CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ga0007
id ga0007
authors Coates, Paul and Miranda, Pablo
year 2000
title Swarm modelling. The use of Swarm Intelligence to generate architectural form
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary .neither the human purposes nor the architect's method are fully known in advance. Consequently, if this interpretation of the architectural problem situation is accepted, any problem-solving technique that relies on explicit problem definition, on distinct goal orientation, on data collection, or even on non-adaptive algorithms will distort the design process and the human purposes involved.' Stanford Anderson, "Problem-Solving and Problem-Worrying". The works concentrates in the use of the computer as a perceptive device, a sort of virtual hand or "sense", capable of prompting an environment. From a set of data that conforms the environment (in this case the geometrical representation of the form of the site) this perceptive device is capable of differentiating and generating distinct patterns in its behavior, patterns that an observer has to interpret as meaningful information. As Nicholas Negroponte explains referring to the project GROPE in his Architecture Machine: 'In contrast to describing criteria and asking the machine to generate physical form, this exercise focuses on generating criteria from physical form.' 'The onlooking human or architecture machine observes what is "interesting" by observing GROPE's behavior rather than by receiving the testimony that this or that is "interesting".' The swarm as a learning device. In this case the work implements a Swarm as a perceptive device. Swarms constitute a paradigm of parallel systems: a multitude of simple individuals aggregate in colonies or groups, giving rise to collaborative behaviors. The individual sensors can't learn, but the swarm as a system can evolve in to more stable states. These states generate distinct patterns, a result of the inner mechanics of the swarm and of the particularities of the environment. The dynamics of the system allows it to learn and adapt to the environment; information is stored in the speed of the sensors (the more collisions, the slower) that acts as a memory. The speed increases in the absence of collisions and so providing the system with the ability to forget, indispensable for differentiation of information and emergence of patterns. The swarm is both a perceptive and a spatial phenomenon. For being able to Interact with an environment an observer requires some sort of embodiment. In the case of the swarm, its algorithms for moving, collision detection, and swarm mechanics conform its perceptive body. The way this body interacts with its environment in the process of learning and differentiation of spatial patterns constitutes also a spatial phenomenon. The enactive space of the Swarm. Enaction, a concept developed by Maturana and Varela for the description of perception in biological terms, is the understanding of perception as the result of the structural coupling of an environment and an observer. Enaction does not address cognition in the currently conventional sense as an internal manipulation of extrinsic 'information' or 'signals', but as the relation between environment and observer and the blurring of their identities. Thus, the space generated by the swarm is an enactive space, a space without explicit description, and an invention of the swarm-environment structural coupling. If we consider a gestalt as 'Some property -such as roundness- common to a set of sense data and appreciated by organisms or artefacts' (Gordon Pask), the swarm is also able to differentiate space 'gestalts' or spaces of some characteristics, such as 'narrowness', or 'fluidness' etc. Implicit surfaces and the wrapping algorithm. One of the many ways of describing this space is through the use of implicit surfaces. An implicit surface may be imagined as an infinitesimally thin band of some measurable quantity such as color, density, temperature, pressure, etc. Thus, an implicit surface consists of those points in three-space that satisfy some particular requirement. This allows as to wrap the regions of space where a difference of quantity has been produced, enclosing the spaces in which some particular events in the history of the Swarm have occurred. The wrapping method allows complex topologies, such as manifoldness in one continuous surface. It is possible to transform the information generated by the swarm in to a landscape that is the result of the particular reading of the site by the swarm. Working in real time. Because of the complex nature of the machine, the only possible way to evaluate the resulting behavior is in real time. For this purpose specific applications had to be developed, using OpenGL for the Windows programming environment. The package consisted on translators from DXF format to a specific format used by these applications and viceversa, the Swarm "engine", a simulated parallel environment, and the Wrapping programs, to generate the implicit surfaces. Different versions of each had been produced, in different stages of development of the work.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id d0aa
authors Colajanni, Benedetto, Concialdi, Salvatore and Pellitteri, Giuseppe
year 1999
title CoCoMa: a Collaborative Constraint Management System for the Collaborative Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 364-369
summary Collaborative Design is a topic of particular current interest. Existing software allows a multiplicity of designers to work on the same project. What the software really allows is accessing to a part of the information of the project and changing it. Sometimes there is a hierarchical distribution of the power of change: some participants can be permitted to operate only on some limited layers of the object representation. In this case the changes they propose are to be accepted by a general manager of the design process. What is lacking in this kind of software is the explicit management on the reciprocal constraints posed by different participants. In this paper, an elementary Collaborative Design System is presented whose main concern is just the management of constraints. Each participant designs the part of the project of his/her concern instantiating objects comprised of geometric description, alphanumeric variables and constraints on both. Constraints can be of two types: absolute or defined by a range of allowed values of the constrained variable. A participant intervening later can accept the constraint, choosing a value in the permitted range, or decide to violate it. In this case the proposed violation is signalled to whom posed it.
