CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id a136
authors Blaise, J.Y., Dudek, I. and Drap, P.
year 1998
title Java collaborative interface for architectural simulations A case study on wooden ceilings of Krakow
source International Conference On Conservation - Krakow 2000, 23-24 November 1998, Krakow, Poland
summary Concern for the architectural and urban preservation problems has been considerably increasing in the past decades, and with it the necessity to investigate the consequences and opportunities opened for the conservation discipline by the development of computer-based systems. Architectural interventions on historical edifices or in preserved urban fabric face conservationists and architects with specific problems related to the handling and exchange of a variety of historical documents and representations. The recent development of information technologies offers opportunities to favour a better access to such data, as well as means to represent architectural hypothesis or design. Developing applications for the Internet also introduces a greater capacity to exchange experiences or ideas and to invest on low-cost collaborative working platforms. In the field of the architectural heritage, our research addresses two problems: historical data and documentation of the edifice, methods of representation (knowledge modelling and visualisation) of the edifice. This research is connected with the ARKIW POLONIUM co-operation program that links the MAP-GAMSAU CNRS laboratory (Marseilles, France) and the Institute HAiKZ of Kraków's Faculty of Architecture. The ARKIW programme deals with questions related to the use of information technologies in the recording, protection and studying of the architectural heritage. Case studies are chosen in order to experience and validate a technical platform dedicated to the formalisation and exchange of knowledge related to the architectural heritage (architectural data management, representation and simulation tools, survey methods, ...). A special focus is put on the evolution of the urban fabric and on the simulation of reconstructional hypothesis. Our contribution will introduce current ARKIW internet applications and experiences: The ARPENTEUR architectural survey experiment on Wie¿a Ratuszowa (a photogrammetrical survey based on an architectural model). A Gothic and Renaissance reconstruction of the Ratusz Krakowski using a commercial modelisation and animation software (MAYA). The SOL on line documentation interface for Kraków's Rynek G_ówny. Internet analytical approach in the presentation of morphological informations about Kraków's Kramy Bogate Rynku Krakowskiego. Object-Orientation approach in the modelling of the architectural corpus. The VALIDEUR and HUBLOT Virtual Reality modellers for the simulation and representation of reconstructional hypothesis and corpus analysis.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cef3
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1992
title Computing and Problem Based Learning at Delft University of Technology Faculty of Architecture
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 289-294
summary Delft University of Technology, founded in 1842, is the oldest and largest technical university in the Netherlands. It provides education for more than 13,000 students in fifteen main subject areas. The Faculty of Architecture, Housing, Urban Design and Planning is one of the largest faculties of the DUT with some 2000 students and over 500 staff members. The course of study takes four academic years: a first year (Propaedeuse) and a further three years (Doctoraal) leading to the "ingenieur" qualification. The basic course material is delivered in the first two years and is taken by all students. The third and fourth years consist of a smaller number of compulsory subjects in each of the department's specialist areas together with a wide range of option choices. The five main subject areas the students may choose from for their specialisation are Architecture, Building and Project Management, Building Technology, Urban Design and Planning, and Housing.

The curriculum of the Faculty has been radically revised over the last two years and is now based on the concept of "Problem-Based Learning". The subject matter taught is divided thematically into specific issues that are taught in six week blocks. The vehicles for these blocks are specially selected and adapted case studies prepared by teams of staff members. These provide a focus for integrating specialist subjects around a studio based design theme. In the case of second year this studio is largely computer-based: many drawings are produced by computer and several specially written computer applications are used in association with the specialist inputs.

