CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 743

_id ddssar0213
id ddssar0213
authors De Groot, Ellie and Paule, Bernard
year 2002
title DIAL-Europe: New Functionality’s for an Integrated Daylighting Design Tool
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The European project DIAL-Europe started in April 2000 and intends to enhance and to enlarge the capabilities of the LesoDIAL software. The aim of this “Swiss” tool was to give architects relevant information regarding the use of daylight, at the very first stage of the design process. DIAL-Europe focuses on European standards and climatic data. Further, a Heating & Cooling evaluation module and an Artificial Lighting module will be added. The objective of the Heating & Cooling module is to indicate the implications of the user’s design on heating and cooling energy and on thermal comfort.The objective of Artificial Lighting module is to develop a tool that will give an estimation of illuminance values on the work plane and provide guidance on qualitative aspects and visual comfort as well as on switching control and integration with daylight based on generic light sources and luminaires. Furthermore, the scope of the examples of simulated rooms will be increased in order to allow the user to compare their design with more similar cases. This paper will present the state of achievement and give an overview of the first version of the DIAL-Europe software, which will beavailable at the beginning of 2002.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 9554
authors Jagbeck, A.
year 2000
title Field test of a product-model-based construction planning tool
source CIDAC, Volume 2 Issue 2 May 2000, pp. 80-91
summary Over the past decade, more than a dozen papers describing proposals for product-model-based planning models have been published, but only a few of these proposals have been implemented in prototypes that have been tested in full-scale tests. PreFacto is a research-based software for production planning based on product model data, which has been developed and tested in close cooperation with a construction company. It is operational but still under development. Assessing the degree of functionality achieved so far is a natural part of a modern cyclical software development process. This paper describes a 6-month full-scale field trial of the PreFacto system undertaken by the site management in cooperation with the author. It was carried out as a parallel planning activity on a real ongoing project. The trial was documented and the system's usability for the construction planning process was analysed and evaluated using mainly qualitative methods. The evaluated planning activities include importing product model data and performing a range of planning activities. The evaluation addressed such usability aspects as system capacity, ease of use of the interface, and conceptual compliance with the use context and the various planning tasks. The test method was useful for checking the conceptual model from the user's point of view. At the same time, the field trial worked equally as a case study for developers, a study of a degree of reality that would not have been possible in a laboratory situation. Apart from the evaluation of the features of the software itself, there are some results of general interest. the main result was that all the advantages of the system derive from the connection between design and planning, i.e. the use of a product model as a basis for defining the result of production tasks. Allowing production managers to freely structure tasks and to apply resource recipes were the most relevant functions.
keywords Integration, Information, Construction, Planning, Field Trial, Product Model
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id ddssar0023
id ddssar0023
authors Jens Pohl, Art Chapman, and Kym Jason Pohl
year 2000
title Computer-aided design systems for the 21st century: some design guidelines
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper proposes nine design principles for a new generation of computer-aided design (CAD) systems that actively support the decision making and problem solving activities of environmental design. Foremost among these are: a meaningful internal object-based representation of the artifact being designed within its environmental context; a collaborative problem solving paradigm in which the human designer and the computer form a complementary partnership; and, the notion of decision-support tools rather than predefined solutions. Two prototype computer-aided design systems implemented by the CAD Research Center that embody most of these concepts are described. ICADS (Intelligent Computer-Aided Design System) incorporates multiple expert agents in domains such as natural and artificial lighting, noise control, structural system selection, climatic determinants, and energy conservation. Given a particular building design context, the agents in ICADS draw upon their own expertise and several knowledgebases as they monitor the actions of the human designer and collaborate opportunistically. KOALA (Knowledge-Based Object-Agent Collaboration) builds on the multi-agent concepts embodied in ICADS by the addition of two kinds of agents. Mentor agents represent the interests of selected objects within the ontology of the design environment. In the implemented KOALA system building spaces are represented by agents capable of collaborating with each other, with domain agents for the provision of expert services, and with the human designer. Facilitator agents listen in on the communications among mentor agents to detect conflicts and moderate arguments. While both of these prototype systems are limited in scope by focussing on the earliest design stages and restricted in their understanding of the inherent complexity of a design state, they nevertheless promise a paradigm shift in computer-aided design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id sigradi2008_081