keywords Collaborative Design, Design Process, Management System, Participant Designs, Constraints Violation
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id f586
authors Gabriel, G. and Maher, M.L.
year 2000
title Analysis of design communication with and without computer mediation
source Proceedings of Co-designing 2000, pp. 329-337
summary With recent developments in CAD and communication technologies, the way we visualise and communicate design representations is changing. A matter of great interest to architects, practitioners and researchers alike, is how computer technology might affect the way they think and work. The concern is not about the notion of 'support' alone, but about ensuring that computers do not disrupt the design process and collaborative activity already going on (Bannon and Schmidt, 1991). Designing new collaborative tools will then have to be guided by a better understanding of how collaborative work is accomplished and by understanding what resources the collaborators use and what hindrances they encounter in their work (Finholt et al., 1990). Designing, as a more abstract notion, is different than having a business meeting using video conferencing. In design it is more important to 'see' what is being discussed rather than 'watch' the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the method with which it is communicated (See Kvan, 1994). Similarly, we believe that by using text instead of audio as a medium for verbal communication, verbal representations can then be recorded alongside graphical representations for later retrieval and use. In this paper we present the results of a study on collaborative design in three different environments: face-to-face (FTF), computer-mediated using video conferencing (CMCD-a), and computer-mediated using "talk by typing" (CMCD-b). The underlying aim is to establish a clearer notion of the collaborative needs of architects using computer-mediation. In turn this has the potential in assisting developers when designing new collaborative tools and in assisting designers when selecting an environment for a collaborative session.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id gerardgabriel_phd
id gerardgabriel_phd
authors Gabriel, Gerard Caesar
year 2000
source PhD Thesis, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sydney
summary Up till now, architects collaborating with other colleagues did so mostly face-to-face (FTF). They had to be in the same space (co-located) at the same time. Communication was ‘spontaneous’ and ideas were represented, whether verbal or nonverbal, by talking and using ‘traditional drawing tools’. If they were geographically displaced, the interaction was then space affected as well as the probability of being time affected. In this case communication was usually mediated through the telephone, and graphically represented ideas were sent by Fax or posted documents. Recently, some architectural firms started using modems and Internet connections to exchange information, by transferring CAD drawings as well as design information, through e-mail and file transfer protocol (FTP). Discussing ideas in architecture, as a more abstract notion, is different from discussing other more concrete arguments using video conferencing. It is more important to ‘see’ what is being discussed at hand than ‘watch’ the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the mode of communication. Taking into consideration recent developments in computer and communication technologies this thesis investigates different communication channels utilised in architectural collaboration through Computer Mediated Collaborative Design (CMCD) sessions as opposed to FTF sessions. This thesis investigates the possible effects these different channels have on collaborative design in general and collaborative design communication in particular. We argue that successful CMCD does not necessarily mean emulating close proximity environments. Excluding certain communication channels in a CMCD environment might affect the flow and quantity of synchronous collaborative communication, but not necessarily the quality and content of mutually communicated and represented design ideas. Therefore different communication channels might affect the type of communication and not necessarily the content of the communication. We propose that audio and video are not essential communication channels in CMCD environments. We posit that architects will collaborate and communicate design representations effectively although with some differences, since those two channels might cause interruptions and successful collaborative sessions can take place without them. For this