CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 741

_id de43
authors Counsell, J.
year 2000
title The management and visualisation of 3-dimensional models using a spatial database
source CIDAC, Volume 2 Issue 4 November 2000, pp. 225-235
summary Each year, computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) systems in common use are enhanced and gain facilities that ease 3-dimensional (3D) modelling. Consequently, large complex datasets are increasinly common during the creation and management of 3D models of buildings and urban areas. Uses for such models range from the automatic generation of drawings and schedules to virtual reality (VR) and visualisation across the web. Geographic information systems (GISs) are optimised for the management and retrieval of spatial data and may be used to assist both management and visualisation of large 3D datasets using open standards, such as the ISO standard virtual reality modelling langauge (VRML). Experience gained in the use of such systems indicates a need for specific procedures for recording 3D data and creating linkages to other information. It is suggested that these procedures are applicable to a broad range of such models.
keywords VRML, Urban 3-Dimensional Models, GIS Management
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 57bd
authors Inanc, B. Sinan
year 2000
title Casebook. An Information Retrieval System for Housing Floor Plans
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 389-398
summary Floor plans are representations of choice for spatial information in architectural practice. They are expressive, readable, and familiar. My research examines possible uses of floor plan layouts in architectural information systems. Classification problems that arise are addressed by lazy computation. A prototype in the domain of residential units, CaseBook, has been developed and implemented. CaseBook uses graphical floor plans as core representations for storage, classification and retrieval. To reflect the plasticity of interpretations inherent to the complex and ill-defined architectural domain, the focus is on the flexibility of classification schemes. Flexibility is achieved through the application of adaptable automatic feature extraction and classification-on-demand by user-selected criteria. Queries can be graphically expressed in example layouts. The system ranks layouts according to their similarity to a query based on weighted nearest neighbor algorithm.
series CAADRIA
email s.inanc@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 37b2
authors Johansson, P.
year 2000
title Case-Based Structural Design - using weakly structured product and process information
source Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Steel and Timber Structures, Publ. S 00:7, Göteborg
summary Empirical knowledge plays a significant role in the human reasoning process. Previous experiences help in understanding new situations and in finding solutions to new problems. Experience is used when performing different tasks, both those of routine character and those that require specific skill. This is also the case for structural designers. Over 50% of the work done by the designer on a day-to-day basis is routine design that consists of modifying past designs (Moore 1993). That is, most of the design problems that the designer solves have been solved before, in many cases over and over again. In recent years, researchers have started to study if cases (information about specific problem-solving experiences) could be used as a representation of experiential knowledge. Making use of past experience in the form of cases is commonly known as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). A requirement for Case-Based Design (Case-Based Reasoning applied in design) to be successful is that the design information is computerized. One information type used in structural design that is starting to become computerized is the one in design calculation documents. Such information is weakly structured (which holds for much of the information representing experience) and it contains both product and process information. In this thesis it is shown how the weak structure of this information can be used to subdivide it into components, which in turn makes it possible to apply the object-oriented abstraction principles also to this kind of information. It is also shown how the detailed design process can be represented and how this representation can facilitate automatic acquisition, retrieval of relevant old design information, and adaptation of this information. Two prototypes BridgeBase and ARCADE have been developed, where the principles described above are applied. Using ARCADE, the more general of these two prototypes, it is presented how information in computerized design calculation documents, gathered from real projects, can serve as containers and carriers for both project information and experience. The experience from the two prototypes shows that Case-Based Design can be usable as a tool for structural engineers.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 887b
authors SQin, S.F., Wright, D.K. and Jordanov, I.N.
year 2000
title From on-line sketching to 2D and 3D geometry: a system based on fuzzy knowledge
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 32 (14) (2000) pp. 851-866
summary The paper describes the development of a fuzzy knowledge-based prototype system for conceptual design. This real time system is designed to infer user's sketchingintentions, to segment sketched input and generate corresponding geometric primitives: straight lines, circles; arcs, ellipses, elliptical arcs, and B-spline curves. Topologyinformation (connectivity, unitary constraints and pairwise constraints) is received dynamically from 2D sketched input and primitives. From the 2D topology information, amore accurate 2D geometry can be built up by applying a 2D geometric constraint solver. Subsequently, 3D geometry can be received feature by feature incrementally. Eachfeature can be recognised by inference knowledge in terms of matching its 2D primitive configurations and connection relationships. The system accepts not only sketchedinput, working as an automatic design tool, but also accepts user interactive input of both 2D primitives and special positional 3D primitives. This makes it easy and friendlyto use. The system has been tested with a number of sketched inputs of 2D and 3D geometry.