id sigradi2008_081
authors Kirschner, Ursula
year 2008
title Study of digital morphing tools during the design process - Application of freeware software and of tools in commercial products as well as their integration in AutoCAD
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This research work examines methods of experimental designing with CAAD in a CAD laboratory with architecture students as the testing persons. Thereby the main focus is on the early phase of finding forms, in which different techniques with digital media are tried out in the didactic architectural design lessons. In these work have been traced the influences of the media employed on the design processes and combined the approaches of current CAAD research with aspects from classic design theory. For mathematical rules of proportion, atmospheric influence factors and analogy concepts in architecture, I have developed design methods which have been applied and verified in several series of seminars. (Kirschner, U.: 2000, Thesis, a CAAD supported architectural design teaching, Hamburg, school of arts). Previous experimental exercises showed that morphological sequences of modeling are effective sources for playful designing processes. In the current work these approaches are enhanced and supplemented by different morphological architectural concepts for creating shapes. For this purpose 2D based software like Morphit, Winmorph and other freeware were used. Whereas in the further development of this design technique we used 3D freeware morphing programs like zhu3D or Blender. The resulting morphological shapes were imported in CAD and refined. Ideally the morphing tool is integrated in the modeling environment of the standard software AutoCAD. A digital city model is the starting basis of the design process to guarantee the reference to the reality. The applied design didactic is predicated on the theories of Bernhard Hoesli. The act of designing viewed as „waiting for a good idea“ is, according to him, unteachable; students should, in contrast, learn to judge the „the force of an idea“. On the subject of morphology a form-generating method in the pre-design phase has been tested. Starting from urban-planning lines on an area map, two simple geometric initial images were produced which were merged by means of morphing software. Selected images from this film sequence were extruded with CAAD to produce solid models as sectional drawings. The high motivation of the students and the quality of the design results produced with these simple morphing techniques were the reason for the integration of the artistic and scientific software into the creative shape modeling process with the computer. The students learned in addition to the „bottom up “and „ top down” new design methods. In the presentation the properties and benefits of the morphing tools are presented in tables and are analyzed with regard to the architectural shape generating in an urban context. A catalogue of criteria with the following topics was developed: user friendliness, the ability of integrating the tools or as the case may be the import of data into a CAD environment, the artistic aspects in terms of the flexibility of shape generating as well as the evaluation of the aesthetic consideration of shapes.
keywords Architectural design, freeware morphing software, AutoCAD
series SIGRADI
email kirschner@uni.leuphana.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id ga0004
id ga0004
authors Lund, Andreas
year 2000
title Evolving the Shape of Things to Come - A Comparison of Interactive Evolution and Direct Manipulation for Creative Tasks
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper is concerned with differences between direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design as two fundamentally different interaction styles for creative tasks. Its main contribution to the field of generative design is the treatment of interactive evolutionary design as a general interaction style that can be used to support users in creative tasks. Direct manipulation interfaces, a term coined by Ben Shneiderman in the mid-seventies, are the kind of interface that is characteristic of most modern personal computer application user interfaces. Typically, direct manipulation interfaces incorporate a model of a context (such as a desktop environment) supposedly familiar to users. Rather than giving textual commands (i.e. "remove file.txt", "copy file1.txt file2.txt") to an imagined intermediary between the user and the computer, the user acts directly on the objects of interest to complete a task. Undoubtedly, direct manipulation has played an important role in making computers accessible to non-computer experts. Less certain are the reasons why direct manipulation interfaces are so successful. It has been suggested that this kind of interaction style caters for a sense of directness, control and engagement in the interaction with the