CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 366

_id ga0007
id ga0007
authors Coates, Paul and Miranda, Pablo
year 2000
title Swarm modelling. The use of Swarm Intelligence to generate architectural form
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary .neither the human purposes nor the architect's method are fully known in advance. Consequently, if this interpretation of the architectural problem situation is accepted, any problem-solving technique that relies on explicit problem definition, on distinct goal orientation, on data collection, or even on non-adaptive algorithms will distort the design process and the human purposes involved.' Stanford Anderson, "Problem-Solving and Problem-Worrying". The works concentrates in the use of the computer as a perceptive device, a sort of virtual hand or "sense", capable of prompting an environment. From a set of data that conforms the environment (in this case the geometrical representation of the form of the site) this perceptive device is capable of differentiating and generating distinct patterns in its behavior, patterns that an observer has to interpret as meaningful information. As Nicholas Negroponte explains referring to the project GROPE in his Architecture Machine: 'In contrast to describing criteria and asking the machine to generate physical form, this exercise focuses on generating criteria from physical form.' 'The onlooking human or architecture machine observes what is "interesting" by observing GROPE's behavior rather than by receiving the testimony that this or that is "interesting".' The swarm as a learning device. In this case the work implements a Swarm as a perceptive device. Swarms constitute a paradigm of parallel systems: a multitude of simple individuals aggregate in colonies or groups, giving rise to collaborative behaviors. The individual sensors can't learn, but the swarm as a system can evolve in to more stable states. These states generate distinct patterns, a result of the inner mechanics of the swarm and of the particularities of the environment. The dynamics of the system allows it to learn and adapt to the environment; information is stored in the speed of the sensors (the more collisions, the slower) that acts as a memory. The speed increases in the absence of collisions and so providing the system with the ability to forget, indispensable for differentiation of information and emergence of patterns. The swarm is both a perceptive and a spatial phenomenon. For being able to Interact with an environment an observer requires some sort of embodiment. In the case of the swarm, its algorithms for moving, collision detection, and swarm mechanics conform its perceptive body. The way this body interacts with its environment in the process of learning and differentiation of spatial patterns constitutes also a spatial phenomenon. The enactive space of the Swarm. Enaction, a concept developed by Maturana and Varela for the description of perception in biological terms, is the understanding of perception as the result of the structural coupling of an environment and an observer. Enaction does not address cognition in the currently conventional sense as an internal manipulation of extrinsic 'information' or 'signals', but as the relation between environment and observer and the blurring of their identities. Thus, the space generated by the swarm is an enactive space, a space without explicit description, and an invention of the swarm-environment structural coupling. If we consider a gestalt as 'Some property -such as roundness- common to a set of sense data and appreciated by organisms or artefacts' (Gordon Pask), the swarm is also able to differentiate space 'gestalts' or spaces of some characteristics, such as 'narrowness', or 'fluidness' etc. Implicit surfaces and the wrapping algorithm. One of the many ways of describing this space is through the use of implicit surfaces. An implicit surface may be imagined as an infinitesimally thin band of some measurable quantity such as color, density, temperature, pressure, etc. Thus, an implicit surface consists of those points in three-space that satisfy some particular requirement. This allows as to wrap the regions of space where a difference of quantity has been produced, enclosing the spaces in which some particular events in the history of the Swarm have occurred. The wrapping method allows complex topologies, such as manifoldness in one continuous surface. It is possible to transform the information generated by the swarm in to a landscape that is the result of the particular reading of the site by the swarm. Working in real time. Because of the complex nature of the machine, the only possible way to evaluate the resulting behavior is in real time. For this purpose specific applications had to be developed, using OpenGL for the Windows programming environment. The package consisted on translators from DXF format to a specific format used by these applications and viceversa, the Swarm "engine", a simulated parallel environment, and the Wrapping programs, to generate the implicit surfaces. Different versions of each had been produced, in different stages of development of the work.