purpose we conducted twenty-four one-hour experiments involving final year architecture students all working to the same design brief. The experiments were divided into three categories, FTF, full computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-a; audio-video conferencing plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space) and limited computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-b; with Lambda MOO used as a chat medium plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space). The experiments were video and audio taped, transcribed and coded into a custom developed coding scheme. The results of the analysed coded data and observations of the videotapes provided evidence that there were noticeable differences between the three categories. There was more design communication and less communication control in the CMCD-b category compared to the FTF and CMCD-a categories. Verbal communication became shorter and straight to the point in CMCD-b as opposed to spontaneous non-stop chat in the other two categories. Moreover in CMCD-b the subjects were observed to be more reflective as well as choosing and re-examining their words to explain ideas to their partners. At times they were seen scrolling back through the text of the conversation in order to re-analyse or interpret the design ideas at hand. This was impossible in FTF and CMCD-a sessions, since the subjects were more spontaneous and audio representations were lost as soon as they were uttered. Also the video channel in the CMCD-a category was ignored and hardly used except for the first few minutes of the experiments, for a brief exchange of light humour on the appearance of each subject. The results obtained from analysing the experiments helped us conclude that different communication channels produce different collaborative environments. The three categories of communication for architectural collaboration explored in our experiments are indicative of the alternatives available to architects now. What is not clear to architects is why they would choose one category over another. We propose that each category has its own strengths and difficulties for architectural collaboration, and therefore should be selected on the basis of the type of communication considered to be most effective for the stage and tasks of the design project.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2005/09/09 11:02

_id 03af
authors Kvan, Th., Schmitt, G., Maher, M.L. and Cheng, N.
year 2000
title Teaching Architectural Design in Virtual Studios
source Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, Renate Fruchter, Feniosky Pena-Mora and W. M. Kim Roddis, ASCE 2000, pp. 162–169
summary Virtual studios have provided a valuable content in which to explore and test approaches to both collaborative design and pedagogy. While there has been extensive earlier experience in virtual campuses; not least that at The Open University in England; virtual design studios have explored a different nature of collaboration and interaction; shedding light on a new range of tasks and methods. These lessons have been applied in many fields. For example; the lessons have been used to understand the nature of collaboration. Most directly; they have been applied to the context of teaching design and understanding better how students learn to design. The change in technology can open up new opportunities in what is taught; not only how it is taught. Most broadly; they have been taken in to consideration in the creation of virtual campuses for broader university teaching. All these aspects are explored in this paper.
keywords Pedagogy; Learning; Virtual Studio; Collaboration
series journal paper
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id d28a
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 2000
title Collaborative design: what is it?
source Automation in Construction, 9:4, July 2000, pp. 409-415
summary Collaborative activities are an important application of computer technology now that telecommunications infrastructure has been established to support it. There are many students in schools of architecture who are undertaking collaborative projects using the Internet and many practices who work together exchanging files and interacting on shared digital models. Software vendors are developing tools to support such collaboration. But what are we doing? What is the nature of collaboration and what are the implications for tools that support this work?
keywords Collaboration; Pedagogy; Virtual Studio
series journal paper
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id 899f
authors Papamichael, K., Pal, V., Bourassa, N., Loffeld, J. and Capeluto, I.G.