computer. Also, the possibilities of incremental action with continuous feedback are believed to be an important factor of the attractiveness of direct manipulation. However, direct manipulation is also associated with a number of problems that make it a less than ideal interaction style in some situations. Recently, new interaction paradigms have emerged that address the shortcomings of direct manipulation in various ways. One example is so-called software agents that, quite the contrary to direct manipulation, act on behalf of the user and alleviate the user from some of the attention and cognitive load traditionally involved in the interaction with large quantities of information. However, this relief comes at the cost of lost user control and requires the user to put trust into a pseudo-autonomous piece of software. Another emerging style of human-computer interaction of special interest for creative tasks is that of interactive evolutionary design (sometimes referred to as aesthetic selection). Interactive evolutionary design is inspired by notions from biological evolution and may be described as a way of exploring a large – potentially infinite – space of possible design configurations based on the judgement of the user. Rather than, as is the case with direct manipulation, directly influencing the features of an object, the user influences the design by means of expressing her judgement of design examples. Variations of interactive evolutionary design have been employed to support design and creation of a variety of objects. Examples of such objects include artistic images, web advertising banners and facial expressions. In order to make an empirical investigation possible, two functional prototypes have been designed and implemented. Both prototypes are targeted at typeface design. The first prototype allows a user to directly manipulate a set of predefined attributes that govern the design of a typeface. The second prototype allows a user to iteratively influence the design of a typeface by means of expressing her judgement of typeface examples. Initially, these examples are randomly generated but will, during the course of interaction, converge upon design configurations that reflect the user’s expressed subjective judgement. In the evaluation of the prototypes, I am specifically interested in users’ sense of control, convergence and surprise. Is it possible to maintain a sense of control and convergence without sacrificing the possibilities of the unexpected in a design process? The empirical findings seem to suggest that direct manipulation caters for a high degree of control and convergence, but with a small amount of surprise and sense of novelty. The interactive evolutionary design prototype supported a lower degree of experienced control, but seems to provide both a sense of surprise and convergence. One plausible interpretation of this is that, on the one hand, direct manipulation is a good interaction style for realizing the user’s intentions. On the other hand, interactive evolutionary design has a potential to actually change the user’s intentions and pre-conceptions of that which is being designed and, in doing so, adds an important factor to the creative process. Based on the empirical findings, the paper discusses situations when interactive evolutionary design may be a serious contender with direct manipulation as the principal interaction style and also how a combination of both styles can be applied.
series other
email andreas.lund@interactiveinstitute.se
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddss2004_ra-213
id ddss2004_ra-213
authors Penn, A., C. Mottram, A. Fatah gen. Schieck, M. Wittkämper, M. Störring, O. Romell, A. Strothmann, and F. Aish
year 2004
title AUGMENTED REALITY MEETING TABLE: A NOVEL MULTI-USER INTERFACE FOR ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 213-231
summary Immersive virtual environments have received widespread attention as providing possible replacements for the media and systems that designers traditionally use, as well as, more generally, in providing support for collaborative work. Relatively little attention has been given to date however to the problem of how to merge immersive virtual environments into real world work settings, and so to add to the media at the disposal of the designer and the design team, rather than to replace it. In this paper we report on a research project in which optical see-through augmented reality displays have been developed together with prototype decision support software for architectural and urban design. We suggest that a critical characteristic of multi user augmented reality is its ability to generate visualisations from a first person perspective in which the scale of rendition of the design model follows many of the conventions that designers are used to. Different scales of model appear to allow designers to focus on different aspects of the design under consideration. Augmenting the scene with simulations of pedestrian movement appears to assist both in scale recognition, and in moving from a first person to a third person understanding of the design. This research project is funded by the European Commission IST program (IST-2000-28559).
keywords Design Collaboration, Tangible Interface, Gesture, Agent Simulation, Augmented Reality
series DDSS
type normal paper
last changed 2004/07/03 21:11

_id b34d
authors Russell, P., Kohler, N., Forgber, U., Koch, V. and Rügemer, J.