series other
email p.s.coates@uel.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id f44f
authors Huang, Ying-Hsiu
year 2000
title Investigating the Cognitive Behavior of Generating Idea Sketches. Neural Network Simulation
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 287-296
summary In idea sketches, there are a number of ambiguous shapes. Designers will associate and transform some shapes into others (Liu, 1993). Then, they evaluate these shapes in terms of functions and design requirements; furthermore, they would have generated other shapes that certified the design requirements (Huang, 1999). However, not only is the idea of design composed of one element, but also consisted of varied components. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how designers generate ideas of multi-component products, and to simulate this phenomenon by neural networks. At the same time, this paper attempts to study the design cognitive behavior of idea-generating stages, and explores the designers' cognitive phenomenon. Therefore, there are two stages in this paper: First, I conduct a cognitive experiment to realize how designers generate the multi-component product and acquire the sketches that designers generated. Second, I train the neural networks to simulate the behavior of idea generation and explore the cognitive phenomenon in design sketches. As a result, networks associate one shape that trained before, and then generate a complete idea. This phenomenon is similar to the cognitive behavior of designers who saw the ambiguous shape as one shape, which was retrieved from LTM. Moreover, the neural network is examined by a rectangle, which is totally different from the training patterns. The network will associate a confused shape. But the network will associate different shapes by adjusting some critical parameters. Designers can generate variable shapes from one shape, but the signal neural network can't simulate this kind of behavior. On the contrary, this paper proposes five sequential networks to generate variable shapes from the same shape and simulates how designers develop ideas.
series CAADRIA
email richhys@ms10.hinet.net
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 9d10
authors Anders, Peter and Livingstone, Daniel
year 2001
title STARS: Shared Transatlantic Augmented Reality System
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 350-355
summary Since October 2000 the authors have operated a laboratory, the Shared Transatlantic Augmented Reality System (STARS), for exploring telepresence in the domestic environment. The authors, an artist and an architect, are conducting a series of experiments to test their hypotheses concerning mixed reality and supportive environments. This paper describes these hypotheses, the purpose and construction of the lab, and preliminary results from the ongoing collaboration.
keywords Mixed Reality, Cybrid, Art, Cyberspace, CAiiA-STAR
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 328d
authors Bassanino, May Nahab and Brown, Andre
year 1999
title Computer Generated Architectural Images: A Comparative Study
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 552-556
summary This work is part of a long term research programme (Brown and Horton, 1992; Brown and Nahab, 1996; Bassanino, 1999) in which tests and studies have been carried out on various groups of people to investigate their reaction to, and interpretation of different forms of architectural representation. In the work described here a range of architectural schemes were presented using particular representational techniques and media. An experiment was then undertaken on two different groups; architects and lay people. They were presented with a number of schemes displayed using the various techniques and media. The responses are summarised and some comments are made on the effect of computers on perceiving architecture and on communicating architectural ideas arising from an analysis of the responses.
keywords Subject, Image Type, Presentation Technique, Medium, SD Scales, Factors
series eCAADe
email andygbp@liv.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cd17
authors Bermudez, J., Agutter, J., Westenskow, D., Foresti, S., Zhang, Y., Gondeck-Becker, D., Syroid, N., Lilly, B., Strayer, .D. and Drews, F.
year 2000
title Data Representation Architecture: Visualization Design Methods, Theory and Technology Applied to Anesthesiology
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 91-102
summary The explosive growth of scientific visualization in the past 10 years demonstrate a consistent and tacit agreement among scientists that visualization offers a better representation system for displaying complex data than traditional charting methods. However, most visualization works have not been unable to exploit the full potential of visualization techniques. The reason may be that these attempts have been largely executed by scientists. While they have the technical skills for conducting research, they do not have the design background that would allow them to display data in easy to understand formats. This paper presents the architectural methodology, theory, technology and products that are being employed in an ongoing multidisciplinary research in anesthesiology. The project’s main goal is to develop a new data representation technology to visualize physiologic information in real time. Using physiologic data, 3-D objects are generated in digital space that represent physiologic changes within the body and show functional relationships that aid in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of critical events. Preliminary testing results show statistically significant reduction in detection times. The research outcome, potential, and recently received NIH grant supporting the team’s scientific methods all point to the contributions that architecture may offer to the growing field of data visualization.