year 2000
title An Expandable Software Model for Collaborative Decision-Making During the Whole Building Life Cycle
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 19-28
summary Decisions throughout the life cycle of a building, from design through construction and commissioning to operation and demolition, require the involvement of multiple interested parties (e.g., architects, engineers, owners, occupants and facility managers). The performance of alternative designs and courses of action must be assessed with respect to multiple performance criteria, such as comfort, aesthetics, energy, cost and environmental impact. Several stand-alone computer tools are currently available that address specific performance issues during various stages of a building’s life cycle. Some of these tools support collaboration by providing means for synchronous and asynchronous communications, performance simulations, and monitoring of a variety of performance parameters involved in decisions about a building during building operation. However, these tools are not linked in any way, so significant work is required to maintain and distribute information to all parties. In this paper we describe a software model that provides the data management and process control required for collaborative decision-making throughout a building’s life cycle. The requirements for the model are delineated addressing data and process needs for decision making at different stages of a building’s life cycle. The software model meets these requirements and allows addition of any number of processes and support databases over time. What makes the model infinitely expandable is that it is a very generic conceptualization (or abstraction) of processes as relations among data. The software model supports multiple concurrent users, and facilitates discussion and debate leading to decision-making. The software allows users to define rules and functions for automating tasks and alerting all participants to issues that need attention. It supports management of simulated as well as real data and continuously generates information useful for improving performance prediction and understanding of the effects of proposed technologies and strategies.
keywords Decision Making, Integration, Collaboration, Simulation, Building Life Cycle, Software.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id caadria2003_a2-4
id caadria2003_a2-4
authors Seichter, Hartmut
year 2003
title Sketchand+ a Collaborative Augmented Reality Sketching Application
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 209-222
summary The sketch is the embodiment of the architectural discussion. It incorporates rapidness and fuzziness and as this it is an object of interpretation. The interesting thing there is the question, if the usage of VR/AR already in the early phases of a design can have an impact for the quality of a design-process. Examples like VRAM (Regenbrecht et al., 2000) or TAP (Seichter et al., 2000) showed that there is a huge potential for research. The sketch as one of the parts of an early design is tightly coupled with cognitive aspects and communication. Pictured by a sketch is just a snapshot of what have to be discussed in the ensuing design procedure. The intention behind this work is an exploration about a medium which is not yet adapted to the digital world (Myers et al., 2000) and it can be easily be described with the words of Harald Innis: Mankind constantly being caught in his own traps: language and systems, developed and most difficult to break down. (Innis, 1951)
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id f8a3
authors Tuzmen, Ayca
year 2000
title Collaborative Building Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 93-99
summary Studies on team performance have observed that some teams at the same stage in their development perform better than other teams, even of the same composition. Why is this? One of the main reasons is found to be a good team process. Researchers argue that collaborative process is an ideal case through which parties who see different aspects of a problem can constructively explore their differences and search for solutions that go beyond their own limited vision of what is possible. Much attention is now being paid to improvement of the design team process by establishing a collaborative environment in building design practice. Many scholars have prescribed various techniques and technology as ways of achieving collaboration in building design practice. A combination of these prescriptions does support design teams by facilitating one or more of the following: (a) team internal communication, (b) team external communication, (c) information sharing, and (d) decision making. Only recently have there been studies that have provided the strategies for integrating these techniques and technology for the establishment of a collaborative work environment. Researchers from various areas of research have this intention. This includes studies in Business Process Management (BPM), Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR), Total Quality Management (TQM), Project Management (PM), Workflow Management (WfM). All of these studies share one common feature. They all contribute to the study of the management of the team process. Despite the power of the concept and the history of successful application of process management techniques in building practice, the process management strategies are not a panacea. Rather it is a tool which, when properly used under appropriate circumstances, can aid design teams in the achievement of a collaborative design environment. The successful implementation or enactment of process management strategies in building design practice requires a mediator, a facilitator, or a project manager with a variety of managerial skills. However, it is not only enough to support major facilitators in the implementation or in the enactment of a design process that is planned for that teamwork. The performance of a design process should not only be depended on the skills or capabilities of tools that managers use to enact design processes. In order to achieve a collaborative design environment, members of the design team should also be given the support for monitoring and implementing of a collaborative design process. Team members should also have the ability to define, implement and track their personal subprocesses. Team members should also be able to monitor the process and be able to resolve the conflicts between their actions and other members' actions. A distributed process management environment is required in order to facilitate the management and control of the enactment of a collaborative design process. Such an environment should enable the control and monitoring of the enactment of a process and the resources required for its enactment. This paper presents the conceptual model of a process management environment that is developed in order to establish such a process management environment. It also discusses the findings of a study that is conducted for the validation and verification of this conceptual model.