year 1999
title Interactive Representation of Architectural Design: The Virtual Design Studio as an Architectural Graphics Laboratory
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 459-465
summary This paper introduces the Virtual Design Studio (VDS), an internet based design studio environment established by ifib. VDS transfers lessons learned through research projects in the field of Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) being carried out at ifib into design education. By training for interdisciplinary co-operation within the design process, the students will become better prepared for the flexibility and co-operability required in planning situations. Increasing the communication and co-operation in the planning process can be achieved through the implementation of IT based virtual workspaces. In the design studio setting, this is done through the use of available internet software and technologies. The methodology of the VDS is briefly described including specific assignments intended to focus student investigations into specific areas including the representation of their work using the world wide web. The pedagogical expectations are discussed and anecdotal evidence precedes an general evaluation of the teaching method. The authors postulate that one of the unintended by-products of the studio is the evolution of an effective use of interactivity in the presentation of design concepts, ideas and solutions. A handful of student work is presented to describe the different approaches taken in using the world wide web (WWW) to display project work. A description of the local evolution (VDS specific) of graphical methods and technologies is followed by a comparison with those used in traditional settings. Representation is discussed with focus on the ability of the WWW to replace, augment or corrupt other methods of presentation. The interactive nature of web based presentations induces alterations to the narration of architectural work and can enhance the spatial perception of design space. Space Perception can be enabled through geometrically true VRML representations, the inclusion of auditory sensations, the abstraction of representation through the use of advertising techniques as well as the introduction of non-linear narrative concepts. Examples used by students are shown. A critical assessment of these new representational methods and the place of current new media within the context of architectural representation is discussed.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, Architectural Graphics, Teaching
series eCAADe
email peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id ca3d
authors Shakarchi, Ali Y.
year 2000
title Tools for Distributed Design Practice
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 89-92
summary During collaboration designers jointly solve problems as well as interact for critical feedback. Today’s heterogeneous, distributed and global market demands of designers collaboration in both synchronous and asynchronous mode. The management and control of such projects is frequently geographical and temporally distributed. Increasingly, efficient communication is becoming a vital component in the design process, whether in managing the project data or controlling the compatibility of different inputs by design team members or minimizing the revision cycles. Paper presents and discuss iSPACE, the mature prototype software application developed to serve different scenarios of communication between the distributed design team members. The iSPACE is web based application that can deliver an interactive environment over low-bandwidth connections. Application of iSPACE in the educational environment is monitored and discussed. Giving the potential of this technology to enhance and to streamline complex tasks associated with the design process, the quality of the design product is changing. The new style of design practice can be now practically further modeled, supported and enhanced.
keywords Design Collaboration, Design Process, i-space, Digital Media
series eCAADe
email ashakarc@arch.ubc.ca
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id a337
authors Testa, P., O’Reilly, U.-M. and Greenwold, S.
year 2000
title AGENCY GP: Genetic Programming for Architectural Design
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 227-231
summary AGENCY GP is a prototype for a system using genetic programming (GP) for architectural design exploration. Its software structure is noteworthy for its integration into a high-end three-dimensional modeling environment, its allowance for direct user interruption of evolution and reintegration of phenotypically modified individuals, and its agent-based evaluation of fitness.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id 01c0
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 2000
title Modelling for Virtual Reality in Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 209-213
summary CAAD systems are using object modelling methods for building databases to make information available. Object data must then be made useful for many different purposes in the design process. Even if the capacity of the computer will allow an almost unlimited amount of information to be transformed, the eye does not make the transformations in the same “simple” mathematical way. Trained architects have to involve in an inventive process of finding ways to “harmonize” this new medium with the human eye and the architect’s professional experience. This paper will be an interimistic report from a surveying course. During the spring semester 2000 the CAAD division of TU-Lund is giving a course “Modelling for VR in Architecture”. The students are practising architects with experience from using object modelling CAAD. The aims are to survey different ways to use available hard- and software to create VR-models of pieces of architecture and evaluate them in desktop and CAVE environments. The architect is to do as much preparation work as possible with his CAAD program and only the final adjustments with the special VR tool.