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id a9b0
authors Cha, Myung Yeol and Gero, John
year 1999
title Style Learning: Inductive Generalisation of Architectural Shape Patterns
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 629-644
summary Art historians and critics have defined the style as common features appeared in a class of objects. Abstract common features from a set of objects have been used as a bench mark for date and location of original works. Common features in shapes are identified by relationships as well as physical properties from shape descriptions. This paper will focus on how the computer recognises common shape properties from a class of shape objects to learn style. Shape representation using schema theory has been explored and possible inductive generalisation from shape descriptions has been investigated.
keywords Style, Inductive Generalisation, Knowledge Representation, Shape
series eCAADe
email chasaem@netsgo.com
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 30f5
authors Chan, Chen-Wei and Chiu, Mao-Lin
year 2000
title A Simulation Study of Urban Growth Patterns with Fractal Geometry
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 55-64
summary This paper depicts the use of fractal geometry in urban simulation. Fractal geometry, L-system, the DLA model, and related urban growth theories are first examined. Then an urban simulation system based on fractal geometry and L-system, Fractal_US, is built on the web for studying urban development patterns in various conditions. The Taipei city is simulated to demonstrate the visualization of urban growth and the result is presented for further discussion.
series CAADRIA
email n7687406@dec4000.cc.ncku.edu.tw, mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 958e
authors Coppola, Carlo and Ceso, Alessandro
year 2000
title Computer Aided Design and Artificial Intelligence in Urban and Architectural Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 301-307
summary In general, computer-aided design is still limited to a rather elementary use of the medium, as it is mainly used for the representation/simulation of a design idea w an electronic drawing-table. hich is not computer-generated. The procedures used to date have been basically been those of an electronic drawing-table. At the first stage of development the objective was to find a different and better means of communication, to give form to an idea so as to show its quality. The procedures used were 2D design and 3D simulation models, usually used when the design was already defined. The second stage is when solid 3D modelling is used to define the formal design at the conception stage, using virtual models instead of study models in wood, plastic, etc. At the same time in other connected fields the objective is to evaluate the feasibility of the formal idea by means of structural and technological analysis. The third stage, in my opinion, should aim to develop procedures capable of contributing to both the generation of the formal idea and the simultaneous study of technical feasibility by means of a decision-making support system aided by an Artificial Intelligence procedure which will lead to what I would describe as the definition of the design in its totality. The approach to architectural and urban design has been strongly influenced by the first two stages, though these have developed independently and with very specific objectives. It is my belief that architectural design is now increasingly the result of a structured and complex process, not a simple act of pure artistic invention. Consequently, I feel that the way forward is a procedure able to virtually represent all the features of the object designed, not only in its definitive configuration but also and more importantly in the interactions which determine the design process as it develops. Thus A.I. becomes the means of synthesis for models which are hierarchically subordinated which together determine the design object in its developmental process, supporting decision-making by applying processing criteria which generative modelling has already identified. This trend is currently being experimented, giving rise to interesting results from process design in the field of industrial production.
series eCAADe
email carlo.coppola@unina2.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 38f3
authors Craig and Zimring
year 2000
title Supporting collaborative design groups as design communities
source Design Studies, Vol. 21, no. 2, March
summary This paper explores computer support for unstructured collaboration. A web-based online environment used in conjunction with a graduate-level architectural studio was investigated, with special attention given to patterns of online behavior and the perceptions of those who used the environment. It was assumed that asynchronous collaborative environments like the one studied naturally alleviate certain problems like evaluation apprehension and production-blocking, but do not on their own motivate contributions to a group in an unstructured setting. It was hypothesized that open participation hinges on the development of a sense of community, which itself depends partially on environmental factors intrinsic to the support environment. The environment studied failed to promote open interaction and did not appear to sustain a strong sense of community. Environmental factors thought to have played a role include page structuring, page-naming conventions, and the spatial clustering of textbased exchanges.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 80f0
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang
year 1999
title Three Dimensional Computer Models in Development Planning
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 685-693
summary The paper shows a way to use computer generated spatial models in planning to increase the quality of development planning inside a community and to enable a better vision of future developments in showing the spatial impact of possible solutions inside a bandwidth of surface utilisation and density. It describes the application of this technique to give the specialists and the members of a community a comparatively easy to use tool to show the impact of planning decisions and therefore increase the discussion about a desirable future.
