CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 196

_id 1f5c
authors Beesley, Philip and Seebohm, Thomas
year 2000
title Digital Tectonic Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 287-290
summary Digital tectonic design is a fresh approach to architectural design methodology. Tectonics means a focus on assemblies of construction elements. Digital tectonics is an evolving methodology that integrates use of design software with traditional construction methods. We see digital tectonic design as a systematic use of geometric and spatial ordinances, used in combination with details and components directly related to contemporary construction. The current approach will, we hope, lead to an architectural curriculum based on generative form making where the computer can be used to produce systems of forms algorithmically. Digital design has tended to remain abstract, emphasizing visual and spatial arrangements often at the expense of materials and construction. Our pursuit is translation of these methods into more fully realized physical qualities. This method offers a rigorous approach based on close study of geometry and building construction elements. Giving a context for this approach, historical examples employing systematic tectonic design are explored in this paper. The underlying geometric ordinance systems and the highly tuned relationships between the details in these examples offer design vocabularies for use within the studio curriculum. The paper concludes with a detailed example from a recent studio project demonstrating particular qualities developed within the method. The method involves a wide range of scales, relating large-scale gestural and schematic studies to detailed assembly systems. Designing in this way means developing geometric strategies and, in parallel, producing detailed symbols or objects to be inserted. These details are assembled into a variety of arrays and groups. The approach is analogous to computer-aided designÕs tradition of shape grammars in which systems of spatial relationships are used to control the insertion of shapes within a space. Using this approach, a three-dimensional representation of a building is iteratively refined until the final result is an integrated, systematically organized complex of symbols representing physical building components. The resulting complex offers substantial material qualities. Strategies of symbol insertions and hierarchical grouping of elements are familiar in digital design practice. However these strategies are usually used for automated production of preconceived designs. In contrast to thsse normal approaches this presentation focuses on emergent qualities produced directly by means of the complex arrays of symbol insertions. The rhyth
keywords 3D CAD Systems, Design Practice, 3D Design Strategies
series eCAADe
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2fb3
authors Bhavnani, S.K.
year 2000
title Designs Conducive to the Use of Efficient Strategies
source Proceedings of DIS'00, (2000), 338-345
summary Studies on the widespread inefficient use of complex computer applications have suggested that users need to learn efficient strategies in addition to learning how to use tools. This paper argues that our growing understanding of strategic knowledge can be used to guide designers develop systems which are conducive to the use of efficient strategies. The paper first describes ten general strategies which appear to be useful across three computer application domains. Next, the paper discusses the functionalities required to execute the ten strategies, and what makes them conducive to strategy use. An analysis of six major computer applications in three domains reveals that these functionalities are not consistently offered, and how their absence directly affects the performance of complex tasks. The analysis leads to questions related to the generality of the results, the problem of featurism, and how strategy-conducive systems could facilitate the transfer of knowledge across applications. The paper concludes by briefly describing how we intend to use the strategy framework to develop analysis methods for designers and trainers.
keywords Strategy; Strategic Knowledge; Efficiency; Design; Training
series other
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9bc4
authors Bhavnani, S.K. and John, B.E.
year 2000
title The Strategic Use of Complex Computer Systems
source Human-Computer Interaction 15 (2000), 107-137
summary Several studies show that despite experience, many users with basic command knowledge do not progress to an efficient use of complex computer applications. These studies suggest that knowledge of tasks and knowledge of tools are insufficient to lead users to become efficient. To address this problem, we argue that users also need to learn strategies in the intermediate layers of knowledge lying between tasks and tools. These strategies are (a) efficient because they exploit specific powers of computers, (b) difficult to acquire because they are suggested by neither tasks nor tools, and (c) general in nature having wide applicability. The above characteristics are first demonstrated in the context of aggregation strategies that exploit the iterative power of computers.Acognitive analysis of a real-world task reveals that even though such aggregation strategies can have large effects on task time, errors, and on the quality of the final product, they are not often used by even experienced users. We identify other strategies beyond aggregation that can be efficient and useful across computer applications and show how they were used to develop a new approach to training with promising results.We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of strategies in the intermediate layers of knowledge can lead not only to more effective ways to design training but also to more principled approaches to design systems. These advances should lead users to make more efficient use of complex computer systems.