keywords CAAD, VR, Modelling, Spatial Experience
series eCAADe
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 1f5c
authors Beesley, Philip and Seebohm, Thomas
year 2000
title Digital Tectonic Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 287-290
summary Digital tectonic design is a fresh approach to architectural design methodology. Tectonics means a focus on assemblies of construction elements. Digital tectonics is an evolving methodology that integrates use of design software with traditional construction methods. We see digital tectonic design as a systematic use of geometric and spatial ordinances, used in combination with details and components directly related to contemporary construction. The current approach will, we hope, lead to an architectural curriculum based on generative form making where the computer can be used to produce systems of forms algorithmically. Digital design has tended to remain abstract, emphasizing visual and spatial arrangements often at the expense of materials and construction. Our pursuit is translation of these methods into more fully realized physical qualities. This method offers a rigorous approach based on close study of geometry and building construction elements. Giving a context for this approach, historical examples employing systematic tectonic design are explored in this paper. The underlying geometric ordinance systems and the highly tuned relationships between the details in these examples offer design vocabularies for use within the studio curriculum. The paper concludes with a detailed example from a recent studio project demonstrating particular qualities developed within the method. The method involves a wide range of scales, relating large-scale gestural and schematic studies to detailed assembly systems. Designing in this way means developing geometric strategies and, in parallel, producing detailed symbols or objects to be inserted. These details are assembled into a variety of arrays and groups. The approach is analogous to computer-aided designÕs tradition of shape grammars in which systems of spatial relationships are used to control the insertion of shapes within a space. Using this approach, a three-dimensional representation of a building is iteratively refined until the final result is an integrated, systematically organized complex of symbols representing physical building components. The resulting complex offers substantial material qualities. Strategies of symbol insertions and hierarchical grouping of elements are familiar in digital design practice. However these strategies are usually used for automated production of preconceived designs. In contrast to thsse normal approaches this presentation focuses on emergent qualities produced directly by means of the complex arrays of symbol insertions. The rhyth
keywords 3D CAD Systems, Design Practice, 3D Design Strategies
series eCAADe
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id eabb
authors Boeykens, St. Geebelen, B. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2002
title Design phase transitions in object-oriented modeling of architecture
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 310-313
summary The project IDEA+ aims to develop an “Integrated Design Environment for Architecture”. Its goal is providing a tool for the designer-architect that can be of assistance in the early-design phases. It should provide the possibility to perform tests (like heat or cost calculations) and simple simulations in the different (early) design phases, without the need for a fully detailed design or remodeling in a different application. The test for daylighting is already in development (Geebelen, to be published). The conceptual foundation for this design environment has been laid out in a scheme in which different design phases and scales are defined, together with appropriate tests at the different levels (Neuckermans, 1992). It is a translation of the “designerly” way of thinking of the architect (Cross, 1982). This conceptual model has been translated into a “Core Object Model” (Hendricx, 2000), which defines a structured object model to describe the necessary building model. These developments form the theoretical basis for the implementation of IDEA+ (both the data structure & prototype software), which is currently in progress. The research project addresses some issues, which are at the forefront of the architect’s interest while designing with CAAD. These are treated from the point of view of a practicing architect.
series eCAADe
email stefan.boeykens@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 3e51
authors Cerulli, C., Peng, C. and Lawson, B.
year 2001
title Capturing Histories of Design Processes for Collaborative Building Design Development. Field Trial of the ADS Prototype
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 427-437
summary The ADS Project - Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process - builds on the technological results of the previous COMMIT Project to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD based Design Decision Support System. COMMIT provides a system for storing knowledge about knowledge within the design process. It records design decisions, the actors who take them and the roles they play when doing so. ADS links COMMIT to an existing object-oriented CAD system, MicroStation/J from Bentley Systems. The project focuses on tackling the problem of managing design information without intruding too much on the design process itself. It provides the possibility to effectively link design decisions back to requirements, to gather rationale information for later stages of the building lifecycle, and to gather knowledge of rationale for later projects. The system enables members of the project team, including clients and constructors, to browse and search the recorded project history of decision making both during and after design development. ADS aims to facilitate change towards a more collaborative process in construction design, to improve the effectiveness of decision-making throughout the construction project and to provide clients with the facility to relate design outcomes to design briefs across the whole building life cycle. In this paper we will describe the field trials of the ADS prototype carried out over a three-month period at the Building Design Partnership (BDP) Manchester office. The objective of these trials is to assess the extent, to which the approach underlying ADS enhances the design process, and to gather and document the views and experiences of practitioners. The ADS prototype was previously tested with historical data of real project (Peng, Cerulli et al. 2000). To gather more valuable knowledge about how a Decision Support System like ADS can be used in practice, the testing and evaluation will be extended to a real project, while it is still ongoing. The live case study will look at some phases of the design of a mixed residential and retail development in Leeds, UK, recording project information while it is created. The users’ feedback on the system usability will inform the continuous redevelopment process that will run in parallel to the live case study. The ADS and COMMIT Projects were both funded by EPSRC.