keywords Collaborative Design, Process Management, Workflow Management
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2006/06/06 04:39

_id 35d4
authors Tzonis, Alexander
year 2000
title Community in the Mind. A Model for Personal and Collaborative Design
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 1-14
summary The present paper will discuss a landmark historical change that occurred during the last decade redefining architecture from an insular, solitary, and private activity into a distributed, cooperative, and community-based one. It will inquire into the reasons for this shift and explore the need to develop a new framework for personal and collaborative design and the opportunities resulting from it. How do we reason together in design? What are the criteria for selecting the technology to be used? How is knowledge acquired in such interactive framework? What are the new problems that emerge out of Collaborative Design? What are the new criteria to be applied when evaluating new design methods in the new context of Design Community? The paper will also examine some ideas related to a model for Personal and Collaborative Design and explore cognitive aspects of Community in the Mind. It will raise some basic question concerning new directions for research: The relation between Collaborative Design model to the cross-cultural design practice and the relation between cognitive organization of the Design Mind and the social organization of the Design Community.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 449f
authors Aish, Robert
year 2000
title Collaborative Design using Long Transactions and "Change Merge"
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 107-111
summary If our goal is implement collaborative engineering across temporal, spatial and discipline dimensions, then it is suggested that we first have to address the necessary pre-requisites, which include both the deployment of "enterprise computing" and an understanding of the computing concepts on which such enterprise systems are based. This paper will consider the following computing concepts and the related concepts in the world of design computing, and discuss how these concepts have been realised in Bentley SystemsÕ ProjectBank collaborative engineering data repository: Computing Concept Related Design Concept Normalisation Model v. Report (or Drawing) Transaction Consistency of Design Long Transaction Parallelisation of Design Change Merge Coordination (synchronisation) Revisions Coordination (synchronisation) While we are most probably familiar with the applications of existing datadase concepts (such as Normalisation and Transaction Management) to the design process, the intent of this paper to focus
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a136
authors Blaise, J.Y., Dudek, I. and Drap, P.
year 1998
title Java collaborative interface for architectural simulations A case study on wooden ceilings of Krakow
source International Conference On Conservation - Krakow 2000, 23-24 November 1998, Krakow, Poland
summary Concern for the architectural and urban preservation problems has been considerably increasing in the past decades, and with it the necessity to investigate the consequences and opportunities opened for the conservation discipline by the development of computer-based systems. Architectural interventions on historical edifices or in preserved urban fabric face conservationists and architects with specific problems related to the handling and exchange of a variety of historical documents and representations. The recent development of information technologies offers opportunities to favour a better access to such data, as well as means to represent architectural hypothesis or design. Developing applications for the Internet also introduces a greater capacity to exchange experiences or ideas and to invest on low-cost collaborative working platforms. In the field of the architectural heritage, our research addresses two problems: historical data and documentation of the edifice, methods of representation (knowledge modelling and visualisation) of the edifice. This research is connected with the ARKIW POLONIUM co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France) and the Institute HAiKZ of Kraków's Faculty of Architecture. The ARKIW programme deals with questions related to the use of information technologies in the recording, protection and studying of the architectural heritage. Case studies are chosen in order to experience and validate a technical platform dedicated to the formalisation and exchange of knowledge related to the architectural heritage (architectural data management, representation and simulation tools, survey methods, ...). A special focus is put on the evolution of the urban fabric and on the simulation of reconstructional hypothesis. Our contribution will introduce current ARKIW internet applications and experiences: The ARPENTEUR architectural survey experiment on Wie¿a Ratuszowa (a photogrammetrical survey based on an architectural model). A Gothic and Renaissance reconstruction of the Ratusz Krakowski using a commercial modelisation and animation software (MAYA). The SOL on line documentation interface for Kraków's Rynek G_ówny. Internet analytical approach in the presentation of morphological informations about Kraków's Kramy Bogate Rynku Krakowskiego. Object-Orientation approach in the modelling of the architectural corpus. The VALIDEUR and HUBLOT Virtual Reality modellers for the simulation and representation of reconstructional hypothesis and corpus analysis.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id b4c4