series other
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ga0007
id ga0007
authors Coates, Paul and Miranda, Pablo
year 2000
title Swarm modelling. The use of Swarm Intelligence to generate architectural form
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary .neither the human purposes nor the architect's method are fully known in advance. Consequently, if this interpretation of the architectural problem situation is accepted, any problem-solving technique that relies on explicit problem definition, on distinct goal orientation, on data collection, or even on non-adaptive algorithms will distort the design process and the human purposes involved.' Stanford Anderson, "Problem-Solving and Problem-Worrying". The works concentrates in the use of the computer as a perceptive device, a sort of virtual hand or "sense", capable of prompting an environment. From a set of data that conforms the environment (in this case the geometrical representation of the form of the site) this perceptive device is capable of differentiating and generating distinct patterns in its behavior, patterns that an observer has to interpret as meaningful information. As Nicholas Negroponte explains referring to the project GROPE in his Architecture Machine: 'In contrast to describing criteria and asking the machine to generate physical form, this exercise focuses on generating criteria from physical form.' 'The onlooking human or architecture machine observes what is "interesting" by observing GROPE's behavior rather than by receiving the testimony that this or that is "interesting".' The swarm as a learning device. In this case the work implements a Swarm as a perceptive device. Swarms constitute a paradigm of parallel systems: a multitude of simple individuals aggregate in colonies or groups, giving rise to collaborative behaviors. The individual sensors can't learn, but the swarm as a system can evolve in to more stable states. These states generate distinct patterns, a result of the inner mechanics of the swarm and of the particularities of the environment. The dynamics of the system allows it to learn and adapt to the environment; information is stored in the speed of the sensors (the more collisions, the slower) that acts as a memory. The speed increases in the absence of collisions and so providing the system with the ability to forget, indispensable for differentiation of information and emergence of patterns. The swarm is both a perceptive and a spatial phenomenon. For being able to Interact with an environment an observer requires some sort of embodiment. In the case of the swarm, its algorithms for moving, collision detection, and swarm mechanics conform its perceptive body. The way this body interacts with its environment in the process of learning and differentiation of spatial patterns constitutes also a spatial phenomenon. The enactive space of the Swarm. Enaction, a concept developed by Maturana and Varela for the description of perception in biological terms, is the understanding of perception as the result of the structural coupling of an environment and an observer. Enaction does not address cognition in the currently conventional sense as an internal manipulation of extrinsic 'information' or 'signals', but as the relation between environment and observer and the blurring of their identities. Thus, the space generated by the swarm is an enactive space, a space without explicit description, and an invention of the swarm-environment structural coupling. If we consider a gestalt as 'Some property -such as roundness- common to a set of sense data and appreciated by organisms or artefacts' (Gordon Pask), the swarm is also able to differentiate space 'gestalts' or spaces of some characteristics, such as 'narrowness', or 'fluidness' etc. Implicit surfaces and the wrapping algorithm. One of the many ways of describing this space is through the use of implicit surfaces. An implicit surface may be imagined as an infinitesimally thin band of some measurable quantity such as color, density, temperature, pressure, etc. Thus, an implicit surface consists of those points in three-space that satisfy some particular requirement. This allows as to wrap the regions of space where a difference of quantity has been produced, enclosing the spaces in which some particular events in the history of the Swarm have occurred. The wrapping method allows complex topologies, such as manifoldness in one continuous surface. It is possible to transform the information generated by the swarm in to a landscape that is the result of the particular reading of the site by the swarm. Working in real time. Because of the complex nature of the machine, the only possible way to evaluate the resulting behavior is in real time. For this purpose specific applications had to be developed, using OpenGL for the Windows programming environment. The package consisted on translators from DXF format to a specific format used by these applications and viceversa, the Swarm "engine", a simulated parallel environment, and the Wrapping programs, to generate the implicit surfaces. Different versions of each had been produced, in different stages of development of the work.