keywords Design Rationale, Design Support Systems, Usability Evaluation
series CAAD Futures
email c.cerulli@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ddssar0008
id ddssar0008
authors Coyne, R., Lee, J. and Ofluoglu, S.
year 2000
title E-commerce and on-line product information
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary The spread of the Internet has spurred the recent growth in e-commerce. E-commerce impinges on design in many ways, not least in encouraging the development of new tools for the presentation of product information: that is, information about the products that are used in design projects. (In the case of building design this might include information about standard doors, windows and fittings.) In this paper we present our development of three experimental tools for presenting and organising product information. The tools represent stages in the evolution of a prototype we call PLA(id) (Product Library Assistant – Intranet for Designers) involving the use of multimedia authoring, Java, and mobile computing. We discuss our experimental prototypes under several headings derived from what are commonly considered the key features of e-commerce: the marketplace, collaboration (the electronic marketplace as a community), geography (and geographical boundaries), navigation, regulation, integration and media (how in some cases e-commerce provides both the medium of transaction and the medium of delivery). So this account of our experimentation with product information tools provides a way of reviewing issues raised by e-commerce and their importance for design decision support systems.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 38f3
authors Craig and Zimring
year 2000
title Supporting collaborative design groups as design communities
source Design Studies, Vol. 21, no. 2, March
summary This paper explores computer support for unstructured collaboration. A web-based online environment used in conjunction with a graduate-level architectural studio was investigated, with special attention given to patterns of online behavior and the perceptions of those who used the environment. It was assumed that asynchronous collaborative environments like the one studied naturally alleviate certain problems like evaluation apprehension and production-blocking, but do not on their own motivate contributions to a group in an unstructured setting. It was hypothesized that open participation hinges on the development of a sense of community, which itself depends partially on environmental factors intrinsic to the support environment. The environment studied failed to promote open interaction and did not appear to sustain a strong sense of community. Environmental factors thought to have played a role include page structuring, page-naming conventions, and the spatial clustering of textbased exchanges.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 389b
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2000
title Sketch that Scene for Me: Creating Virtual Worlds by Freehand Drawing
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 265-268
summary With the Web people can now view virtual threedimensional worlds and explore virtual space. Increasingly, novice users are interested in creating 3D Web sites. Virtual Reality Modeling Language gained ISO status in 1997, although it is being supplanted by the compatible Java3D API and alternative 3D Web technologies compete. Viewing VRML scenes is relatively straightforward on most hardware platforms and browsers, but currently there are only two ways to create 3D virtual scenes: One is to code the scene directly using VRML. The other is to use existing CAD and modeling software, and save the world in VRML format or convert to VRML from some other format. Both methods are time consuming, cumbersome, and have steep learning curves. Pen-based user interfaces, on the other hand, are for many an easy and intuitive method for graphics input. Not only are people familiar with the look and feel of paper and pencil, novice users also find it less intimidating to draw what they want, where they want it instead of using a complicated tool palette and pull-down menus. Architects and designers use sketches as a primary tool to generate design ideas and to explore alternatives, and numerous computer-based interfaces have played on the concept of "sketch". However, we restrict the notion of sketch to freehand drawing, which we believe helps people to think, to envision, and to recognize properties of the objects with which they are working. SKETCH employs a pen interface to create three-dimensional models, but it uses a simple language of gestures to control a three-dimensional modeler; it does not attempt to interpret freehand drawings. In contrast, our support of 3D world creation using freehand drawing depend on users’ traditional understanding of a floor plan representation. Igarashi et al. used a pen interface to drive browsing in a 3D world, by projecting the user’s marks on the ground plane in the virtual world. Our Sketch-3D project extends this approach, investigating an interface that allows direct interpretation of the drawing marks (what you draw is what you get) and serves as a rapid prototyping tool for creating 3D virtual scenes.
