across many subjects. The object-oriented analysis and design software programming paradigm, which models complex "realities", or "models the way people understand and process reality", holds promising concepts for architectural education. It is not my intention to extract slavishly all possible concepts from object-orientation (OO) and accept them as a "recipe" for educating the architect. Indeed, one of the reasons I find OO so elegant is that it provides a strategy, a non-prescriptive framework, with which both teachers and students can explore their own architectural investigations. It also provides the possibility of a common language, offering a structure in which, for example, certain standards can be measured within departments, or with which we can negotiate compatibility across different national credit systems to facilitate and encourage cross-cultural (border) exchange.
keywords Object-Oriented, Aspect, Subject-Oriented, Concern Spaces, Reusability, Abstraction/Compression, Encapsulation, Maintenance
series eCAADe
email oren.lieberman@strath.ac.uk
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id d8df
authors Naticchia, Berardo
year 1999
title Physical Knowledge in Patterns: Bayesian Network Models for Preliminary Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 611-619
summary Computer applications in design have pursued two main development directions: analytical modelling and information technology. The former line has produced a large number of tools for reality simulation (i.e. finite element models), the latter is producing an equally large amount of advances in conceptual design support (i.e. artificial intelligence tools). Nevertheless we can trace rare interactions between computation models related to those different approaches. This lack of integration is the main reason of the difficulty of CAAD application to the preliminary stage of design, where logical and quantitative reasoning are closely related in a process that we often call 'qualitative evaluation'. This paper briefly surveys the current development of qualitative physical models applied in design and propose a general approach for modelling physical behaviour by means of Bayesian network we are employing to develop a tutoring and coaching system for natural ventilation preliminary design of halls, called VENTPad. This tool explores the possibility of modelling the causal mechanism that operate in real systems in order to allow a number of integrated logical and quantitative inference about the fluid-dynamic behaviour of an hall. This application could be an interesting connection tool between logical and analytical procedures in preliminary design aiding, able to help students or unskilled architects, both to guide them through the analysis process of numerical data (i.e. obtained with sophisticate Computational Fluid Dynamics software) or experimental data (i.e. obtained with laboratory test models) and to suggest improvements to the design.
keywords Qualitative Physical Modelling, Preliminary Design, Bayesian Networks
series eCAADe
email Naticchia@idau.unian.it
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 10e9
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title DYNAMO in Action - Development and Use of a Web-Based Design Tool
source J. Pohl & T. Fowler (eds.), Proceedings of the Focus Symposium on Advances in Computer-Based and Web-Based Collaborative Systems - InterSymp-2000 International Conference On Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, Baden-Baden (Germany), July 31 - Aug 4, 2000 (ISBN 0-921836-88-0), pp. 233-242
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Design (CBD), the paper describes the development and use of a Web-based design tool called DYNAMO. The tool is firmly rooted in the Dynamic Memory Theory underlying the CBD approach. Yet, rather than adopting it as such, we have tried to enrich this approach by extrapolating it beyond the individual. This extrapolation stimulates and intensifies several modes of interaction. Doing so, DYNAMO tries to kill two birds with one stone. At short notice, it provides architects and architecture students with a rich source of inspiration, ideas and design knowledge for their present design task, as it is filled with a permanently growing collection of design cases that is accessible on-line. Its long-term objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by the cognitive model underlying CBD, and Case-Based Reasoning in general. DYNAMO is therefore conceived as an (inter-)active workhouse rather than a passive warehouse: it is interactively developed by and actively develops the user's design knowledge. Whereas previous papers have focused on the theoretical ideas of DYNAMO, this paper points out how Web technology enables us to implement these ideas as a working prototype. Furthermore, an annotated scenario of the system in use is described.