series other
email p.s.coates@uel.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id de43
authors Counsell, J.
year 2000
title The management and visualisation of 3-dimensional models using a spatial database
source CIDAC, Volume 2 Issue 4 November 2000, pp. 225-235
summary Each year, computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) systems in common use are enhanced and gain facilities that ease 3-dimensional (3D) modelling. Consequently, large complex datasets are increasinly common during the creation and management of 3D models of buildings and urban areas. Uses for such models range from the automatic generation of drawings and schedules to virtual reality (VR) and visualisation across the web. Geographic information systems (GISs) are optimised for the management and retrieval of spatial data and may be used to assist both management and visualisation of large 3D datasets using open standards, such as the ISO standard virtual reality modelling langauge (VRML). Experience gained in the use of such systems indicates a need for specific procedures for recording 3D data and creating linkages to other information. It is suggested that these procedures are applicable to a broad range of such models.
keywords VRML, Urban 3-Dimensional Models, GIS Management
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id ga0027
id ga0027
authors E. Bilotta, P. Pantano and V. Talarico
year 2000
title Music Generation through Cellular Automata
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Cellular automata (CA), like every other dynamical system, can be used to generate music. In fact, starting from any initial state and applying to them simple transition rules, such models are able to produce numerical sequences that can be successively associated to typically musical physical parameters. This approach is interesting because, maintaining fixed the set of rules and varying the initial data, many different, though correlated, numerical sequences can be originated (this recalls the genotype-phenotype dualism). Later on a musification (rendering) process can tie one or more physical parameters typical of music to various mathematical functions: as soon as the generative algorithm produces a numerical sequence this process modifies the physical parameter thus composing a sequence of sounds whose characteristic varies during the course of time. Many so obtained musical sequences can be selected by a genetic algorithm (CA) that promotes their evolution and refinement. The aim of this paper is to illustrate a series of musical pieces generated by CA. In the first part attention is focused on the effects coming from the application of various rendering processes to one dimensional multi state CA; typical behaviours of automata belonging to each of the four families discovered by Wolfram have been studied: CA evolving to a uniform state, CA evolving to a steady cycle, chaotic and complex CA. In order to make this part of the study Musical Dreams, a system for the simulation and musical rendering of one dimensional CA, has been used. In the second phase various CA obtained both by random generation and deriving from those studied in the first part are organised into families and, successively, made evolve through a genetic algorithm. This phase has been accomplished by using Harmony Seeker, a system for the generation of evolutionary music based on GA. The obtained results vary depending on the rendering systems used but, in general, automata belonging to the first family seem more indicated for the production of rhythmical patterns, while elements belonging to the second and fourth family seem to produce better harmonic patterns. Chaotic systems have been seen to produce good results only in presence of simple initial states. Experiments made in the second part have produced good harmonic results starting mainly from CA belonging to the second family.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 8805
authors Flemming, U., Erhan, H.I. and Ozkaya, I.
year 2001
title Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD
source Technical Report 48-01-01. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, Institute of Complex Engineered Systems
summary This report describes a graduate interdisciplinary course offered to students in the graduate program of the School of Architecture at Carnegie Mellon and related departments in fall 2000. The motivation was the realization that when commercial CAD (Computer-Aided Design) systems recently switched from procedural application programming languages to object-oriented ones, third-party application must undergo a significant cognitive retooling"; i. e. they must know more than the syntax and semantics of the new programming language to be used and must be able to employ appropriate software development strategies that are appropriate for the new paradigm. especially with respect to the importance of modeling, a distinguishing characteristic of object-oriented programming. The goal of the course was (a) to introduce and test strategies of object-oriented application development in general and in the context of MicroStation, a state-of-the-art commercial CAD package; (b) to develop-as a course team project-an interesting application that gives students practice with these strategies and team work; and (c) to document our approach and findings so that others can learn from them. The strategies introduced were the use-case approach of Jacobson et al. and the complementary object-modeling tools of Rumbaugh that were recently integrated into the Unified Modeling Language UML. The software platform supporting the course comprised MicroStation, JMDL (a superset of Java) and ProjectBank on the CAD side and RationalRose on the modeling side. The application developed by students in the course supports the generation of drawings for remodeling projects from a set of dgn files describing the existing state of the building to be remodeled. The course was supported by a grant and in-kind contributions from Bentley with matching funds from the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technology Alliance (PITA)."
