CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 366

_id 1071
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1999
title Evolution of Computer Aided Design: Three Generations of CAD
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 94-100
summary This paper describes the three generations of CAD systems. The first generation of (primarily analytical) computer programmes really aided designing. These programmes were the tools for finding a functional solution in different areas of designing, from flat plans to the space organisation of a hospital. One of the shortcomings of these programmes was the lack of graphic interface. With time, however, this kind of interface was developed. As a result of this second generation of CAD systems the computer was transformed into a drafting machine and CAD meant Computer Aided Drafting. The main thesis of this consideration is that only now we have the chance to return to the idea of Computer Aided Design. One of the examples of these trends is the AVOCAAD programme in which Added Value of CAAD is analysed. The development of the third generation of CAD systems will be possible in the near future. Aiding the process of designing will demand the elaboration of new methods of using the computer at the early stages of this process. The computer should be used not for generating variants of functional solutions only but for also for the creation of 3D forms by 3D sketching. For this, the computer should be transformed from a tool into a medium; only then will designing become true Designing in Cyber Space.
keywords Generations of CAAD, Design Process, Creation, Medium
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:46

_id 0c0d
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 2000
title Computer as an Metaphorisation Machine
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 283-286
summary Digital media is transforming the practice and teaching of design. Information technologies offer not only better production and rendering tools but also the ability to model, manipulate, and understand design in new ways. A new era in CAAD has started. One of the aspects of this situation is the increase in the number of computers in design offices and architectural schools (many of our students have their own computers, which a re often better than the computers we have at our school). We can submit a proposition that the critical point in the creative use of computers is over, and we should think how computers and new media may extend the designer’s perception and imagination.
keywords Creation of a Form, Imagination, Metaphors, Computer Support of Form Searching
series eCAADe
email asan@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id dfaf
authors Ataman, Osman
year 2000
title Some Experimental Results in the Assessment of Architectural Media
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 163-171
summary The relationship between the media and architectural design can be an important factor and can influence the design outcome. However, the nature, direction and magnitude of this relationship are unknown. Consequently, there have been many speculative claims about this relationship and almost none of them are supported with empirical research studies. In order to investigate these claims and to provide a testable framework for their potential contributions to architectural education, this study aims to explore the effects of media on architectural design. During 1995-1997, a total of 90 students enrolling in First Year Design Studio and Introduction to Computing classes at Georgia Tech participated in the study. A set of quantitative measures was developed to assess the differences between the two media and the effects on the architectural design. The results suggested that media influenced certain aspects of students’ designs. It is concluded that there is a strong relationship between the media and architectural design. The type of media not only changes some quantifiable design parameters but also affects the quality of design.
series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 60e7
authors Bailey, Rohan
year 2000
title The Intelligent Sketch: Developing a Conceptual Model for a Digital Design Assistant
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 137-145
summary The computer is a relatively new tool in the practice of Architecture. Since its introduction, there has been a desire amongst designers to use this new tool quite early in the design process. However, contrary to this desire, most Architects today use pen and paper in the very early stages of design to sketch. Architects solve problems by thinking visually. One of the most important tools that the Architect has at his disposal in the design process is the hand sketch. This iterative way of testing ideas and informing the design process with images fundamentally directs and aids the architect’s decision making. It has been said (Schön and Wiggins 1992) that sketching is about the reflective conversation designers have with images and ideas conveyed by the act of drawing. It is highly dependent on feedback. This “conversation” is an area worthy of investigation. Understanding this “conversation” is significant to understanding how we might apply the computer to enhance the designer’s ability to capture, manipulate and reflect on ideas during conceptual design. This paper discusses sketching and its relation to design thinking. It explores the conversations that designers engage in with the media they use. This is done through the explanation of a protocol analysis method. Protocol analysis used in the field of psychology, has been used extensively by Eastman et al (starting in the early 70s) as a method to elicit information about design thinking. In the pilot experiment described in this paper, two persons are used. One plays the role of the “hand” while the other is the “mind”- the two elements that are involved in the design “conversation”. This variation on classical protocol analysis sets out to discover how “intelligent” the hand should be to enhance design by reflection. The paper describes the procedures entailed in the pilot experiment and the resulting data. The paper then concludes by discussing future intentions for research and the far reaching possibilities for use of the computer in architectural studio teaching (as teaching aids) as well as a digital design assistant in conceptual design.