keywords Case-Based Design, Web Technology, Architectural Design
series journal paper
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/11/22 13:50

_id ga0008
id ga0008
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2000
title Redirecting design generation in architecture
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Design generation has been the traditional culmination of computational design theory in architecture. Motivated either by programmatic and functional complexity (as in space allocation) or by the elegance and power of representational analyses (shape grammars, rectangular arrangements), research has produced generative systems capable of producing new designs that satisfied certain conditions or of reproducing exhaustively entire classes (such as all possible Palladian villas), comprising known and plausible new designs. Most generative systems aimed at a complete spatial design (detailing being an unpopular subject), with minimal if any intervention by the human user / designer. The reason for doing so was either to give a demonstration of the elegance, power and completeness of a system or simply that the replacement of the designer with the computer was the fundamental purpose of the system. In other words, the problem was deemed either already resolved by the generative system or too complex for the human designer. The ongoing democratization of the computer stimulates reconsideration of the principles underlying existing design generation in architecture. While the domain analysis upon which most systems are based is insightful and interesting, jumping to a generative conclusion was almost always based on a very sketchy understanding of human creativity and of the computer's role in designing and creativity. Our current perception of such matters suggests a different approach, based on the augmentation of intuitive creative capabilities with computational extensions. The paper proposes that architectural generative design systems can be redirected towards design exploration, including the development of alternatives and variations. Human designers are known to follow inconsistent strategies when confronted with conflicts in their designs. These strategies are not made more consistent by the emerging forms of design analysis. The use of analytical means such as simulation, couple to the necessity of considering a rapidly growing number of aspects, means that the designer is confronted with huge amounts of information that have to be processed and integrated in the design. Generative design exploration that can combine the analysis results in directed and responsive redesigning seems an effective method for the early stages of the design process, as well as for partial (local) problems in later stages. The transformation of generative systems into feedback support and background assistance for the human designer presupposes re-orientation of design generation with respect to the issues of local intelligence and autonomy. Design generation has made extensive use of local intelligence but has always kept it subservient to global schemes that tended to be holistic, rigid or deterministic. The acceptance of local conditions as largely independent structures (local coordinating devices) affords a more flexible attitude that permits not only the emergence of internal conflicts but also the resolution of such conflicts in a transparent manner. The resulting autonomy of local coordinating devices can be expanded to practically all aspects and abstraction levels. The ability to have intelligent behaviour built in components of the design representation, as well as in the spatial and building elements they signify, means that we can create the new, sharper tools required by the complexity resulting from the interpretation of the built environment as a dynamic configuration of co-operating yet autonomous parts that have to be considered independently and in conjunction with each other.   P.S. The content of the paper will be illustrated by a couple of computer programs that demonstrate the princples of local intelligence and autonomy in redesigning. It is possible that these programs could be presented as independent interactive exhibits but it all depends upon the time we can make free for the development of self-sufficient, self-running demonstrations until December.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id diss_cole
id diss_cole
authors Cole, R.J.
year 2000
title The Management and Visualisation of Document Collections Using Formal Concept Analysis
source Griffith University, Australia
summary This thesis proposes a methodology, notation/theory, and software framework for organising documents using formal concept analysis. The documents are organised for the purposes of retrieval and analysis using background information in the form of a taxonomy of terms. An emphasis is placed on the development of a methodology that employs scalable computer programs to assist humans in the process of organisation, retrieval and analysis of document collections.The text retrieval community has also been concerned with the organisation of documents. The work outlined in this thesis makes use of the results of the text retrieval community at its lowest layer. Above this layer formal concept analysis is used as a mechanism to allow users to organise document collections using views determined by small numbers of attributes. These views, also known as scales, can make a mixture of coarse and speci c distinctions between documents, and are either selected or created by the users to make precisely the distinctions between documents that are important to their current tasks.The primary tool for the presentation of the results of formal concept analysis is a line diagram. The e ectiveness of the presentation of information contained in a line diagram is heavily dependent on the quality of the diagram. To support users in arriving at a quality diagram for a newly created view, graph drawing algorithms are adapted to the special case of determining a good layout for a concept lattice. This task is di erent from traditional graph layout problems because lattices exhibit a high degree of structure which should be exploited and made evident in the nal diagram. A new layout algorithm is proposed that combines a layered diagram approach and an additive diagram methodology. This new hybrid algorithm is shown to produce better diagrams than other adapted graph drawing algorithms.