series report
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddssar0012
id ddssar0012
authors Hendricx, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title Setting objects to work: adding functionality to an architectural object model
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Several research initiatives in the field of product modelling have produced static descriptions of the architectural and geometrical objects capable of describing architectural design projects. Less attention is paid to the development phase in which these static models are transformed into workable architectural design environments. In the context of the IDEA+ research project (Integrated Design Environment for Architectural Design), we use the object-oriented analysis method MERODE to develop and describe both an enterprise (or product) model and a functionality model. On the one hand, the enterprise model defines the architectural and geometrical objects, their methods and their relation with other objects. On the other hand, the functionality model organizes the functionality objects – ranging from single-event objects to complex-workflow objects – in a layered and easily expandable system. The functionality model is created on top of the enterprise model and closes the gap between the static enterprise model and the dynamic design environment as a whole. After a short introduction of the envisaged design environment and its underlying enterprise model, the paper will concentrate on the presentation of the higher-level functionality model. Elaborated examples of functionality objects on the different levels will clarify its concepts and proof its feasibility.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id b18b
authors Hnat, B. and Chapman, S.C.
year 2000
title Visualisation of multiscale datasets in numerical models of complex systems
source CIDAC, Volume 2 Issue 4 November 2000, pp. 236-241
summary Recently advanced visualisation techniques receive increasing attention among scientists and engineers. These techniques should not only allow a direct analysis of multidimensional structures to provide intiutive and quick comparison of experimental data with model results, but also yield quantitative measures to support or negate the model itself. A key phenomenology of complex systems is that they are multiscale, i.e. the structures of interest in the data are on the wide range of spatiotemporal scale. Here we examine a simple, yet generic, example, a sandpile (avalance model), the threshold coupled map lattice (CML). The emergent phenomenology is broadband, but is represented on a (finite) grid. To study the 3-dimensional evolution of the threshold CML model of a sandpile as a function of control parameters, a semi-immersive virtual reality (VR) environment has been used. Sandpile profiles are calculated in real time and are superimposed over the colour grid respresenting one of the control parameters. This represents a generic problem of visualising multiscale structures in datasets derived from non-linear systems. The software models were developed in OpenGL and Glut library and will ultimately be implemented in semi-immersive VR on ImmersaDesk. To achieve sufficient speed in real-time display and to ultimately facilitate computational steering, the full data set must be represented geographically in a compact form without loss of information.
keywords Semi-Immersive Virtual Reality, 3-Dimensional Visualisation, OpenGL, CML
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 57bd
authors Inanc, B. Sinan
year 2000
title Casebook. An Information Retrieval System for Housing Floor Plans
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 389-398
summary Floor plans are representations of choice for spatial information in architectural practice. They are expressive, readable, and familiar. My research examines possible uses of floor plan layouts in architectural information systems. Classification problems that arise are addressed by lazy computation. A prototype in the domain of residential units, CaseBook, has been developed and implemented. CaseBook uses graphical floor plans as core representations for storage, classification and retrieval. To reflect the plasticity of interpretations inherent to the complex and ill-defined architectural domain, the focus is on the flexibility of classification schemes. Flexibility is achieved through the application of adaptable automatic feature extraction and classification-on-demand by user-selected criteria. Queries can be graphically expressed in example layouts. The system ranks layouts according to their similarity to a query based on weighted nearest neighbor algorithm.