keywords CAAD, Sketching, Protocol Analysis, Design Thinking, Design Education
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 1f5c
authors Beesley, Philip and Seebohm, Thomas
year 2000
title Digital Tectonic Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 287-290
summary Digital tectonic design is a fresh approach to architectural design methodology. Tectonics means a focus on assemblies of construction elements. Digital tectonics is an evolving methodology that integrates use of design software with traditional construction methods. We see digital tectonic design as a systematic use of geometric and spatial ordinances, used in combination with details and components directly related to contemporary construction. The current approach will, we hope, lead to an architectural curriculum based on generative form making where the computer can be used to produce systems of forms algorithmically. Digital design has tended to remain abstract, emphasizing visual and spatial arrangements often at the expense of materials and construction. Our pursuit is translation of these methods into more fully realized physical qualities. This method offers a rigorous approach based on close study of geometry and building construction elements. Giving a context for this approach, historical examples employing systematic tectonic design are explored in this paper. The underlying geometric ordinance systems and the highly tuned relationships between the details in these examples offer design vocabularies for use within the studio curriculum. The paper concludes with a detailed example from a recent studio project demonstrating particular qualities developed within the method. The method involves a wide range of scales, relating large-scale gestural and schematic studies to detailed assembly systems. Designing in this way means developing geometric strategies and, in parallel, producing detailed symbols or objects to be inserted. These details are assembled into a variety of arrays and groups. The approach is analogous to computer-aided designŐs tradition of shape grammars in which systems of spatial relationships are used to control the insertion of shapes within a space. Using this approach, a three-dimensional representation of a building is iteratively refined until the final result is an integrated, systematically organized complex of symbols representing physical building components. The resulting complex offers substantial material qualities. Strategies of symbol insertions and hierarchical grouping of elements are familiar in digital design practice. However these strategies are usually used for automated production of preconceived designs. In contrast to thsse normal approaches this presentation focuses on emergent qualities produced directly by means of the complex arrays of symbol insertions. The rhyth
keywords 3D CAD Systems, Design Practice, 3D Design Strategies
series eCAADe
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c42a
authors Bermudez, J., Agutter, J., Brent, L., Syroid, N., Gondeck-Becker, D., Westenskow, D., Foresti, S. and Sharir, Y.
year 2000
title Cyberprint: Toward an Architecture of Being
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 8-12
summary This project involves the design, construction and performance of an “architecture of being” that expresses selfhood in virtual space and real time using: (1) physiological data as its building material, (2) architectural design as its expressive intent, (3) digital space as its medium, (4) screen projection as its enveloping and viewing technique, (5) user interactivity and performance as its partner, and (6) interdisciplinary collaborations among Architecture, Choreography, Modern Dance, Music, Bioengineering, Medicine and Computer Science as its creative and technical contexts. The paper presents the implementation of the cyberPRINT during a series of techno-media performances at the Rose Wagner Performing Art Center in Salt Lake City, USA, in May 2000. This work is believed to be the first of its kind in the world. The cyberPRINT is building a new area of creative inquiry in Architecture by means of collaborations with the Arts and Sciences.
keywords Performance; Data Visualization; Interdisciplinary; Virtual; Architecture
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 95b0
authors Bermudez, J., Agutter, J., Lilly,. B., Syroid, N., Westenskow, D., Gondeck-Becker, D. Foresti, S. and Sharir, Y.
year 2000
title CyberPRINT: Hacia una Arquitectura del Ser (CyberPRINT: Towards an Architecture of the Being)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 220-223
summary This project involves the design, construction and performance of an “architecture of being” that expresses selfhood in virtual space and real time using: (1) physiological data as its building material, (2) architectural design as its expressive intent, (3) digital space as its medium, (4) screen projection as its enveloping and viewing technique, (5) user interactivity and performance as its partner, and (6) interdisciplinary collaborations among Architecture, Choreography, Modern Dance, Music, Bioengineering, Medicine and Computer Science as its creative and technical contexts. // The paper presents the implementation of the cyberPRINT during a series of techno-media performances at the Rose Wagner Performing Art Center in Salt Lake City, USA, in May 2000. This work is believed to be the first of its kind in the world. The cyberPRINT is building a new area of creative inquiry in Architecture by means of collaborations with the Arts and Sciences.