series thesis:PhD
more http://www.kvocentral.com/
last changed 2003/11/28 06:36

_id 5477
authors Donath, D., Kruijff, E., Regenbrecht, H., Hirschberg, U., Johnson, B., Kolarevic, B. and Wojtowicz, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Design Studio 1998 - A Place2Wait
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 453-458
summary This article reports on the recent, geographically and temporally distributed, intercollegiate Virtual Design Studio based on the 1998 implementation Phase(x) environment. Students participating in this workshop had to create a place to wait in the form of a folly. This design task was cut in five logical parts, called phases. Every phase had to be finished within a specific timeframe (one day), after which the results would be stored in a common data repository, an online MSQL database environment which holds besides the presentations, consisting of text, 3D models and rendered images, basic project information like the descriptions of the phases and design process visualization tools. This approach to collaborative work is better known as memetic engineering and has successfully been used in several educational programs and past Virtual Design Studios. During the workshop, students made use of a variety of tools, including modeling tools (specifically Sculptor), video-conferencing software and rendering programs. The project distinguishes itself from previous Virtual Design Studios in leaving the design task more open, thereby focusing on the design process itself. From this perspective, this paper represents both a continuation of existing reports about previous Virtual Design Studios and a specific extension by the offered focus. Specific attention will be given at how the different collaborating parties dealt with the data flow and modification, the crux within a successful effort to cooperate on a common design task.
keywords Collaborative design, Design Process, New Media Usage, Global Networks
series eCAADe
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 53c8
authors Donath, Dirk and Lömker, Thorsten Michael
year 2000
title Illusion, Frustration and Vision in Computer-Aided Project Planning: A Reflection and Outlook on the Use of Computing in Architecture
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 3-9
summary This paper examines the progressive and pragmatic use of computers and CAAD systems in the architectural practice. With the aid of three scenarios, this paper will illustrate gainful implementation of computer aided project planning in architecture. The first scenario describes an actual situation of implementation and describes conceptual abortive developments in office organization as well as in software technology. Scenario two outlines the essential features of an integrated building design system and the efforts involved in its implementation in the architectural practice. It clearly defines preconditions for implementation and focuses on feasible concepts for the integration of different database management systems. A glance at paradigms of conceptual work currently under development will be taken. The third scenario deals with the structure and integration of innovative concepts and the responsibility the architect will bear with regard to necessary alterations in office and workgroup organization. A future-oriented building design system will be described that distinguishes itself from existing programs because of its modular, net-based structure. With reference to today’s situation in architectural offices and according to realizable improvements, this article will demonstrate courses for future IT-support on the basis of an ongoing research project. The presented project is part of the special research area 524 “Materials and Constructions for the Revitalization of Existing Buildings” which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. It deals with the integration of various parties that are involved in the revitalization process of existing buildings as well as with the provision of adequate information within the planning process resting upon the survey of existing building substance. Additional concepts that might change the way an architect’s work is organized will also be presented. “Case-based-reasoning” methods will make informal knowledge available, leading to a digital memory of preservable solutions.
series ACADIA
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2007/11/27 07:22

_id f78f
authors Fridqvist, Sverker
year 2000
title Property-Oriented Information Systems for Design Prototypes for the BAS•CAAD system
source Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture
summary Property-oriented systems are a new kind of information systems that are based on concepts of properties instead of concepts of things or classes of things. By focusing on properties, the property-oriented systems become more flexible and more suited to the dynamic early stages of design than the traditional class-oriented systems can be. The theoretical framework for property-oriented systems developed within the BAS*CAAD project and presented in this thesis has previously been presented in several papers, a selection of which are included here. Some of the basic considerations from the papers are further developed in a separate chapter. Additionally, the thesis covers several questions regarding prerequisites for and implications of property-oriented systems. These questions have not been addressed in earlier BAS*CAAD publications. The development of research proptotypes based on the theoretical framework is presented, with a discussion of the different versions and the considerations behind them. A study of the history of computer aided building design has revealed that many basic ideas of today were developed the first time at the beginning of electronic computing, in the early sixties. Since the early development seems to be unknown today, a brief account is presented in this thesis, with special focus on issues considered in the BAS*CAAD project. Finally, the experimental architectural design software DASK, developed mainly by the present author in the later 1980s, will get its first presentation in writing in this thesis.