series CAADRIA
email s.inanc@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id ga0008
id ga0008
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2000
title Redirecting design generation in architecture
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Design generation has been the traditional culmination of computational design theory in architecture. Motivated either by programmatic and functional complexity (as in space allocation) or by the elegance and power of representational analyses (shape grammars, rectangular arrangements), research has produced generative systems capable of producing new designs that satisfied certain conditions or of reproducing exhaustively entire classes (such as all possible Palladian villas), comprising known and plausible new designs. Most generative systems aimed at a complete spatial design (detailing being an unpopular subject), with minimal if any intervention by the human user / designer. The reason for doing so was either to give a demonstration of the elegance, power and completeness of a system or simply that the replacement of the designer with the computer was the fundamental purpose of the system. In other words, the problem was deemed either already resolved by the generative system or too complex for the human designer. The ongoing democratization of the computer stimulates reconsideration of the principles underlying existing design generation in architecture. While the domain analysis upon which most systems are based is insightful and interesting, jumping to a generative conclusion was almost always based on a very sketchy understanding of human creativity and of the computer's role in designing and creativity. Our current perception of such matters suggests a different approach, based on the augmentation of intuitive creative capabilities with computational extensions. The paper proposes that architectural generative design systems can be redirected towards design exploration, including the development of alternatives and variations. Human designers are known to follow inconsistent strategies when confronted with conflicts in their designs. These strategies are not made more consistent by the emerging forms of design analysis. The use of analytical means such as simulation, couple to the necessity of considering a rapidly growing number of aspects, means that the designer is confronted with huge amounts of information that have to be processed and integrated in the design. Generative design exploration that can combine the analysis results in directed and responsive redesigning seems an effective method for the early stages of the design process, as well as for partial (local) problems in later stages. The transformation of generative systems into feedback support and background assistance for the human designer presupposes re-orientation of design generation with respect to the issues of local intelligence and autonomy. Design generation has made extensive use of local intelligence but has always kept it subservient to global schemes that tended to be holistic, rigid or deterministic. The acceptance of local conditions as largely independent structures (local coordinating devices) affords a more flexible attitude that permits not only the emergence of internal conflicts but also the resolution of such conflicts in a transparent manner. The resulting autonomy of local coordinating devices can be expanded to practically all aspects and abstraction levels. The ability to have intelligent behaviour built in components of the design representation, as well as in the spatial and building elements they signify, means that we can create the new, sharper tools required by the complexity resulting from the interpretation of the built environment as a dynamic configuration of co-operating yet autonomous parts that have to be considered independently and in conjunction with each other.   P.S. The content of the paper will be illustrated by a couple of computer programs that demonstrate the princples of local intelligence and autonomy in redesigning. It is possible that these programs could be presented as independent interactive exhibits but it all depends upon the time we can make free for the development of self-sufficient, self-running demonstrations until December.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ca8f
authors Lieberman, Oren
year 2000
title The Application of Object-oriented Software Concepts in Architectural Pedagogy
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 27-33
summary Architecture, a complex discipline that involves many people and things and the relationships amongst them, requires a pedagogical approach by which the student, even in her first year, must be able to think "complexly" across many subjects. The object-oriented analysis and design software programming paradigm, which models complex "realities", or "models the way people understand and process reality", holds promising concepts for architectural education. It is not my intention to extract slavishly all possible concepts from object-orientation (OO) and accept them as a "recipe" for educating the architect. Indeed, one of the reasons I find OO so elegant is that it provides a strategy, a non-prescriptive framework, with which both teachers and students can explore their own architectural investigations. It also provides the possibility of a common language, offering a structure in which, for example, certain standards can be measured within departments, or with which we can negotiate compatibility across different national credit systems to facilitate and encourage cross-cultural (border) exchange.