keywords Conceptual Design, Geometric Modelling, Fuzzy Knowledge
series journal paper
email sqin@lboro.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 38ff
authors Van den Heuvel, F.A.
year 2000
title Trends in CAD-based photogrammetric measurement
source International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 33, Part 5/2, pp. 852-863
summary In the past few decades, Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems have evolved from 2D tools that assist in construction design to the basis of software systems for a variety of applications, such as (re)design, manufacturing, quality control, and facility management. The basic functions of a modern CAD system are storage and retrieval of 3D data, their construction, manipulation, and visualisation. All these functions are needed in a photogrammetric measurement system. Therefore, photogrammetry benefits from integration with CAD, and thereby from developments in this field. There are two main interpretations of the term CAD-based photogrammetry. The first interpretation is on a system level: there is a trend towards integration of photogrammetric tools in existing CAD systems. The second interpretation is on an algorithmic level: developments in the field of CAD regarding object modelling techniques are being implemented in photogrammetric systems. In practice, the two interpretations overlap to a varying extent. The integrated photogrammetric processing of geometry and topology is defined as a minimum requirement for CAD-based photogrammetry. The paper discusses the relation between CAD and photogrammetry with an emphasis on close-range photogrammetry. Several approaches for the integration of CAD and photogrammetry are briefly reviewed, and trends in CAD-based photogrammetry are outlined. First of all, the trend towards CAD-based photogrammetry is observed. The integration of photogrammetry and CAD increases the efficiency of photogrammetric modelling. One of the reasons for this is the improvement of the user-interface, which allows better interaction with the data. A more fundamental improvement is the use of advanced object modelling techniques such as Constructive Solid Geometry, and the incorporation of geometric object constraints. Furthermore, research emphasis is on CAD-based matching techniques for automatic precise measurement of CAD-models. An overall conclusion remains: the integration of photogrammetry and CAD has great potential for widening the acceptance of photogrammetry, especially in industry. This is firstly because of the improvement in efficiency, and secondly because of the established and well-known concept of CAD.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 946b
authors Zhou, Q., Krawczyk, R.J. and Schipporeit, G.
year 2002
title From CAD to IAD: A Working Model of the Internet-based Engineering Consulting in Architecture
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 073-80
summary Information technology has become so powerful that what is conventionally called CAD might evolve into iAD (Internet Aided Design) in the near future (Zhou 2000). For Internet applications in the AEC industry, most of the efforts and success have been concentrated on project management and collaboration, while in the design and engineering consulting area, limited progress has been made. During the period of Internet development, the nature of the fragmentation of the AEC industry has not been changed. Based on previous research of surveys of development of Internet applications in the AEC industry (Zhou 2001), and the study of information technology both available today and in the near future, we propose a general abstracted model of an Internet-based consulting system by integrating a variety of disciplines and functions of design and construction processes. This model will cover a range of design phases, such as, information gathering, automatic remote consultation, specific problem solving, and collaboration. Finally, in future follow up research, we will apply the proposed model to steel construction in architectural design, and develop a prototype simulation by selecting one type of structural system.
series CAADRIA
email qizhou77@yahoo.com
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id ff1d
authors Barki, José
year 2000
title Representação Digital e Projeto de Arquitetura (Digital Representation and Architectural Design)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 120-122
summary The paper is focused around a critical discussion of the digital representation and the architectural design process. Digital technology is now widely accepted and computers are causing a profound impact in the way reality and artificial objects are described and represented. Computers are now transforming skills, design processes, production processes and organizations. However, the evidence suggests that there are no fundamental changes in the architectural design process. It is acknowledged that the design process in architecture goes through representations and entails two altering phases: one generating tentative possibilities and hypothesis, and another of testing and evaluation. Based on this discussion a new way of using digital technology in architectural conception and design is suggested.
series SIGRADI
email zbki@openlink.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id a172
authors Brian Jeffrey Palidar
year 2000
title Live and Direct:A Research and Development Facility for Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Applications
source University of Washington, Design Machine Group
summary This thesis proposed a design project focusing on creating a center for the incorporation, assembly, and demonstration of cutting edge research in AI applications. The project s client is an Institute dedicated to developing the platform for general intelligence by assembling current research and technologies into composite prototypes that push the boundaries of artificial beings. This center also proposes an interactive forum in which the general public can experience the results of the research first hand as well as learn about past projects, attend lectures and presentations, and other activities related to this endeavor and its implications to humanity.