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2000
title A framework for an Architectural Collaborative Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 57-60
summary The building industry involves a larger number of disciplines, operators and professionals than other industrial processes. Its peculiarity is that the products (building objects) have a number of parts (building elements) that does not differ much from the number of classes into which building objects can be conceptually subdivided. Another important characteristic is that the building industry produces unique products (de Vries and van Zutphen, 1992). This is not an isolated situation but indeed one that is spreading also in other industrial fields. For example, production niches have proved successful in the automotive and computer industries (Carrara, Fioravanti, & Novembri, 1989). Building design is a complex multi-disciplinary process, which demands a high degree of co-ordination and co-operation among separate teams, each having its own specific knowledge and its own set of specific design tools. Establishing an environment for design tool integration is a prerequisite for network-based distributed work. It was attempted to solve the problem of efficient, user-friendly, and fast information exchange among operators by treating it simply as an exchange of data. But the failure of IGES, CGM, PHIGS confirms that data have different meanings and importance in different contexts. The STandard for Exchange of Product data, ISO 10303 Part 106 BCCM, relating to AEC field (Wix, 1997), seems to be too complex to be applied to professional studios. Moreover its structure is too deep and the conceptual classifications based on it do not allow multi-inheritance (Ekholm, 1996). From now on we shall adopt the BCCM semantic that defines the actor as "a functional participant in building construction"; and we shall define designer as "every member of the class formed by designers" (architects, engineers, town-planners, construction managers, etc.).
keywords Architectural Design Process, Collaborative Design, Knowledge Engineering, Dynamic Object Oriented Programming
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 3e51
authors Cerulli, C., Peng, C. and Lawson, B.
year 2001
title Capturing Histories of Design Processes for Collaborative Building Design Development. Field Trial of the ADS Prototype
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 427-437
summary The ADS Project - Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process - builds on the technological results of the previous COMMIT Project to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD based Design Decision Support System. COMMIT provides a system for storing knowledge about knowledge within the design process. It records design decisions, the actors who take them and the roles they play when doing so. ADS links COMMIT to an existing object-oriented CAD system, MicroStation/J from Bentley Systems. The project focuses on tackling the problem of managing design information without intruding too much on the design process itself. It provides the possibility to effectively link design decisions back to requirements, to gather rationale information for later stages of the building lifecycle, and to gather knowledge of rationale for later projects. The system enables members of the project team, including clients and constructors, to browse and search the recorded project history of decision making both during and after design development. ADS aims to facilitate change towards a more collaborative process in construction design, to improve the effectiveness of decision-making throughout the construction project and to provide clients with the facility to relate design outcomes to design briefs across the whole building life cycle. In this paper we will describe the field trials of the ADS prototype carried out over a three-month period at the Building Design Partnership (BDP) Manchester office. The objective of these trials is to assess the extent, to which the approach underlying ADS enhances the design process, and to gather and document the views and experiences of practitioners. The ADS prototype was previously tested with historical data of real project (Peng, Cerulli et al. 2000). To gather more valuable knowledge about how a Decision Support System like ADS can be used in practice, the testing and evaluation will be extended to a real project, while it is still ongoing. The live case study will look at some phases of the design of a mixed residential and retail development in Leeds, UK, recording project information while it is created. The users’ feedback on the system usability will inform the continuous redevelopment process that will run in parallel to the live case study. The ADS and COMMIT Projects were both funded by EPSRC.