This paper describes the "block structure" used in second year, giving examples of the special computer programs used, but also raises a number of broader educational issues. Introduction of the block system arose as a method of curriculum integration in response to difficulties emerging from the independent functioning of strong discipline areas in the traditional work groups. The need for a greater level of selfdirected learning was recognised as opposed to the "passive information model" of student learning in which the students are seen as empty vessels to be filled with knowledge - which they are then usually unable to apply in design related contexts in the studio. Furthermore, the value of electives had been questioned: whilst enabling some diversity of choice, they may also be seen as diverting attention and resources from the real problems of teaching architecture.

series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8802
authors Burry, Mark, Dawson, Tony and Woodbury, Robert
year 1999
title Learning about Architecture with the Computer, and Learning about the Computer in Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 374-382
summary Most students commencing their university studies in architecture must confront and master two new modes of thought. The first, widely known as reflection-in-action, is a continuous cycle of self-criticism and creation that produces both learning and improved work. The second, which we call here design making, is a process which considers building construction as an integral part of architectural designing. Beginning students in Australia tend to do neither very well; their largely analytic secondary education leaves the majority ill-prepared for these new forms of learning and working. Computers have both complicated and offered opportunities to improve this situation. An increasing number of entering students have significant computing skill, yet university architecture programs do little in developing such skill into sound and extensible knowledge. Computing offers new ways to engage both reflection-in-action and design making. The collaboration between two Schools in Australia described in detail here pools computer-based learning resources to provide a wider scope for the education in each institution, which we capture in the phrase: Learn to use computers in architecture (not use computers to learn architecture). The two shared learning resources are Form Making Games (Adelaide University), aimed at reflection-in-action and The Construction Primer (Deakin University and Victoria University of Wellington), aimed at design making. Through contributing to and customising the resources themselves, students learn how designing and computing relate. This paper outlines the collaborative project in detail and locates the initiative at a time when the computer seems to have become less self-consciously assimilated within the wider architectural program.
keywords Reflection-In-Action, Design Making, Customising Computers
series eCAADe
email mburry@deakin.edu.au
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id ddssar0006
id ddssar0006
authors Ciftcioglu, Ö., Durmisevic, S. and Sariyildiz, S.
year 2000
title Multi-objective design for space layout topology
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary A novel method to produce space layout topologies for architectural design is described. From the uniformly distributed design solutions in the solution space the corresponding design requirements are computed according to a given norm and metric function. The system is based on graph representation of the layout so that the desired relations between the pairs of nodes are considered to be independent variables of appropriate series of multivariable functions mapping the requirements into the solution space. The system so established is used as a knowledge-base for robust layout design where knowledge base having been established, the layout design requirements are introduced to the system as design constraints and the output is identified in the multidimensional solution space by means of interpolation. Since the smoothness of the interpolation is guaranteed, robust design layout, in the form of node locations, is obtained.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 08ea
authors Clayton, Mark J. and Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo P. (Eds.)
year 2000
title ACADIA 2000: Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture
source Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8 / Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, 284 p.
summary Eternity, time without end, infinity, space without limits and virtuality, perception without constraints; provide the conceptual framework in which ACADIA 2000 is conceived. It is in human nature to fill what is empty and to empty what is full. Today, thanks to the power of computer processing we can also make small what is too big, make big what is too small, make fast what is too slow, make slow what is too fast, make real what does not exist, and make our reality omni-present at global scale. These are capabilities for which we have no precedents. What we make of them is our privilege and responsibility. Information about a building flows past our keyboards and on to other people. Although we, as architects, add to the information, it originated before us and will go beyond our touch in time, space and understanding. A building description acquires a life of its own that may surpass our own lives as it is stored, transferred, transformed, and reused by unknown intellects, both human and artificial, and in unknown processes. Our actions right now have unforeseen effects. Digital media blurs the boundaries of space, time and our perception of reality. ACADIA 2000 explores the theme of time, space and perception in relation to the information and knowledge that describes architecture. Our invitation to those who are finding ways to apply computer processing power in architecture received overwhelming response, generating paper submissions from five continents. A selected group of reviewers recommended the publication of 24 original full papers out of 42 submitted and 13 short papers out of 30 submitted. Forty-two projects were submitted to the Digital Media Exhibit and 12 were accepted for publication. The papers cover subjects in design knowledge, design process, design representation, design communication, and design education. Fundamental and applied research has been carefully articulated, resulting in developments that may have an important impact on the way we practice and teach architecture in the future.