series SIGRADI
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu, agutterja@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 3f35
authors Bermudez, Julio and King, Kevin
year 2000
title Media interaction and design process: establishing a knowledge base
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 37-56
summary Integrating computers in architectural design means to negotiate between centuries-old analog design methods and the new digital systems of production. Analog systems of architectural production use tracing paper, vellum, graphite and ink, clipboard, clay, balsa wood, plastic, metal, etc. Analog systems have also been termed "handmade", "manual", "material" or "physical". Digital systems of architectural production use scanning, image manipulation, visualization, solid modeling, computer aided drafting, animation, rendering, etc. Digital systems have also been called "electronic", "computer-aided", "virtual", etc. The difficulty lies in the underdeveloped state of the necessary methods, techniques, and theories to relate traditional and new media. Recent investigations on the use of multiple iterations between manual and electronic systems to advance architectural work show promising results. However, these experiments have not been sufficiently codified, cross-referenced and third party tested to conform a reliable knowledge base. This paper addresses this shortcoming by bringing together reported experiences from diverse researchers over the past decade. This summary is informed by more than three years of continuous investigation in the impacts of analog-digital conversations in the design process. The goal is to establish a state-of-the-art common foundation that permits instructors, researchers and practitioners to refer to, utilize, test, criticize and develop. An appendix is included providing support for the paper's arguments.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 2fb3
authors Bhavnani, S.K.
year 2000
title Designs Conducive to the Use of Efficient Strategies
source Proceedings of DIS'00, (2000), 338-345
summary Studies on the widespread inefficient use of complex computer applications have suggested that users need to learn efficient strategies in addition to learning how to use tools. This paper argues that our growing understanding of strategic knowledge can be used to guide designers develop systems which are conducive to the use of efficient strategies. The paper first describes ten general strategies which appear to be useful across three computer application domains. Next, the paper discusses the functionalities required to execute the ten strategies, and what makes them conducive to strategy use. An analysis of six major computer applications in three domains reveals that these functionalities are not consistently offered, and how their absence directly affects the performance of complex tasks. The analysis leads to questions related to the generality of the results, the problem of featurism, and how strategy-conducive systems could facilitate the transfer of knowledge across applications. The paper concludes by briefly describing how we intend to use the strategy framework to develop analysis methods for designers and trainers.
keywords Strategy; Strategic Knowledge; Efficiency; Design; Training
series other
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9bc4
authors Bhavnani, S.K. and John, B.E.
year 2000
title The Strategic Use of Complex Computer Systems
source Human-Computer Interaction 15 (2000), 107-137
summary Several studies show that despite experience, many users with basic command knowledge do not progress to an efficient use of complex computer applications. These studies suggest that knowledge of tasks and knowledge of tools are insufficient to lead users to become efficient. To address this problem, we argue that users also need to learn strategies in the intermediate layers of knowledge lying between tasks and tools. These strategies are (a) efficient because they exploit specific powers of computers, (b) difficult to acquire because they are suggested by neither tasks nor tools, and (c) general in nature having wide applicability. The above characteristics are first demonstrated in the context of aggregation strategies that exploit the iterative power of computers.Acognitive analysis of a real-world task reveals that even though such aggregation strategies can have large effects on task time, errors, and on the quality of the final product, they are not often used by even experienced users. We identify other strategies beyond aggregation that can be efficient and useful across computer applications and show how they were used to develop a new approach to training with promising results.We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of strategies in the intermediate layers of knowledge can lead not only to more effective ways to design training but also to more principled approaches to design systems. These advances should lead users to make more efficient use of complex computer systems.
series other
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f288
authors Bille, Pia
year 1999
title Integrating GIS and Electronic Networks In Urban Design and Planning
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 722-728
summary In 1998 I undertook an inquiry into the use of information technology in Urban Design and Planning in Danish municipalities and among planning consultants. The aim was to find out who was working with the IT and for what purposes it was used. In education there seems to be barriers to a full integration of the new media, and I wanted to find out if that was also the case in the practise of architects and planners. Surprisingly I discovered that there was a computer on almost every desk, - but there were big differences in the use of the technology. The investigation described here is based on interviews with planners in selected municipalities and with urban planning consultants, and the results have been summarised in a publication.