keywords Design Rationale, Design Support Systems, Usability Evaluation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ddssar0007
id ddssar0007
authors Cooper, G., Rezqui, Y., Jackson, M., Lawson, B., Peng, C. and Cerulli, C.
year 2000
title A CAD-based decision support system for the design stage of a construction project
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Decisions made during the design process are multi-dimensional, combining together factors which range from the highly subjective to the perfectly objective. These decisions are made by many, often non co-located, actors belonging to different disciplines. Moreover, there is a high risk for misunderstandings, inappropriate changes, and decisions, which are not notified to all interested parties. The ADS project (Advanced Decision Support for Construction Design) builds on the results of the earlier COMMIT project to provide an information management system, which addresses these problems. It defines mechanisms to handle the proactive management of information to support decision-making in collaborative projects. Different aspects of the COMMIT system have already been widely published, and the team is now applying the results in the context of construction design. These are referenced in the present paper, which gives an overview of the results of the COMMIT project and discusses some of the issue involved in applying them to the design process in conjunction with an advanced CAD tool.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 1eac
authors Garner, S.
year 2000
title Is Sketching Still Relevant in Virtual Design Studios?
source Proceedings of DCNet, Sydney
summary Sketching, as a particular subset of drawing, has for a long time, been valued within design activity. Although they can appear rough, inaccurate or incomplete, sketches have been presented as both valuable output from, and evidence of, essential activity in designing by individuals and groups. This paper reflects on this value and asks whether sketching is relevant today, given the advances in computing and communications technology seen in modern virtual design environments. Is it time to let go of the metaphor of drawing or can this ancient human capability still tell us something relevant for the improvement of the virtual design studio? While freehand line drawings may not have the same importance in current virtual design studios the support of incompleteness, ambiguity and shared meaning in solution-focused and problem-focused thinking remains essential. The paper proposes that attention to 'graphic acts' has improved our understanding of sketching within collaborative designing. A particular type of fast, transitory 'thumbnail' sketch would appear to be important. If this is so then attention to its modern counterpart in the latest 3D, multi-user, immersive virtual design studios is overdue if they are to support the cognitive processes of creativity vital to design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 70c4
authors Gross, M.D., Do, E.Y.-L. and Johnson, B.R.
year 2000
title Beyond the low-hanging fruit: Information technology in architectural design past, present and future
source W. Mitchell and J. Fernandez (eds), ACSA Technology Conference, MIT Press, Cambridge MA
summary Today's commercial CAD software is the product of years of research that began in the 1960's and 1970's. These applications have found widespread use in the architectural marketplace; nevertheless they represent only the first fruits of research in computer aided design. New developments based on research in human-computer interaction (HCI), computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW), and virtual reality (VR) will result in a next generation of tools for architectural design. Although preliminary applications to design have been demonstrated in each of these areas, excellent opportunities remain to exploit new technologies and insights in service of better design software. In this paper we briefly examine each of these areas using examples from our own work to discuss the prospects for future research. We envision that future design technologies will develop from current and traditional conventions of practice combined with forward looking application of emerging technologies. In HCI, pen based interaction will allow architects to use the pencil again, without sacrificing the added power of computer aided design tools, and speech recognition will begin to play a role in capturing and retrieving design critique and discussion. In CSCW, a new generation of applications will address the needs of designers more closely than current general purpose meeting tools. In VR, applications are possible that use the technology not simply to provide a sense of three-dimensional presence, but that organize design information spatially, integrating it into the representation of artifacts and places.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 10e9
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title DYNAMO in Action - Development and Use of a Web-Based Design Tool
source J. Pohl & T. Fowler (eds.), Proceedings of the Focus Symposium on Advances in Computer-Based and Web-Based Collaborative Systems - InterSymp-2000 International Conference On Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, Baden-Baden (Germany), July 31 - Aug 4, 2000 (ISBN 0-921836-88-0), pp. 233-242
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Design (CBD), the paper describes the development and use of a Web-based design tool called DYNAMO. The tool is firmly rooted in the Dynamic Memory Theory underlying the CBD approach. Yet, rather than adopting it as such, we have tried to enrich this approach by extrapolating it beyond the individual. This extrapolation stimulates and intensifies several modes of interaction. Doing so, DYNAMO tries to kill two birds with one stone. At short notice, it provides architects and architecture students with a rich source of inspiration, ideas and design knowledge for their present design task, as it is filled with a permanently growing collection of design cases that is accessible on-line. Its long-term objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by the cognitive model underlying CBD, and Case-Based Reasoning in general. DYNAMO is therefore conceived as an (inter-)active workhouse rather than a passive warehouse: it is interactively developed by and actively develops the user's design knowledge. Whereas previous papers have focused on the theoretical ideas of DYNAMO, this paper points out how Web technology enables us to implement these ideas as a working prototype. Furthermore, an annotated scenario of the system in use is described.