keywords Freehand Sketching, Pen-Based User Interface, Interaction, VRML, Navigation
series eCAADe
email ellendo@cmu.edu
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id 53c8
authors Donath, Dirk and Lömker, Thorsten Michael
year 2000
title Illusion, Frustration and Vision in Computer-Aided Project Planning: A Reflection and Outlook on the Use of Computing in Architecture
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 3-9
summary This paper examines the progressive and pragmatic use of computers and CAAD systems in the architectural practice. With the aid of three scenarios, this paper will illustrate gainful implementation of computer aided project planning in architecture. The first scenario describes an actual situation of implementation and describes conceptual abortive developments in office organization as well as in software technology. Scenario two outlines the essential features of an integrated building design system and the efforts involved in its implementation in the architectural practice. It clearly defines preconditions for implementation and focuses on feasible concepts for the integration of different database management systems. A glance at paradigms of conceptual work currently under development will be taken. The third scenario deals with the structure and integration of innovative concepts and the responsibility the architect will bear with regard to necessary alterations in office and workgroup organization. A future-oriented building design system will be described that distinguishes itself from existing programs because of its modular, net-based structure. With reference to today’s situation in architectural offices and according to realizable improvements, this article will demonstrate courses for future IT-support on the basis of an ongoing research project. The presented project is part of the special research area 524 “Materials and Constructions for the Revitalization of Existing Buildings” which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. It deals with the integration of various parties that are involved in the revitalization process of existing buildings as well as with the provision of adequate information within the planning process resting upon the survey of existing building substance. Additional concepts that might change the way an architect’s work is organized will also be presented. “Case-based-reasoning” methods will make informal knowledge available, leading to a digital memory of preservable solutions.
series ACADIA
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2007/11/27 07:22

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 4c4b
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 2000
title 3D Online Learning in Multi-User Environments
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 187-191
summary Over the last 2 years the MSc Virtual Environments course in the Bartlett School of Graduate Studies has used a 3-dimensional on-line multi-user environment to explore the possibilities for the architectural design of virtual environments. The "Bartlett" virtual world is established as the environment where students undertake group design projects. After an initial computer based face-toface workshop, students work from terminals at home and around the university. Using avatar representations of themselves, tutors and students meet in the on-line environment. The environment is used for student group discussions and demonstrations, tutorials and as the virtual "siteÕ for their design projects. The "Bartlett" world is currently open to every internet user and so often has "visitors". These visitors often engage in discussions with the students resulting in interesting dynamics in the teaching pattern. This project has been very successful and is particularly popular with the students. Observations made over the 2 years the project has been running have resulted in interesting reflections on both the role of architectural design in virtual environments and the use of such environments to extend the pedagogical structure used in traditional studio teaching. This paper will review the educational experience gained by the project and propose the ideal software environment for further development. We are now examining similar types of environments currently on the market with a view to adapting them for use as a distance learning medium.
series eCAADe
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ddssar0010
id ddssar0010
authors Geebelen, Ben and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title IDEA-l, a prototype of a natural lighting design tool for the early stages of the design process
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper discusses IDEA-l, a new natural-lighting design tool, currently under development, that is meant to offer the architect/designer a digital equivalent for scale models, artificial sky simulators and heliodons. The program is part of the IDEA+ research project at K.U.L. This project, under guidance of Prof. H. Neuckermans, aims at developing a new integrated design environment for architects. The paper starts with a discussion of lighting as a design issue. Next the specifications for the new tool are given. The paper ends with a brief development status.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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