keywords Urban Planning, Electronic Collaboration, GIS, Data Bases
series eCAADe
email pia.bille@a-aarhus.dk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ab35
authors Birn, Jeremy and Maestri, George
year 2000
title Digital Lighting & Rendering
source New Riders Publishing
summary Using computer graphic and 3-D tools to create accurate images is easy; using them to produce beautiful, inviting, memorable images requires more than technical skill. [digital] Lighting & Rendering introduces reasons and techniques for using light, shadow, texture, and composition. The book is not software-specific, but demonstrates techniques that are applicable to almost any 3-D graphics application.
series other
last changed 2003/02/26 17:58

_id a136
authors Blaise, J.Y., Dudek, I. and Drap, P.
year 1998
title Java collaborative interface for architectural simulations A case study on wooden ceilings of Krakow
source International Conference On Conservation - Krakow 2000, 23-24 November 1998, Krakow, Poland
summary Concern for the architectural and urban preservation problems has been considerably increasing in the past decades, and with it the necessity to investigate the consequences and opportunities opened for the conservation discipline by the development of computer-based systems. Architectural interventions on historical edifices or in preserved urban fabric face conservationists and architects with specific problems related to the handling and exchange of a variety of historical documents and representations. The recent development of information technologies offers opportunities to favour a better access to such data, as well as means to represent architectural hypothesis or design. Developing applications for the Internet also introduces a greater capacity to exchange experiences or ideas and to invest on low-cost collaborative working platforms. In the field of the architectural heritage, our research addresses two problems: historical data and documentation of the edifice, methods of representation (knowledge modelling and visualisation) of the edifice. This research is connected with the ARKIW POLONIUM co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France) and the Institute HAiKZ of Kraków's Faculty of Architecture. The ARKIW programme deals with questions related to the use of information technologies in the recording, protection and studying of the architectural heritage. Case studies are chosen in order to experience and validate a technical platform dedicated to the formalisation and exchange of knowledge related to the architectural heritage (architectural data management, representation and simulation tools, survey methods, ...). A special focus is put on the evolution of the urban fabric and on the simulation of reconstructional hypothesis. Our contribution will introduce current ARKIW internet applications and experiences: The ARPENTEUR architectural survey experiment on Wieża Ratuszowa (a photogrammetrical survey based on an architectural model). A Gothic and Renaissance reconstruction of the Ratusz Krakowski using a commercial modelisation and animation software (MAYA). The SOL on line documentation interface for Kraków's Rynek G_ówny. Internet analytical approach in the presentation of morphological informations about Kraków's Kramy Bogate Rynku Krakowskiego. Object-Orientation approach in the modelling of the architectural corpus. The VALIDEUR and HUBLOT Virtual Reality modellers for the simulation and representation of reconstructional hypothesis and corpus analysis.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id bbb9
authors Blaise, Jean-Yves and Dudek, Iwona
year 1999
title SOL: Spatial and Historical Web-Based Interface for On Line Architectural Documentation of Krakow's Rynek Gowny
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 700-707
summary Our paper presents recent developments of a co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France), specialised in computer science and the HAiKZ Institute of Krakow's Faculty of Architecture, specialised in architectural heritage and conservation. Before undertaking any action to a listed building or interventions in its neighbourhood, it is vital to gain a clear understanding of the building in question. Numerous heterogeneous data detained by diverse institutions has to be handled. This process can be greatly eased by enhanced classification of the information. The development we present is a multidisciplinary platform independent information tool dedicated to education and research. SOL uses an http protocol centred computer architecture connecting a relational database, a VRML 2.0 representation module and a web search interface. It allows searches and updating of the database through a standard text based interface, a VRML 2.0 graphical module and a thematic interface. SOL is experienced on the urban fabric of the Main Square (Rynek Gówny) in Kraków. The choice of a web-centred development, both in the search and updating interface and in the representation module provides platform independence and distant access to the database, and enables successive contributions of students or researchers.
keywords Web Interface, Database, Architectural Heritage Environment, Information Module, Historical Evolutions
series eCAADe
email jyb@gamsau.archi.fr, idu@gamsau.archi.fr
more http://alberti.gamsau.archi.fr
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aa7f
authors Bollinger, Elizabeth and Hill, Pamela
year 1993
title Virtual Reality: Technology of the Future or Playground of the Cyberpunk?