keywords Object-Oriented, Aspect, Subject-Oriented, Concern Spaces, Reusability, Abstraction/Compression, Encapsulation, Maintenance
series eCAADe
email oren.lieberman@strath.ac.uk
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id c991
authors Moorhouse, Jon and Brown,Gary
year 1999
title Autonomous Spatial Redistribution for Cities
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 678-684
summary The paper investigates an automated methodology for the appropriate redistribution of usable space in distressed areas of inner cities. This is achieved by categorising activity space and making these spaces morphologically mobile in relation to the topography within a representative artificial space. The educational module has been influenced by theories from the natural environment, which possess patterns that have inherent evolutionary programmes in which the constituents are recyclable, Information is strategically related to the environment to produce forms of growth and behaviour. Artificial landscape patterns fail to evolve, the inhabited landscape needs a means of starting from simplicity and building into the most complex of systems that are capable of re-permutation over time. The paper then describes the latest methodological development in terms of a shift from the use of the computer as a tool for data manipulation to embracing the computer as a design partner. The use of GDL in particular is investigated as a facilitator for such generation within a global, vectorial environment.
keywords Animated, Urban, Programme, Education, Visual Database
series eCAADe
email Jonhat@aol.com
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id ga0010
id ga0010
authors Moroni, A., Zuben, F. Von and Manzolli, J.
year 2000
title ArTbitrariness in Music
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Evolution is now considered not only powerful enough to bring about the biological entities as complex as humans and conciousness, but also useful in simulation to create algorithms and structures of higher levels of complexity than could easily be built by design. In the context of artistic domains, the process of human-machine interaction is analyzed as a good framework to explore creativity and to produce results that could not be obtained without this interaction. When evolutionary computation and other computational intelligence methodologies are involved, every attempt to improve aesthetic judgement we denote as ArTbitrariness, and is interpreted as an interactive iterative optimization process. ArTbitrariness is also suggested as an effective way to produce art through an efficient manipulation of information and a proper use of computational creativity to increase the complexity of the results without neglecting the aesthetic aspects [Moroni et al., 2000]. Our emphasis will be in an approach to interactive music composition. The problem of computer generation of musical material has received extensive attention and a subclass of the field of algorithmic composition includes those applications which use the computer as something in between an instrument, in which a user "plays" through the application's interface, and a compositional aid, which a user experiments with in order to generate stimulating and varying musical material. This approach was adopted in Vox Populi, a hybrid made up of an instrument and a compositional environment. Differently from other systems found in genetic algorithms or evolutionary computation, in which people have to listen to and judge the musical items, Vox Populi uses the computer and the mouse as real-time music controllers, acting as a new interactive computer-based musical instrument. The interface is designed to be flexible for the user to modify the music being generated. It explores evolutionary computation in the context of algorithmic composition and provides a graphical interface that allows to modify the tonal center and the voice range, changing the evolution of the music by using the mouse[Moroni et al., 1999]. A piece of music consists of several sets of musical material manipulated and exposed to the listener, for example pitches, harmonies, rhythms, timbres, etc. They are composed of a finite number of elements and basically, the aim of a composer is to organize those elements in an esthetic way. Modeling a piece as a dynamic system implies a view in which the composer draws trajectories or orbits using the elements of each set [Manzolli, 1991]. Nonlinear iterative mappings are associated with interface controls. In the next page two examples of nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces are shown.The mappings may give rise to attractors, defined as geometric figures that represent the set of stationary states of a non-linear dynamic system, or simply trajectories to which the system is attracted. The relevance of this approach goes beyond music applications per se. Computer music systems that are built on the basis of a solid theory can be coherently embedded into multimedia environments. The richness and specialty of the music domain are likely to initiate new thinking and ideas, which will have an impact on areas such as knowledge representation and planning, and on the design of visual formalisms and human-computer interfaces in general. Above and bellow, Vox Populi interface is depicted, showing two nonlinear iterative mappings with their resulting musical pieces. References [Manzolli, 1991] J. Manzolli. Harmonic Strange Attractors, CEM BULLETIN, Vol. 2, No. 2, 4 -- 7, 1991. [Moroni et al., 1999] Moroni, J. Manzolli, F. Von Zuben, R. Gudwin. Evolutionary Computation applied to Algorithmic Composition, Proceedings of CEC99 - IEEE International Conference on Evolutionary Computation, Washington D. C., p. 807 -- 811,1999. [Moroni et al., 2000] Moroni, A., Von Zuben, F. and Manzolli, J. ArTbitration, Las Vegas, USA: Proceedings of the 2000 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Workshop Program – GECCO, 143 -- 145, 2000.