keywords Information Technology; Design; Construction; Product Modelling
series thesis:PhD
email S.Fridqvist@bwk.tue.nl
more http://www.lub.lu.se/cgi-bin/show_diss.pl?db=global&fname=tec_391.html
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ga0012
id ga0012
authors Galanter, Philip
year 2000
title GA2: a Programming Environment for Abstract Generative Fine Art
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Fine artists looking to use computers to create generative works, especially those artists inclined towards abstraction, often face an uncomfortable choice in the selection of software tools. On the one hand there are a number of commercial and shareware programs available which implement a few techniques in an easy to use GUI environment. Unfortunately such programs often impose a certain look or style and are not terribly versatile or expressive. The other choice seems to be writing code from scratch, in a language such as c or Java. This can be very time consuming as every new work seems to demand a new program, and the artist's ability to write code can seldom keep pace with his ability to imagine new visual ideas. This paper describes a software system created by the author called GA2 which has been implemented in the Matlab software environment. By layering GA2 over Matlab the artist can take advantage of a very mature programming environment which includes extensive mathematical libraries, simple graphics routines, GUI construction tools, built-in help facilities, and command line, batch mode, and GUI modes of interaction. In addition, GA2 is very portable and can run on Macintosh, Windows, and Unix systems with almost no incremental effort for multi-platform support. GA2 is a work in progress and an extension of the completed GA1 environment. It is medium independent, and can be used for all manner of image, animation, and sound production. GA1 includes a complete set of genetic algorithm operations for breeding families of graphical marks, a database function for managing and recalling various genes, a set of statistical operations for creating various distributions of marks on a canvas or animation frame, a unique Markov-chain-likeoperator for generating families of visually similar lines or paths, and a complete L-system implementation. GA2 extends GA1 by adding more generative techniques such as tiling and symmetry operations, Thom's cusp catastrophe, and mechanisms inspired by complexity science notions such as cellular automata, fractals, artificial life, and chaos. All of these techniques are encapulated in genetic representations. This paper is supplemented with examples from the authors art work, and comments on the philosophy behind this method of working, and its relation towards the reinvigoration of abstraction after post-modernism.  
series other
email galanter@nyu.edu
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id b18b
authors Hnat, B. and Chapman, S.C.
year 2000
title Visualisation of multiscale datasets in numerical models of complex systems
source CIDAC, Volume 2 Issue 4 November 2000, pp. 236-241
summary Recently advanced visualisation techniques receive increasing attention among scientists and engineers. These techniques should not only allow a direct analysis of multidimensional structures to provide intiutive and quick comparison of experimental data with model results, but also yield quantitative measures to support or negate the model itself. A key phenomenology of complex systems is that they are multiscale, i.e. the structures of interest in the data are on the wide range of spatiotemporal scale. Here we examine a simple, yet generic, example, a sandpile (avalance model), the threshold coupled map lattice (CML). The emergent phenomenology is broadband, but is represented on a (finite) grid. To study the 3-dimensional evolution of the threshold CML model of a sandpile as a function of control parameters, a semi-immersive virtual reality (VR) environment has been used. Sandpile profiles are calculated in real time and are superimposed over the colour grid respresenting one of the control parameters. This represents a generic problem of visualising multiscale structures in datasets derived from non-linear systems. The software models were developed in OpenGL and Glut library and will ultimately be implemented in semi-immersive VR on ImmersaDesk. To achieve sufficient speed in real-time display and to ultimately facilitate computational steering, the full data set must be represented geographically in a compact form without loss of information.
keywords Semi-Immersive Virtual Reality, 3-Dimensional Visualisation, OpenGL, CML
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1show page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5... show page 36HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_998624 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002