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 121-129
summary Jaron Lanier is a major spokesperson of our society's hottest new technology: VR or virtual reality. He expressed his faith in the VR movement in this quote which appears in The User's Guide to the New Edge published by Mondo 2000. In its most technical sense, VR has attracted the attention of politicians in Washington who wonder if yet another technology developed in the United States will find its application across the globe in Asia. In its most human element, an entire "cyberpunk movement" has appealed to young minds everywhere as a seemingly safe form of hallucination. As architecture students, educators, and practitioners around the world are becoming attracted to the possibilities of VR technology as an extension of 3D modeling, visualization, and animation, it is appropriate to consider an overview of virtual reality.

In virtual reality a user encounters a computersimulated environment through the use of a physical interface. The user can interact with the environment to the point of becoming a part of the experience, and the experience becomes reality. Natural and

instinctive body movements are translated by the interface into computer commands. The quest for perfection in this human-computer relationship seems to be the essence of virtual reality technology.

To begin to capture the essence of virtual reality without first-hand experience, it is helpful to understand two important terms: presence and immersion. The sense of presence can be defined as the degree to which the user feels a part of the actual environment. The more reality the experience provides, the more presence it has. Immersion can be defined as the degree of other simulation a virtual reality interface provides for the viewer. A highly immersive system might provide more than just visual stimuli; for example, it may additionally provide simulated sound and motion, and simultaneously prevent distractions from being present.

series ACADIA
email EBollinger@uh.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4e0a
authors Bouchlaghem, N., Sher, W. and Beacham, N.
year 2000
title Computer Imagery and Visualization in Civil Engineering Education
source Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 2, April 2000, pp. 134-140
summary Higher education institutions in the United Kingdom have invested significantly in the implementation of communication and information technology in teaching, learning, and assessment of civil and building engineering—with mixed results. This paper focuses on the use of digital imagery and visualization materials to improve student understanding. It describes ways in which these materials are being used in the civil and building engineering curriculum, and, in particular, how distributed performance support systems (DPSS) can be applied to make more effective use of digital imagery and visualization material. This paper centers on the extent to which DPSS can be used in a civil and building vocational and continuing professional development context by tutors in the form of an electronic course delivery tool and by students in the form of an open-access student information system. This paper then describes how a DPSS approach to education is being adopted at Loughborough University as part of the CAL-Visual project. After highlighting the main aims and objectives of the project and describing the system, this paper discusses some of the issues encountered during the design and implementation of a DPSS and presents some preliminary results from initial trials.
keywords Computer Aided Instruction; Engineering Education; Imaging Techniques; Information Systems; Professional Development
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 4cc0
authors Bouchlaghem, N., Khosowshahi, F. and White, J.
year 2000
title Virtual reality as a visualisation tool: Benefits and constraints
source CIDAC, Volume 2 Issue 4 November 2000 pp. 216-224
summary The benefits and applications of virtual reality (VR) in the construction industry have been investigated for almost a decade. However, the practical implementation of VR in the construction industry has yet to reach maturity owing to technical constraints. The need for effective information management presents challenges: both transfer of building data to, and organisation of building information within, the virtual environment require consideration. This paper reviews the applications and benefits of VR in the built environment field and reports on a collaboration between Loughborough University and South Bank University to overcome constraints on the use of the overall VR model for whole lifecycle visualisation. The work at each research centre is concerned with an aspect of information management within VR applications for the built environment, and both data transfer and internal data organisation have been investigated. In this paper, similarities and differences between computer-aided design (CAD) and VR packages are first discussed. Three different approaches to the creation of VR models during the design stage are identified and described, with a view to providing sharing understanding across the interdiscipliary groups involved. The suitable organisation of building information within the virtual environment is then further investigated. This work focused on the visualisation of the degradation of a building, through its lifespan, with the view to provide a visual aid for developing an effective and economic project maintenance programme. Finally consideration is given to the potential of emerging standards to facilitate an integrated use of VR. The convergence towards similar data structures in VR and other construction packages may enable visualisation to be better utilised in the overall lifecycle model.
keywords Virtual Reality, Information Management, Data Exchange, 3D Modelling, 4D Visualisation
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id e9f7
authors Bouchlaghem, N.