keywords 3D City Modeling, Planning, Spatial Models, Development
series eCAADe
email dokonal@stdb.tu-graz.ac.at
last changed 2001/06/04 12:16

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id ga0024
id ga0024
authors Ferrara, Paolo and Foglia, Gabriele
year 2000
title TEAnO or the computer assisted generation of manufactured aesthetic goods seen as a constrained flux of technological unconsciousness
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary TEAnO (Telematica, Elettronica, Analisi nell'Opificio) was born in Florence, in 1991, at the age of 8, being the direct consequence of years of attempts by a group of computer science professionals to use the digital computers technology to find a sustainable match among creation, generation (or re-creation) and recreation, the three basic keywords underlying the concept of “Littérature potentielle” deployed by Oulipo in France and Oplepo in Italy (see “La Littérature potentielle (Créations Re-créations Récréations) published in France by Gallimard in 1973). During the last decade, TEAnO has been involving in the generation of “artistic goods” in aesthetic domains such as literature, music, theatre and painting. In all those artefacts in the computer plays a twofold role: it is often a tool to generate the good (e.g. an editor to compose palindrome sonnets of to generate antonymic music) and, sometimes it is the medium that makes the fruition of the good possible (e.g. the generator of passages of definition literature). In that sense such artefacts can actually be considered as “manufactured” goods. A great part of such creation and re-creation work has been based upon a rather small number of generation constraints borrowed from Oulipo, deeply stressed by the use of the digital computer massive combinatory power: S+n, edge extraction, phonetic manipulation, re-writing of well known masterpieces, random generation of plots, etc. Regardless this apparently simple underlying generation mechanisms, the systematic use of computer based tools, as weel the analysis of the produced results, has been the way to highlight two findings which can significantly affect the practice of computer based generation of aesthetic goods: ? the deep structure of an aesthetic work persists even through the more “desctructive” manipulations, (such as the antonymic transformation of the melody and lyrics of a music work) and become evident as a sort of profound, earliest and distinctive constraint; ? the intensive flux of computer generated “raw” material seems to confirm and to bring to our attention the existence of what Walter Benjamin indicated as the different way in which the nature talk to a camera and to our eye, and Franco Vaccari called “technological unconsciousness”. Essential references R. Campagnoli, Y. Hersant, “Oulipo La letteratura potenziale (Creazioni Ri-creazioni Ricreazioni)”, 1985 R. Campagnoli “Oupiliana”, 1995 TEAnO, “Quaderno n. 2 Antologia di letteratura potenziale”, 1996 W. Benjiamin, “Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reprodizierbarkeit”, 1936 F. Vaccari, “Fotografia e inconscio tecnologico”, 1994
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id eada
authors Fischer, T., Burry, M. and Woodbury, R.
year 2000
title Object-Oriented Modelling Using XML in Computer-Aided Architectural and Educational CAD. The Problem of Interoperability Exemplified in Two Case Studies
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 145-155
summary This paper highlights our application of XML as a messaging and storage format for parametric 3D modelling and pattern-oriented online teaching. As a recent format for data description and transport technology XML is designed to allow communication between arbitrary data platforms - and to communicate purpose-insensitively. We have used it to communicate design patterns as well as design parameters and as a consequence experienced a remarkable technical similarity between both approaches with their common manifestation in object orientation. There is a necessity to perform dynamic synchronizations of semantics between 'knowledge domains' involved in design processes in order to provide the necessary conceptual openness. At this time, this requirement appears to be alien to available XML schema specifications and tools.
series CAADRIA
email tfischer@hrz.uni-kassel.de, mburry@deakin.edu.au, rw@arch.adelaide.edu.au
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 3940
authors Hall, Rick
year 1999
title Realtime 3D visual Analysis of Very Large Models at Low Cost
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 437-441
summary Computer based visualisation of 3D models in architecture has been possible for 20 years or more, and the software technology has steadily improved during this time so that now incredibly realistic images can be generated from any viewpoint in a model, and impressive fly through sequences can bring a model to life in ways previously not possible. Virtual reality is with us and multi-media enables us to present a finished design in increasingly seductive ways. However, these forms of output from a 3D model offer much more limited benefits during the design process and particularly on large complex models because they are so computing intensive and it often require many hours to produce just one image. Anything other than a small and relatively simple model cannot be viewed dynamically in real-time on a desktop PC of the type commonly used by architects in a design office. Until now the solution to this problem has meant investing in expensive design review hardware and software with its inherent need for trained, skilled labour. As a result, design review products are often viewed as a luxury or costly necessity.