series other
email artemis@ia.cti.br
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id eadd
authors Oxman, R.E.
year 2000
title Visual Reasoning in Case-Based Design
source AID’00 Workshop, Worcester (Mass.)
summary The interest in CBR as a relevant paradigm for design has led to a series of successful AID workshops over the last few years. Most of these workshops were focused on traditional issues and topics in CBR such as indexing, retrieval, and adaptation. Despite the long-term effort to establish the theoretical foundations for CBR in design, we have yet to achieve the promise of this affinity (CBR and Design). Though there is a general consensus of the cognitive significance of CBR to design and general optimism regarding the promise of CBR technologies for the advancement of design systems, we have yet to realize this potential. In order to strengthen the field in design it appears that additional theoretical efforts are needed in the following two directions. First, we must re-consider the complexity of design and design reasoning as it relates to CBR. One possible direction for future exploration is to view CBR as part of the complex, hybrid reasoning processes in design. This can be done by the integration of other significant cognitive aspects of design which are investigated in relevant fields in AI. Visual reasoning is a fundamental attribute of design, and therefor combining these two research areas may provide significant results for the field. The second direction is to investigate the possible integration of CBR paradigms and techniques with existing computational technologies, including CAD, and electronic media. These two subjects are the main objectives of the workshop. The first section of the workshop will focus on Re-formulating Theoretical Foundations for CBR in Design; within this part of the workshop it is proposed that special emphasis be placed upon Visual Reasoning and Case-Based Design The second part of the workshop will discuss the applicative implications of these re-formulations. The workshop aims to bring together researchers who work on visual and case-based reasoning. It aims to provide a forum for intensive interaction among researchers in these areas. We expect that a diverse background of participants (from AI as well as related cognitive and design domains) will lead to a rich and lively exchange of points of view and will contribute to the identification of significant research issues.
series other
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddssar0022
id ddssar0022
authors Peng, C., Cerulli, C., Lawson, B., Cooper, G., Rezqui, Y. and Jackson, M.
year 2000
title Recording and managing design decision-making processes through an object-oriented framework
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary In this paper we describe our current research into an object-oriented approach to the recording and managing of design decision-making in the processes of building design. The Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process (ADS) project, funded under the Innovative Manufacturing Initiative by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), aims to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD-based Design Decision Support System. The research focuses on how to provide designers with tools for recording and managing the group dynamics of design decision making in a project's life time without intruding too much on the design process itself. In collaboration with Building Design Partnership, a large multidisciplinary construction design practice, we look at design projects that require decision-making on an extraordinarily wide range of complex issues, and many different professional consultants were involved in making and approving these decisions. We are interested in developing an advanced CAD tool that will facilitate capturing designers' rationales underlying their design decision making throughout the project. The system will also enable us to explore how a recorded project history of decision-making can be searched and browsed by members of the project team during and after design development.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id diss_sola
id diss_sola
authors Sola-Morales, Pau
year 2000
title Representation in Architecture: A Data Model for Computer-Aided Architectural Design
source DDes Thesis, Harvard Design School, Cambridge, MA
summary Traditional representation systems – including technical drawings, perspectives, models and photography – have historically been used by architects to communicate projectual ideas to other agents in the process, as well to communicate ideas to themselves and recording them for future reference. The increasing complexity of the projects, involving more agents in ever more distant locations; the need for a greater semantic richness to express all the subtleties of the technical, cost and styling details; and -- most importantly – the introduction of computers in every day practice, which enable powerful data generation and manipulation; all these factors together demand for a new representation system adapted to the new digital medium. Yet, traditional CAAD software packages do not offer a solution to any of these problems, for their data model is too simplified to model complex projects and ideas, and are based on geometrical representations of the built environment. This dissertation addresses the issue of computer representation of architecture, and tries to refocus the discussion from a “geometric representation of objects” to a “representation of relationships among objects.” After studying the nature of design, it is observed that objects in the built environment can be represented as patterns of relationships. Based on the object-oriented data model (OODM), which can capture such relationships, the research proposes a new data model and a new set of abstractions of architectural elements that represent the patterns of relationships among them. The resulting representations are networks of design concepts and intentions, hypertext-like structures conveying all the semantic richness of the architectural project, containing qualitative as well as quantitative information. It is analogous to a “digital writing” or “encoding” of architecture. Being stored in an OO, centralized, concurrent database, these object models can be shared and exchanged among design professionals, adding up to a universal computer-readable design representation system.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id 3f51
authors Streich, B., Oxman, R. and Fritz, O.