series ACADIA
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
more www.acadia.org
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id 9a1e
authors Clayton, Mark J. and Vasquez de Velasco, Guillermo
year 1999
title Stumbling, Backtracking, and Leapfrogging: Two Decades of Introductory Architectural Computing
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 151-158
summary Our collective concept of computing and its relevance to architecture has undergone dramatic shifts in emphasis. A review of popular texts from the past reveals the biases and emphases that were current. In the seventies, architectural computing was generally seen as an elective for data processing specialists. In the early eighties, personal computers and commercial CAD systems were widely adopted. Architectural computing diverged from the "batch" world into the "interactive" world. As personal computing matured, introductory architectural computing courses turned away from a foundation in programming toward instruction in CAD software. By the late eighties, Graphic User Interfaces and windowing operating systems had appeared, leading to a profusion of architecturally relevant applications that needed to be addressed in introductory computing. The introduction of desktop 3D modeling in the early nineties led to increased emphasis upon rendering and animation. The past few years have added new emphases, particularly in the area of network communications, the World Wide Web and Virtual Design Studios. On the horizon are topics of electronic commerce and knowledge markets. This paper reviews these past and current trends and presents an outline for an introductory computing course that is relevant to the year 2000.
keywords Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Computer-Aided Design, Computing Education, Introductory Courses
series eCAADe
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id d1a6
authors Corona Martínez, A., Vigo, L. and Folchi, A.
year 2001
title SEMINARIO/TALLER DE INVESTIGACION PROYECTUAL ESTRUCTURA DE TALLER ACTIVO PARA LA ENSEÑANZA E INVESTIGACIÓN PROYECTUAL ARQUITECTÓNICA ASISTIDO POR TÉCNOLOGÍAS DIGITALES (Research Seminar/Workshop on the Structure of Active Design Studios for Training and Research on Computer Aided Design)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 227-228
summary In a previous paper (SiGradi 2000) we presented a design approach based upon the architectural research that regarded digital technologies as a subordinated tool to architectural design. From that starting point and from various research experiences, we have re-oriented certain guidelines and latter developed specific techniques that can be used both for teaching and for the professional practice of architecture. Through the use of paradigmatic and hermeneutic techniques developed ad hoc, architectural projects are developed in a three-stage sequence: a) development of a narrative framework; b) analysis based on object oriented programming thechniques; and c) digital development of the preliminary design. We believe that the positive aspects of the inclusion of these idea-centered techniques to the digital realm unifies and extends the architectural knowledge and strengthens its conception.
series SIGRADI
email corona@cvtci.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 53c8
authors Donath, Dirk and Lömker, Thorsten Michael
year 2000
title Illusion, Frustration and Vision in Computer-Aided Project Planning: A Reflection and Outlook on the Use of Computing in Architecture
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 3-9
summary This paper examines the progressive and pragmatic use of computers and CAAD systems in the architectural practice. With the aid of three scenarios, this paper will illustrate gainful implementation of computer aided project planning in architecture. The first scenario describes an actual situation of implementation and describes conceptual abortive developments in office organization as well as in software technology. Scenario two outlines the essential features of an integrated building design system and the efforts involved in its implementation in the architectural practice. It clearly defines preconditions for implementation and focuses on feasible concepts for the integration of different database management systems. A glance at paradigms of conceptual work currently under development will be taken. The third scenario deals with the structure and integration of innovative concepts and the responsibility the architect will bear with regard to necessary alterations in office and workgroup organization. A future-oriented building design system will be described that distinguishes itself from existing programs because of its modular, net-based structure. With reference to today’s situation in architectural offices and according to realizable improvements, this article will demonstrate courses for future IT-support on the basis of an ongoing research project. The presented project is part of the special research area 524 “Materials and Constructions for the Revitalization of Existing Buildings” which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. It deals with the integration of various parties that are involved in the revitalization process of existing buildings as well as with the provision of adequate information within the planning process resting upon the survey of existing building substance. Additional concepts that might change the way an architect’s work is organized will also be presented. “Case-based-reasoning” methods will make informal knowledge available, leading to a digital memory of preservable solutions.
series ACADIA
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2007/11/27 07:22