keywords Visual Analysis, Low Cost, 3D Modelling
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/22 17:13

_id a27c
authors Hue, F., Serrano, G. and Bolaño, J.A.
year 2000
title Oeresund Bridge. Temperature and cracking control of the deck slab concrete at early ages
source Automation in Construction 9 (5-6) (2000) pp. 437-445
summary High performance features are required of the concrete for the deck slab of the bridge over Öresund Straight between Denmark and Sweden and, among them, great durability. To guarantee this, it is necessary to assure, in advance, and control during the construction of the deck slabs, that the maximum temperatures and the traction stresses in the deck slab will not be greater than the allowable values, and to control these factors during the construction process. Before beginning construction, the deck slab was calculated using a program of finite elements that considers the heat generated, the shrinkage and creep of the concrete and the ambient conditions. To control the temperature during construction, temperature sensors are installed in various sections of each of the 49 deck spans and the temperatures produced during the first days of hardening are recorded on a computer. The temperatures of the components are also measured in order to estimate the temperature of the fresh concrete.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 06e8
authors Knight, Michael W. and Brown, Andre G.P.
year 2000
title Interfaces for Virtual Environments; A Review Recent Developments and Potential Ways forward
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 215-219
summary The physical and visual nature of the interface devices and media that enable the human agent to interact with a virtual world have evolved over the past few years. In this paper we consider the different lines of development that have taken place in the refinement of these interfaces and summarise what has been learned about the appropriate nature of the interface for such interaction. In terms of the physical aspects we report on the kind of devices that have been used to enable the human agent to operate within the computer generated environment. We point out the successes and failures in the systems that have been tried out in recent years. Likewise we consider the kinds of software generated interface that have been used to represent virtual worlds. Again, we review the efficacy of the environments that have been devised; the quality of the Cyberplace. Our aim is to be able to comment on the effectiveness of the systems that have been devised from a number of points of view. We consider the physical and software-based aids for navigation; the nature of the representation of architectural worlds; strengthening “groundedness”; the inclusion of “otherness”; and reinforcement of the idea of “presence”
keywords Virtual Environments, Games Engines, Collaborative Design, Navigation Metaphors
series eCAADe
email mknight@liv.ac.uk
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ce1b
authors Kvan, Th., Lee, A. and Ho, L.
year 2000
title Anthony Ng Architects Limited: Building Towards a Paperless Future
source Case Study and Teaching Notes number 99/65, 10 pages, distributed by HKU Centre for Asian Business Cases, Harvard Business School Publishing (HBSP) and The European Case Clearing House (ECCH), June 2000
summary In early 1997; Mr. Anthony Ng; managing director of Anthony Ng Architects Ltd.; was keenly looking forward to a high-tech; paperless new office; which would free his designers from paperwork and greatly improve internal and external communication – a vision that he had had for a couple of years. In 1996; he brought on board a friend and expert in Internet technology to help him realise his vision. In July 1997; his company was to move into its new office in Wan Chai. Their plan was to have in place an Intranet and a web-based document management system when they moved into the new office. But he had to be mindful of resulting changes in communication patterns; culture and expectations. Resistance from within his company was also threatening to ruin the grand plan. Several senior executives were fiercely opposed to the proposal and refused to read a document off a computer screen. But Ng knew it was an important initiative to move his practice forward. Once the decision was made there would be no chance to reconsider; given the workload demands of the new HK$12 billion project. And this decision would mark a watershed in the company’s evolution. This case study examines the challenges and implications of employing IT to support an architectural office.