series thesis:MSc
more http://dmg.caup.washington.edu/xmlSiteEngine/browsers/stylin/publications.html
last changed 2004/06/02 17:12

_id 9384
authors Burry, M., Datta, S. and Anson, S.
year 2000
title Introductory Computer Programming as a Means for Extending Spatial and Temporal Understanding
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 129-135
summary Should computer programming be taught within schools of architecture? Incorporating even low-level computer programming within architectural education curricula is a matter of debate but we have found it useful to do so for two reasons: as an introduction or at least a consolidation of the realm of descriptive geometry and in providing an environment for experimenting in morphological time-based change. Mathematics and descriptive geometry formed a significant proportion of architectural education until the end of the 19th century. This proportion has declined in contemporary curricula, possibly at some cost for despite major advances in automated manufacture, Cartesian measurement is still the principal ‘language’ with which to describe building for construction purposes. When computer programming is used as a platform for instruction in logic and spatial representation, the waning interest in mathematics as a basis for spatial description can be readdressed using a left-field approach. Students gain insights into topology, Cartesian space and morphology through programmatic form finding, as opposed to through direct manipulation. In this context, it matters to the architect-programmer how the program operates more than what it does. This paper describes an assignment where students are given a figurative conceptual space comprising the three Cartesian axes with a cube at its centre. Six Phileban solids mark the Cartesian axial limits to the space. Any point in this space represents a hybrid of one, two or three transformations from the central cube towards the various Phileban solids. Students are asked to predict the topological and morphological outcomes of the operations. Through programming, they become aware of morphogenesis and hybridisation. Here we articulate the hypothesis above and report on the outcome from a student group, whose work reveals wider learning opportunities for architecture students in computer programming than conventionally assumed.
series ACADIA
email mark.burry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 93ff
authors Chateau, H.B., Alvarado, R.G., Vergara, R.L. Parra Márquez, J.C.
year 2000
title Un Modelo Experimental em el Espacio-Tiempo de la Realidad Virtual (An Experimental Model in the Space-Time of Virtual Reality)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 251-253
summary Virtual environments are a convergence between communicational media and computational capacities, that progressively integrate in interactive and global systems. This technological evolution has been progressively creating artificial contexts that find their latest and most integral expression in virtual environments. The influence of virtual worlds in our culture questions architecture, and arises the challenge of understanding the approach that should exist from architecture into virtual reality. This paper consists on an experimental exercise in virtual time-space oriented to the news information (News Information Centre), recognising that a relevant architectural event of our time is that virtual worlds represent a meeting between communicational technologies and the interest of contemporary society on being always informed (on line). This project is basically an exploration of virtual design that widens the professional field of architectural study, into the new technological and cultural challenges, that will probably influence significantly on the relations between architecture and urban culture.
series SIGRADI
email hbarria@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 08ea
authors Clayton, Mark J. and Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo P. (Eds.)
year 2000
title ACADIA 2000: Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture
source Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8 / Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, 284 p.
summary Eternity, time without end, infinity, space without limits and virtuality, perception without constraints; provide the conceptual framework in which ACADIA 2000 is conceived. It is in human nature to fill what is empty and to empty what is full. Today, thanks to the power of computer processing we can also make small what is too big, make big what is too small, make fast what is too slow, make slow what is too fast, make real what does not exist, and make our reality omni-present at global scale. These are capabilities for which we have no precedents. What we make of them is our privilege and responsibility. Information about a building flows past our keyboards and on to other people. Although we, as architects, add to the information, it originated before us and will go beyond our touch in time, space and understanding. A building description acquires a life of its own that may surpass our own lives as it is stored, transferred, transformed, and reused by unknown intellects, both human and artificial, and in unknown processes. Our actions right now have unforeseen effects. Digital media blurs the boundaries of space, time and our perception of reality. ACADIA 2000 explores the theme of time, space and perception in relation to the information and knowledge that describes architecture. Our invitation to those who are finding ways to apply computer processing power in architecture received overwhelming response, generating paper submissions from five continents. A selected group of reviewers recommended the publication of 24 original full papers out of 42 submitted and 13 short papers out of 30 submitted. Forty-two projects were submitted to the Digital Media Exhibit and 12 were accepted for publication. The papers cover subjects in design knowledge, design process, design representation, design communication, and design education. Fundamental and applied research has been carefully articulated, resulting in developments that may have an important impact on the way we practice and teach architecture in the future.