year 2000
title Optimising the design of building envelopes for thermal performance
source Automation in Construction 10 (1) (2000) pp. 101-112
summary Computer models for the simulation of the thermal performance of buildings have been in existence for many decades. Although these programs save a great deal of time and effort in computational terms they still rely on designers intuition and experience to achieve optimum solutions for a design problem. This paper presents a computer model which, not only simulates the thermal performance of the building taking into account design variables related to the building's envelope and fabric, but also applies numerical optimization techniques to automatically determine the optimum design variables, which achieve the best thermal comfort conditions. The main optimization program is supported by a graphical model for the design of window shading devices, which uses the numerical coefficients that define the window shading to model shading devices taking into account seasonal variations in solar angles and solar gains. The rationale and methodology used to develop the models is outlined and the resulting programs are described with examples of outputs. Finally, it is concluded that the models offer a valuable decision support system for designers at an early design state for the optimization of the passive thermal performance achieving optimum thermal comfort and savings in heating and cooling energy.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id f73b
authors Brady, Darlene A.
year 2000
title Percept vs. Precept: Digital Media & the Creative Process
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 261-264
summary The design of architecture, as well as all of the arts, is a creative act concerned with the expression of ideas through culturally significant and relevant form. In order for the creative act to transcend the authority or dictates of precedents or trends, it must be informed and guided by a process and not a product; one which reveals, but does not dictate, expressive, functional form. The initial impact of digital media on architectural design has been the ability to render the look of a final project or to create shapes that reflect the facility of the tool. Digital media also enables the composition and structure of space and form to be discovered simultaneously and relationally with the phenomena of color and kinetics, to generate and visualize an idea as form, and to represent form as experience. This requires interweaving computing with a creative process in which percept, rather than precept, is the driving force of the investigation. This paper explores the role of ideation, tectonic color and kinetics as an intentional design strategy and formgiver for architecture. The role of the computer is to enable the designer to generate meaningful architecture beyond precepts of image and style. Design as a making in the mind uses our rational and imaginative faculties. Complete freedom is not a necessity for inventiveness. Research on creativity indicates that "constraining options and focusing thought in a specific, rigorous and discerning direction" play an important role. The key is a balance of structured and discursive inquiry that encourages a speculative, free association of ideas. Tim Berners-Lee, one of the creators of the World Wide Web, likened creativity to a weblike process that is nonlinear but also not random; which when placed in an environment rich with information will float ideas so the mind "can jiggle them into an insight." Geoffrey Vickers in his essay, "Rationality and Intuition" described this symbiotic relationship as "...two functions which in practice are never wholly separated but which are, nonetheless, logically distinct as two reciprocating phases in a recurrent process of mental activity." The rational is formative and intuition is generative; both are essential to creativity.
keywords Percept, Creativity, Ideation, Tectonic Color, Kinetics
series eCAADe
email architexture@earthlink.net
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f2f1
authors Breen, Jack and Nottrot, Robert
year 2000
title Project a2W. A Dialogue on New Media Perspectives
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 291-296
summary This paper documents an initiative taking the form of a "dialogue". The format which has been developed is somewhat similar to that of the "conversation" which Mondrian conceived in 1919, taking place between two fictitious characters - A and B - discussing the new direction in art, which he called "Nieuwe Beelding" and which contributed to the "De Stijl" movement (the dialogue was followed later that year by a "trialogue" between X, Y and Z on a virtual walk taking them from the countryside to the city) 1 . This time the issue is not so much the evolvement of a new artistic or architectural style, but the role of "new media" in architecture... The present dialogue takes place between two fictitious media proponents ("Alpha" and "Omega"). They take turns questioning several issues and exchanging proposals... What are the values - and the promises - of computer supported instruments in creative design and research - concerning the art and science shaping the built environment? How do the present applications measure up, how do they compare to the expectations and ambitions expressed a number of years ago? The form of a dialogue means that issues and ideas, which are not often aired within the confines of academic discourse, can be played back and forth and a measure of exaggeration was intended from the beginning... This contribution does not in any way pretend to be all-inclusive. Rather, the paper is meant to put forward ideas and experiences - from the perspective of the Delft Media group, in practice, in teaching and in research - which may stimulate (or even irritate?) but will hopefully activate. The aim is to open up discussions, to allow other (hidden) agendas for the future to become more visible and to look for platforms for sharing concepts and fascinations, however improbable they might be...
keywords A Dialogue on New Media
series eCAADe
email j.l.h.breen@bk.tudelft.nl, r.nottrot@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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