keywords IT In Practice; Professional Practice; Archives
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id 97fc
authors Lonsway, Brian
year 2000
title Testing the Space of the Virtual
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 51-61
summary Various modes of electronically mediated communication, perception, and immersive bodily engagement, generally categorized as “virtual experiences,” have offered the designer of space a new array of spatial conditions to address. Each of these modes of virtual experience, from text-based discussion forums to immersive virtual reality environments, presents challenges to traditional assumptions about space and its inhabitation. These challenges require design theorization which extends beyond the notions of design within the electronic space (the textual description of the chat forum, the appearance of the computer generated imagery, etc.), and require a reconsideration of the entire electronic and physical apparatus of the mediating devices (the physical spaces which facilitate the interaction, the manner of their connection to the virtual spaces, etc.). In light of the lack of spatial theorization in this area, this paper presents both an experimental framework for understanding this complete space of the virtual and outlines a current research project addressing these theoretical challenges through the spatial implementation of a synthetic environment.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id ga0004
id ga0004
authors Lund, Andreas
year 2000
title Evolving the Shape of Things to Come - A Comparison of Interactive Evolution and Direct Manipulation for Creative Tasks
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper is concerned with differences between direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design as two fundamentally different interaction styles for creative tasks. Its main contribution to the field of generative design is the treatment of interactive evolutionary design as a general interaction style that can be used to support users in creative tasks. Direct manipulation interfaces, a term coined by Ben Shneiderman in the mid-seventies, are the kind of interface that is characteristic of most modern personal computer application user interfaces. Typically, direct manipulation interfaces incorporate a model of a context (such as a desktop environment) supposedly familiar to users. Rather than giving textual commands (i.e. "remove file.txt", "copy file1.txt file2.txt") to an imagined intermediary between the user and the computer, the user acts directly on the objects of interest to complete a task. Undoubtedly, direct manipulation has played an important role in making computers accessible to non-computer experts. Less certain are the reasons why direct manipulation interfaces are so successful. It has been suggested that this kind of interaction style caters for a sense of directness, control and engagement in the interaction with the computer. Also, the possibilities of incremental action with continuous feedback are believed to be an important factor of the attractiveness of direct manipulation. However, direct manipulation is also associated with a number of problems that make it a less than ideal interaction style in some situations. Recently, new interaction paradigms have emerged that address the shortcomings of direct manipulation in various ways. One example is so-called software agents that, quite the contrary to direct manipulation, act on behalf of the user and alleviate the user from some of the attention and cognitive load traditionally involved in the interaction with large quantities of information. However, this relief comes at the cost of lost user control and requires the user to put trust into a pseudo-autonomous piece of software. Another emerging style of human-computer interaction of special interest for creative tasks is that of interactive evolutionary design (sometimes referred to as aesthetic selection). Interactive evolutionary design is inspired by notions from biological evolution and may be described as a way of exploring a large – potentially infinite – space of possible design configurations based on the judgement of the user. Rather than, as is the case with direct manipulation, directly influencing the features of an object, the user influences the design by means of expressing her judgement of design examples. Variations of interactive evolutionary design have been employed to support design and creation of a variety of objects. Examples of such objects include artistic images, web advertising banners and facial expressions. In order to make an empirical investigation possible, two functional prototypes have been designed and implemented. Both prototypes are targeted at typeface design. The first prototype allows a user to directly manipulate a set of predefined attributes that govern the design of a typeface. The second prototype allows a user to iteratively influence the design of a typeface by means of expressing her judgement of typeface examples. Initially, these examples are randomly generated but will, during the course of interaction, converge upon design configurations that reflect the user’s expressed subjective judgement. In the evaluation of the prototypes, I am specifically interested in users’ sense of control, convergence and surprise. Is it possible to maintain a sense of control and convergence without sacrificing the possibilities of the unexpected in a design process? The empirical findings seem to suggest that direct manipulation caters for a high degree of control and convergence, but with a small amount of surprise and sense of novelty. The interactive evolutionary design prototype supported a lower degree of experienced control, but seems to provide both a sense of surprise and convergence. One plausible interpretation of this is that, on the one hand, direct manipulation is a good interaction style for realizing the user’s intentions. On the other hand, interactive evolutionary design has a potential to actually change the user’s intentions and pre-conceptions of that which is being designed and, in doing so, adds an important factor to the creative process. Based on the empirical findings, the paper discusses situations when interactive evolutionary design may be a serious contender with direct manipulation as the principal interaction style and also how a combination of both styles can be applied.
series other
email andreas.lund@interactiveinstitute.se
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

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