year 2000
title Computer-Simulated Growth Processes in Urban Planning and Architecture
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 233-237
summary Urban structures, developed and grown over a period of time, are created by processes that, due to the number of influential factors, are not longer comprehensible as a whole. Their development is very complex and depends on a big number of reciprocal factors that even architects or planners sometimes cannot recognize the formal, functional and rational processes of thinking behind it. The involved mechanisms however are particularly obvious in historical urban structures that came to exist over a period of centuries. The planned relationships within these conglomerates are governed by nearly indiscernible rules and show similarities in form and shape to living and non-living forms in nature. They are clearly analogous to fractals or systems with chaotic behavior. In the course of the research project “media experimental design”, financed by the German Research Foundation, algorithms are sought that are able to simulate urban analogous structures digitally. To this effect the main rules of growth processes are researched and extracted. Then, by following these rules, virtual structures are developed and shown by using powerful three-dimensional techniques. The developed mechanisms allow urban planning to be process-oriented, interactive and flexible for permanently changing parameters. With an implemented set of rules the computer is able to create a design and to react to changing situations. In several experimental studies structures were successfully generated which have different forms and qualities depending on their set of rules. For example, structures were programmed which are similar to a big city while other look like a village in hilly landscape. Diverse rules and strategies have been used in order to reduce them to shape specific factors. The rules for growth are administered by a specifically developed databank with sophisticated search mechanisms using the Issue-Concept- Form tool as case-based-reasoning method.
keywords Simulation, Urban Growth-Processes, Virtual Reality
series ACADIA
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ga0016
id ga0016
authors Thum, Robert and Derix, Christian
year 2000
title Artificial Neural Network Spaces
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary In the processes of continues functional differentiation the contemporary society increasingly displays the characteristics of complex, distributed systems. In this condition architecture can no longer rely on top-down reductionist methodologies in ignoring the constituting importance of contextual parameters. The present paper describes how Artificial Neural Networks can be employed to design with-in the underlying logic of our society -the logic of distributed systems. In computer simulations the paper explores the capability of ANN to Self-organization: Neural Networks Architectures absorb and adapt vast amount of urban data in order to adjust their organization to exterior changes through interior structural reconfiguration, thus producing adaptive spatial formations.    
series other
type normal paper
email Christian.Derix@aedas.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2012/09/25 05:42

_id 06a4
authors Wong, Nyuk Hien and Mahdavi, Ardeshir
year 2000
title Automated generation of nodal representations for complex building geometries in the SEMPER environment
source Automation in Construction 10 (1) (2000) pp. 141-153
summary Conventional CAD systems rarely provide automated conversion of general building design representations (BDR) into the simulation domain representations (SDR) required for various detailed simulations. The Simulation Environment for Modeling Performance (SEMPER) project has demonstrated such an automated mapping for buildings with orthogonal geometries. This paper further illustrates automated mapping for buildings with complex (non-orthogonal) geometry.
series journal paper
email amahdavi@tuwien.ac.at
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

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