_id b9ea
authors Donath, Dirk
year 2000
title Roadblocks Ahead in Computer Aided Project Planning
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 121-124
summary The paper treats with three scenarios that describe an ordinary, a possible and an expected - yet feasible - situation computer aided project planning in the architectural practice.
keywords CAD, CAAD Systems, Architecture, Planning, Net-Based Modularity, Building Design Systems, Informal Knowledge
series eCAADe
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id ddssar0009
id ddssar0009
authors Findlay, Robert A. and Haugen, S. Lee
year 2000
title From individual inquiry and attention to cohorts to a "collaborative critique": the use of student groups to support individual designers
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This study explores learning settings and strategies related to design collaboration and critical thinking. To this end, theories of education and of cognitive learning were assembled to describe learning design collaboration. Student perceptions of their learning experiences were then gathered in structured interviews and focus groups, and were analyzed qualitatively for concepts, tendencies, and trends. The study also concerns the effects of collaboration on individual learning. An emphasis of the investigation has been on the context in which a person's mind learns. The activity of learning has been enriched by being in a context in which students can participate in the social construction of knowledge, in this way enhancing the processes of developing knowledge, decision-making, and design. We discovered that a "collaborative critique" evolves during the course of activity of groups of students as they shift from the protective behavior of individual competition, through bargaining away ideas in compromise or subduing differences in consensus building, to critical ideation and the constructive behavior of the "collaborative critique".
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c6db
authors Heylighen, Ann
year 2000
title In Case of Architectural Design. Critique and Praise of Case-Based Design in Architecture
source Dissertation - Doct. Toegepaste wetenschappen, KU Leuven, Fac. Toegepaste wetenschappen, Dep. architectuur, stedebouw en ruimtelijke ordening (ISBN 90-5682-248-9)
summary Architects are said to learn design by experience. Learning design by experience is the essence of Case-Based Design (CBD), a sub-domain of Artificial Intelligence. Part I critically explores the CBD approach from an architectural point of view, tracing its origins in the Theory of Dynamic Memory and highlighting its potential for architectural design. Seven CBD systems are analysed, experienced architects and design teachers are interviewed, and an experiment is carried out to examine how cases affect the design performance of architecture students. The results of this exploration show that despite its sound view on how architects acquire (design) knowledge, CBD is limited in important respects: it reduces architectural design to problem solving, is difficult to implement and has to contend with prejudices among the target group. With a view to stretching these limits, part II covers the design, implementation and evaluation of DYNAMO (Dynamic Architectural Memory On-line). This Web-based design tool tailors the CBD approach to the complexity of architectural design by effecting three transformations: extending the concern with design products towards design processes, turning static case bases into dynamic memories and upgrading users from passive case consumers to active case-based designers.
keywords Architectural Design; Case-Based Design
series thesis:PhD
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/12/14 18:29

_id 10e9
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title DYNAMO in Action - Development and Use of a Web-Based Design Tool
source J. Pohl & T. Fowler (eds.), Proceedings of the Focus Symposium on Advances in Computer-Based and Web-Based Collaborative Systems - InterSymp-2000 International Conference On Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, Baden-Baden (Germany), July 31 - Aug 4, 2000 (ISBN 0-921836-88-0), pp. 233-242
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Design (CBD), the paper describes the development and use of a Web-based design tool called DYNAMO. The tool is firmly rooted in the Dynamic Memory Theory underlying the CBD approach. Yet, rather than adopting it as such, we have tried to enrich this approach by extrapolating it beyond the individual. This extrapolation stimulates and intensifies several modes of interaction. Doing so, DYNAMO tries to kill two birds with one stone. At short notice, it provides architects and architecture students with a rich source of inspiration, ideas and design knowledge for their present design task, as it is filled with a permanently growing collection of design cases that is accessible on-line. Its long-term objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by the cognitive model underlying CBD, and Case-Based Reasoning in general. DYNAMO is therefore conceived as an (inter-)active workhouse rather than a passive warehouse: it is interactively developed by and actively develops the user's design knowledge. Whereas previous papers have focused on the theoretical ideas of DYNAMO, this paper points out how Web technology enables us to implement these ideas as a working prototype. Furthermore, an annotated scenario of the system in use is described.
keywords Case-Based Design, Web Technology, Architectural Design
series journal paper
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/11/22 13:50