series ACADIA
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
more www.acadia.org
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id 958e
authors Coppola, Carlo and Ceso, Alessandro
year 2000
title Computer Aided Design and Artificial Intelligence in Urban and Architectural Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 301-307
summary In general, computer-aided design is still limited to a rather elementary use of the medium, as it is mainly used for the representation/simulation of a design idea w an electronic drawing-table. hich is not computer-generated. The procedures used to date have been basically been those of an electronic drawing-table. At the first stage of development the objective was to find a different and better means of communication, to give form to an idea so as to show its quality. The procedures used were 2D design and 3D simulation models, usually used when the design was already defined. The second stage is when solid 3D modelling is used to define the formal design at the conception stage, using virtual models instead of study models in wood, plastic, etc. At the same time in other connected fields the objective is to evaluate the feasibility of the formal idea by means of structural and technological analysis. The third stage, in my opinion, should aim to develop procedures capable of contributing to both the generation of the formal idea and the simultaneous study of technical feasibility by means of a decision-making support system aided by an Artificial Intelligence procedure which will lead to what I would describe as the definition of the design in its totality. The approach to architectural and urban design has been strongly influenced by the first two stages, though these have developed independently and with very specific objectives. It is my belief that architectural design is now increasingly the result of a structured and complex process, not a simple act of pure artistic invention. Consequently, I feel that the way forward is a procedure able to virtually represent all the features of the object designed, not only in its definitive configuration but also and more importantly in the interactions which determine the design process as it develops. Thus A.I. becomes the means of synthesis for models which are hierarchically subordinated which together determine the design object in its developmental process, supporting decision-making by applying processing criteria which generative modelling has already identified. This trend is currently being experimented, giving rise to interesting results from process design in the field of industrial production.
series eCAADe
email carlo.coppola@unina2.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ga0015
id ga0015
authors Daru, R., Vreedenburgh, E. and Scha, R.
year 2000
title Architectural Innovation as an evolutionary process
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Traditionally in art and architectural history, innovation is treated as a history of ideas of individuals (pioneers), movements and schools. The monograph is in that context one of the most used forms of scientific exercise. History of architecture is then mostly seen as a succession of dominant architectural paradigms imposed by great architectural creators fighting at the beginning against mainstream establishment until they themselves come to be recognised. However, there have been attempts to place architectural innovation and creativity in an evolutionary perspective. Charles Jencks for example, has described the evolution of architectural and art movements according to a diagram inspired by ecological models. Philip Steadman, in his book "The Evolution of Designs. Biological analogy in architecture and the applied arts" (1979), sketches the history of various biological analogies and their impact on architectural theory: the organic, classificatory, anatomical, ecological and Darwinian or evolutionary analogies. This last analogy "explains the design of useful objects and buildings, particularly in primitive society and in the craft tradition, in terms of a sequence of repeated copyings (corresponding to inheritance), with small changes made at each stage ('variations'), which are then subjected to a testing process when the object is put into use ('selection')." However, Steadman has confined his study to a literature survey as the basis of a history of ideas. Since this pioneering work, new developments like Dawkins' concept of memes allow further steps in the field of cultural evolution of architectural innovation. The application of the concept of memes to architectural design has been put forward in a preceding "Generative Art" conference (Daru, 1999), showing its application in a pilot study on the analysis of projects of and by architectural students. This first empirical study is now followed by a study of 'real life' architectural practice. The case taken has a double implication for the evolutionary analogy. It takes a specific architectural innovative concept as a 'meme' and develops the analysis of the trajectory of this meme in the individual context of the designer and at large. At the same time, the architect involved (Eric Vreedenburgh, Archipel Ontwerpers) is knowledgeable about the theory of memetic evolution and is applying a computer tool (called 'Artificial') together with Remko Scha, the authoring computer scientist of the program who collaborates frequently with artists and architects. This case study (the penthouse in Dutch town planning and the application of 'Artificial') shall be discussed in the paper as presented. The theoretical and methodological problems of various models of diffusion of memes shall be discussed and a preliminary model shall be presented as a framework to account for not only Darwinian but also Lamarckian processes, and for individual as well as collective transmission, consumption and creative transformation of memes.