keywords Case-Based Design, Web Technology, Architectural Design
series journal paper
last changed 2002/11/22 13:50

_id 326c
authors Hirschberg, U., Gramazio, F., H¾ger, K., Liaropoulos Legendre, G., Milano, M. and Stöger, B.
year 2000
title EventSpaces. A Multi-Author Game And Design Environment
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 65-72
summary EventSpaces is a web-based collaborative teaching environment we developed for our elective CAAD course. Its goal is to let the students collectively design a prototypical application - the EventSpaces.Game. The work students do to produce this game and the process of how they interact is actually a game in its own right. It is a process that is enabled by the EventSpaces.System, which combines work, learning, competition and play in a shared virtual environment. The EventSpaces.System allows students to criticize, evaluate, and rate each otherÕs contributions, thereby distributing the authorship credits of the game. The content of the game is therefore created in a collaborative as well as competitive manner. In the EventSpaces.System, the students form a community that shares a common interest in the development of the EventSpaces.Game. At the same time they are competing to secure as much credit as possible for themselves. This playful incentive in turn helps to improve the overall quality of the EventSpaces.Game, which is in the interest of all authors. This whole, rather intricate functionality, which also includes a messaging system for all EventSpaces activities, is achieved by means of a database driven online working environment that manages and displays all works produced. It preserves and showcases each authorÕs contributions in relation to the whole and allows for the emergence of coherence from the multiplicity of solutions. This Paper first presents the motivation for the project and gives a short technical summary of how the project was implemented. Then it describes the nature of the exercises and discusses possible implications that this approach to collaboration and teaching might have.
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 2004_024
id 2004_024
authors Holmgren, S., Rüdiger, B., Storgaard, K. and Tournay, B.
year 2004
title The Electronic Neighbourhood - A New Urban Space
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 24-34
summary During the event Cultural Market Days on 23 and 24 August 2003 at Noerrebro Park in Copenhagen, visitors could also enter the marketplace from their home via the Internet, as a digital 3D model had been constructed that showed the marketplace with all its information booths and activities. This virtual marketplace functioned as an extension of the urban space, allowing you to take part in the flow of information, activities and experiences that were offered in the marketplace. And this just by a click on the Internet address: Furthermore at certain times of the day you could chat with people from some of the many working groups of the urban regeneration project in Noerrebro. The digital 3D model is similar to the marketplace, but it creates its own universe in the green surroundings of Noerrebro Park. And now, when the Cultural Market Days are finished and the booths and people have gone, the Electronic Marketplace still remains on the Internet, with a potential for developing a new public space for information, dialogue and cooperation between the actors of the urban regeneration project. This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project, The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban regeneration project in Copenhagen. The Danish Agency for Enterprise and Housing, the Ministry for Refugees, Immigration and Integration and Copenhagen Municipality have financed the research, which is planned to be published 2004. The results can also be followed on the Internet
keywords 3D Modelling; Virtual Environments; Design Process; Human-Computer Interaction; Collaborative Design; Urban Planning
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

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