_id 3338
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title DYNAMO - Dynamic Architectural Memory On-line
source Educational Technology and Society, Vol.3, No.2, April 2000 (ISSN 1436-4522), pp. 86-95
summary This paper describes the current status of DYNAMO, a web-based design assistant for students and professional designers in the field of architecture. The tool can be considered a Case-Based Design (CBD) system in so far that it was inspired by the view of cognition underlying CBD. The paper points out how DYNAMO incorporates this view, and at the same time extrapolates it beyond the individual. In this way, the tool attempts to embrace and profit from several kinds of interaction that are crucial for the development and renewal of design knowledge. This should result in a design tool that both feels cognitively comfortable to (student-) designers, and offers them a platform for exchanging knowledge and insights with colleagues in different contexts and at different levels of experience. In addition, the paper describes the implementation of these theoretical ideas as a working prototype, which has recently been tested by 4th year design students. Finally, DYNAMO is situated in the context of other comparable tools that have been or are being developed in the field of architectural design.
keywords Educational Multimedia, Interactive Learning Environments, Online Education
series journal paper
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
more http://ifets.gmd.de/periodical/vol_2_2000/heylighen.html
last changed 2002/11/14 07:40

_id c839
authors Hwang, Jie-Eun
year 2002
title SpaceScope: Developing a Spatial Information Retrieval System - Focused on Apartment Unit Floor Plans -
source Yonsei University, Dept. of Housing & Interior Design
summary This research investigates the spatial information retrieval (IR) in architecture focused on constructing efficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is ‘structured data about data’ to describe resources especially in a digital format. In this research, metadata is a sort of data object to be useful in searching spatial information. Metadata is also used to describe raw spatial data object as not only attribute data but also content structurally and semantic ally. There are two issues that motivate this research; 1) what is the spatial information – that materializes the intangible space as a data object, and 2) how we can search the information efficiently – the content-based information retrieval. Although knowledge of a building’s spatial content is most important in architecture, there has been no logical method to manage it.

From the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, the researcher analyzes spatial information of a floor plan, with a focus on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then the metadata items are extracted in a structured manner. To manage the items efficiently, the researcher develops a data model for spatial information according to the concept of the “Structured Floor Plan”. The main object of content to retrieve is a spatial network that consists of nodes of spaces and their linkages. There are two ways to organize the metadata: the traditional index files and the RDF (Resource Description Framework). While the index files are still efficient with computability, the RDF applies greater options to retrieve, such as fuzzy predicates, semantic predicates, and so on. To exploit the metadata, this research shows several possibilities of query operations that present a set of sample queries about L-DK(Living room – Dining room – Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) a modeling module using Vitruvius; 2) an indexing module using MS SQL Server? 2000 in conjunction XML; and 3) a browsing module using the SpaceScope browser.