keywords evolutionary design, architectural innovation, memetic diffusion, CAAD, penthouses, Dutch design, creativity, Darwinian and Lamarckian processes
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddssar0213
id ddssar0213
authors De Groot, Ellie and Paule, Bernard
year 2002
title DIAL-Europe: New Functionality’s for an Integrated Daylighting Design Tool
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The European project DIAL-Europe started in April 2000 and intends to enhance and to enlarge the capabilities of the LesoDIAL software. The aim of this “Swiss” tool was to give architects relevant information regarding the use of daylight, at the very first stage of the design process. DIAL-Europe focuses on European standards and climatic data. Further, a Heating & Cooling evaluation module and an Artificial Lighting module will be added. The objective of the Heating & Cooling module is to indicate the implications of the user’s design on heating and cooling energy and on thermal comfort.The objective of Artificial Lighting module is to develop a tool that will give an estimation of illuminance values on the work plane and provide guidance on qualitative aspects and visual comfort as well as on switching control and integration with daylight based on generic light sources and luminaires. Furthermore, the scope of the examples of simulated rooms will be increased in order to allow the user to compare their design with more similar cases. This paper will present the state of achievement and give an overview of the first version of the DIAL-Europe software, which will beavailable at the beginning of 2002.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 5007
authors Elezkurtaj, Tomor and Franck, Georg
year 1999
title Genetic Algorithms in Support of Creative Architectural Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 645-651
summary The functions supported by commercial CAAD software are drawing, construction and presentation. Up to now few programs supporting the creative part of architectural problem solving have become available. The grand hopes of symbolic AI to program creative architectural design have been disappointing. In the meantime, methods called referred to as New AI have become available. Such methods includegenetic algorithms (GA). But GA, though successfully applied in other fields of engineering, still waits to be applied broadly in architectural design. A main problem lies in defining function in architecture. It is much harder to define the function of a building than that of a machine. Without specifying the function of the artifact, the fitness function of the design variants participating in the survival game of artificial evolution remains undetermined. It is impossible to fully specify the fitness function of architecture. The approach presented is one of circumventing a full specification through dividing labor between the GA software and its user. The fitness function of architectural ground plans is typically defined in terms only of the proportions of the room to be accommodated and certain topological relations between them. The rest is left to the human designer who interactively intervenes in the evolution game as displayed on the screen.
keywords Genetic Algorithms, Creative Architectural Design
series eCAADe
email tomor@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at, franck@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id f91f
authors Elezkurtaj, Tomor and Franck, Georg
year 2000
title Geometry and Topology. A User-Interface to Artificial Evolution in Architectural Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 309-312
summary The paper presents a system that supports architectural floor plan design interactively. The method of problem solving implemented is a combination of an evolutionary strategy (ES) and a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem to be solved consists of fitting a number of rooms (n) into an outline by observing functional requirements. The rooms themselves are specified concerning size, function and preferred proportion. The functional requirements entering the fitness functions are expressed in terms of the proportions of the rooms and the neighbourhood relations between them. The system is designed to deal with one of the core problems of computer supported creativity in architecture. For architecture, form not only, but also function is relevant. Without specifying the function that a piece of architecture is supposed to fulfil, it is hard to support its design by computerised methods of problem solving and optimisation. In architecture, however, function relates to comfort, easiness of use, and aesthetics as well. Since it is extraordinary hard, if not impossible, to operationalise aesthetics, computer aided support of creative architectural design is still in its infancy.
keywords New AI, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Evolution, creative Architectural Design, Interactive Design, Topology
series eCAADe
email tomor@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ddssar0010
id ddssar0010
authors Geebelen, Ben and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title IDEA-l, a prototype of a natural lighting design tool for the early stages of the design process
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper discusses IDEA-l, a new natural-lighting design tool, currently under development, that is meant to offer the architect/designer a digital equivalent for scale models, artificial sky simulators and heliodons. The program is part of the IDEA+ research project at K.U.L. This project, under guidance of Prof. H. Neuckermans, aims at developing a new integrated design environment for architects. The paper starts with a discussion of lighting as a design issue. Next the specifications for the new tool are given. The paper ends with a brief development status.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 1f21
authors Geebelen, Benjamin and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title IDEA-l. Bringing Natural Lighting to the Early Design Stages
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 193-196
summary This paper discusses the use of computers as design tools for natural lighting in the early stages of the architectural design process. It focuses on IDEA-l, a new natural-lighting design tool, currently under development, that is meant to offer the architect/designer a digital equivalent for scale models, artificial sky simulators and heliodons.
series eCAADe
email ben.geebelen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 1076
authors Gero, John S. and Saunders, Robert
year 2000
title Constructed Representations and Their Functions in Computational Models of Designing
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 215-224
summary This paper re-examines the conclusions made by Schön and Wiggins in 1992 that computers were unable to reproduce processes crucial to designing. We propose that recent developments in artificial intelligence and design computing put us in a position where we can begin to computationally model designing as conceived by Schön and Wiggins. We present a computational model of designing using situated processes that construct representations. We show how constructed representations support computational processes that model the different kinds of seeing reported in designing. We also present recently developed computational processes that can identify unexpected consequences of design actions using adaptive novelty detection.
series CAADRIA
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au, rob@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

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