The future works may consider XML-based databases and a knowledge based query language, such as RQL/XQL, working on such databases. The more specific domain knowledge is involved, the more practical systems would be. Even in architecture, there may be a diverse range of domain knowledge, such as design, building performance, facility management, energy management, post occupied evaluation, historical research, and so on. Also the issue of interface should be investigated in depth, so that it will be adequate to the needs of the architectural field.

keywords Content-based Information Retrieval; Metadata; RDF; XML; Spatial Information; Apartment Floor Plan; Semantics
series thesis:MSc
email curiozen@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2003/04/25 05:27

_id ddssar0014
id ddssar0014
authors Janssen, P., Frazer, J. and Ming-xi, T.
year 2000
title Evolutionary design systems: a conceptual framework for the creation of generative processes
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper presents an conceptual framework for the construction of generative mapping processes as a basis for creating active design tools in the domain of architecture. Such generative processes are seen as key components within evolutionary systems that manipulate populations of alternative solutions in order to discover previously unexplored possibilities. Solutions are represented in two forms: as highly encoded genotypes referred to as design seeds and as decoded phenotypes referred to as design proposals. The generative process maps the design seed to the design proposal. The discussion of generative processes is in two parts. In the first part it is argued that any generative process that aims to create a wide range of solutions that differ from each other in fundamental ways must focus on a limited subcategory of possible designs. It is proposed that the endeavour to create active design tools demands that the focus be on the designer's highly personalised style, called a design-schema. The second part discusses how to uncover the essence of an architectural design-schema. In particular, it is argued that implicit and familiar aspects of buildings must be scrutinised in order to reveal the knowledge that is essential to capturing and codifying a design-schema. A range of rationalisations and conceptualisations of built form are presented with examples to illustrate possible routes of analysis. Finally, in conclusion, the possibility of discovering universal generators common to many divers generative processes are discussed.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0023
id ddssar0023
authors Jens Pohl, Art Chapman, and Kym Jason Pohl
year 2000
title Computer-aided design systems for the 21st century: some design guidelines
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper proposes nine design principles for a new generation of computer-aided design (CAD) systems that actively support the decision making and problem solving activities of environmental design. Foremost among these are: a meaningful internal object-based representation of the artifact being designed within its environmental context; a collaborative problem solving paradigm in which the human designer and the computer form a complementary partnership; and, the notion of decision-support tools rather than predefined solutions. Two prototype computer-aided design systems implemented by the CAD Research Center that embody most of these concepts are described. ICADS (Intelligent Computer-Aided Design System) incorporates multiple expert agents in domains such as natural and artificial lighting, noise control, structural system selection, climatic determinants, and energy conservation. Given a particular building design context, the agents in ICADS draw upon their own expertise and several knowledgebases as they monitor the actions of the human designer and collaborate opportunistically. KOALA (Knowledge-Based Object-Agent Collaboration) builds on the multi-agent concepts embodied in ICADS by the addition of two kinds of agents. Mentor agents represent the interests of selected objects within the ontology of the design environment. In the implemented KOALA system building spaces are represented by agents capable of collaborating with each other, with domain agents for the provision of expert services, and with the human designer. Facilitator agents listen in on the communications among mentor agents to detect conflicts and moderate arguments. While both of these prototype systems are limited in scope by focussing on the earliest design stages and restricted in their understanding of the inherent complexity of a design state, they nevertheless promise a paradigm shift in computer-aided design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddssar0015
id ddssar0015
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2000
title Recognition of spatial grouping in rectangular arrangements
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Rectangular arrangements are an efficient technique for generating an exhaustive catalogue of a class of designs. Moreover, they offer the possibility of retrieving designs from such a catalogue on the basis of geometric or topological features. The paper describes an extension of the possibilities of rectangular arrangements in indexing and retrieving catalogues of architectural floor plans through the recognition of spatial grouping. Using an adaptation of the chain code, each space in a shape arrangement is labeled in terms of its bilateral geometric relationships with contiguous spaces. This means that each space is maximally labeled as many times as the number of its contiguous spaces. The labels of a space are ordered on the basis of a priority list that reflects the stylistic preferences of the particular design class. Grouping of spaces uses the ordered space labels as criteria. The groups returned by this process agree with human intuitive perception of spatial grouping in the floor plan, as well as with expert architectural knowledge. For example, Palladian floor plans are consistently grouped into a central space group flanked by two symmetric space groups.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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