CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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References

Hits 81 to 100 of 731

_id 9384
authors Burry, M., Datta, S. and Anson, S.
year 2000
title Introductory Computer Programming as a Means for Extending Spatial and Temporal Understanding
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 129-135
summary Should computer programming be taught within schools of architecture? Incorporating even low-level computer programming within architectural education curricula is a matter of debate but we have found it useful to do so for two reasons: as an introduction or at least a consolidation of the realm of descriptive geometry and in providing an environment for experimenting in morphological time-based change. Mathematics and descriptive geometry formed a significant proportion of architectural education until the end of the 19th century. This proportion has declined in contemporary curricula, possibly at some cost for despite major advances in automated manufacture, Cartesian measurement is still the principal ‘language’ with which to describe building for construction purposes. When computer programming is used as a platform for instruction in logic and spatial representation, the waning interest in mathematics as a basis for spatial description can be readdressed using a left-field approach. Students gain insights into topology, Cartesian space and morphology through programmatic form finding, as opposed to through direct manipulation. In this context, it matters to the architect-programmer how the program operates more than what it does. This paper describes an assignment where students are given a figurative conceptual space comprising the three Cartesian axes with a cube at its centre. Six Phileban solids mark the Cartesian axial limits to the space. Any point in this space represents a hybrid of one, two or three transformations from the central cube towards the various Phileban solids. Students are asked to predict the topological and morphological outcomes of the operations. Through programming, they become aware of morphogenesis and hybridisation. Here we articulate the hypothesis above and report on the outcome from a student group, whose work reveals wider learning opportunities for architecture students in computer programming than conventionally assumed.
series ACADIA
email mark.burry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 0bb2
authors Campbell, Dace A.
year 2000
title What Have We Done?!? Design Media and Processes in the Creation of Cybrids
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1-2
summary This panel will discuss the use of design media and processes in the generation of recent cybrid design projects. These projects, realized by teams of experts in various design and technical fields, represent the forefront of thought in the creation of hybrid physical-virtual solutions to design programs. The panel members are experts in architecture, interface design, and dramatic scenarios. The panelists were asked to define their positions for the discussion by answering four questions. Below are excerpts from their replies to these questions, which will be expanded upon in the panel discussion.
series ACADIA
email dcampbell@nbbj.com
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id b4c4
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2000
title A framework for an Architectural Collaborative Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 57-60
summary The building industry involves a larger number of disciplines, operators and professionals than other industrial processes. Its peculiarity is that the products (building objects) have a number of parts (building elements) that does not differ much from the number of classes into which building objects can be conceptually subdivided. Another important characteristic is that the building industry produces unique products (de Vries and van Zutphen, 1992). This is not an isolated situation but indeed one that is spreading also in other industrial fields. For example, production niches have proved successful in the automotive and computer industries (Carrara, Fioravanti, & Novembri, 1989). Building design is a complex multi-disciplinary process, which demands a high degree of co-ordination and co-operation among separate teams, each having its own specific knowledge and its own set of specific design tools. Establishing an environment for design tool integration is a prerequisite for network-based distributed work. It was attempted to solve the problem of efficient, user-friendly, and fast information exchange among operators by treating it simply as an exchange of data. But the failure of IGES, CGM, PHIGS confirms that data have different meanings and importance in different contexts. The STandard for Exchange of Product data, ISO 10303 Part 106 BCCM, relating to AEC field (Wix, 1997), seems to be too complex to be applied to professional studios. Moreover its structure is too deep and the conceptual classifications based on it do not allow multi-inheritance (Ekholm, 1996). From now on we shall adopt the BCCM semantic that defines the actor as "a functional participant in building construction"; and we shall define designer as "every member of the class formed by designers" (architects, engineers, town-planners, construction managers, etc.).
keywords Architectural Design Process, Collaborative Design, Knowledge Engineering, Dynamic Object Oriented Programming
series eCAADe
email fioravanti@uniroma1.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 3d30
authors Castañé, D., Dehó, C. and Tessier, C.
year 2000
title Consecuencias y Alcances de los Procesos de Modelizacion: Una visión pedagógica-experimental del desarrollo de imágenes virtuales (Consequences and Potentiality of Modeling Processes : A pedagogical-experimental Vision on the Development of Virtual Images)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 292-294
summary The proposal is a discussion of the present limits offered by the modeling systems used in the educational environment. The perception of the space in the Renaissance period (Benevolo 92) and the multidimensional spaces observed in several design experiments (Bermúdez-Neiman 98), (Schmitt 99), (Eisenman 99) allow us to infer that the applications of 3D modeling procedures, has a vast spectrum of possibilities It is possible to distinguish six operative gradients according to the level of complexity when representing 3D spatial organization in architecture, according the architecture design strategy using Takes in consideration the factors that affects the “simulation” of reality according to several perceptive conditions that could alter the conventional visions of the 3D models.
series SIGRADI
email dcastane@elsitio.net
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id b09a
authors Ceccato, C., Falk, L. and Fischer, Th.
year 2000
title The Silk Road: An Interactive Online Encyclopaedia as a Foundation for Networked Education in Design
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 50-54
summary This paper describes a multidisciplinary design studio project conducted in Spring 2000 titled “The Silk Road”. The studio is an implementation of an innovative initiative in design education known as Networked Education in Design (NED) and is a further component in a series of on-line, interactive design studios under development at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University School of Design. NED is an educational philosophy, a pedagogical strategy encompassing several different aspects of Internet and Intranet communications, multimedia and shared learning environments, with the goal to decentralise the campus experience, enhance the local-global academic dialogue, and create an interdisciplinary, extendable and flexible virtual learning environment. In the case illustrated here, NED was manifested as an “Electronic Encyclopaedia” exercise designed to provide a universally applicable body of knowledge for students to use in design studios within their field of study, resulting in a rich and diverse body of work which in its disciplinary diversity manifested a common epistemological root.
series SIGRADI
email sdchris@polyu.edu.hk, sdfalk@polyu.edu.hk, himself@tfischer.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id ae0f
authors Ceccato, C., Simondetti, SA. and Burry, M.C.
year 2000
title Mass-Customization in Design Using Evolutionary and Parametric Methods
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 239-244
summary This paper describes a project within the authors’ ongoing research in the field of Generative Design. The work is based on the premise that computer-aided design (CAD) should evolve beyond its current limitation of one-way interaction, and become a dynamic, intelligent, multi-user environment that encourages creativity and actively supports the evolution of individual, mass-customized designs which exhibit common features. The authors describe this idea by illustrating the implementation of a research project, which explores the notions of mass-customization in design by using evolutionary and parametric methods to generate families of simple objects, in our case a door handle. The project examines related approaches using both complex CAD/CAM packages (CADDS, CATIA) and a proprietary software tool for evolutionary design. The paper first gives a short historical and philosophical background to the work, then describes the technical and algorithmic requirements, and concludes with the implementations of the project.
series ACADIA
email mark.burry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 3e51
authors Cerulli, C., Peng, C. and Lawson, B.
year 2001
title Capturing Histories of Design Processes for Collaborative Building Design Development. Field Trial of the ADS Prototype
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 427-437
summary The ADS Project - Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process - builds on the technological results of the previous COMMIT Project to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD based Design Decision Support System. COMMIT provides a system for storing knowledge about knowledge within the design process. It records design decisions, the actors who take them and the roles they play when doing so. ADS links COMMIT to an existing object-oriented CAD system, MicroStation/J from Bentley Systems. The project focuses on tackling the problem of managing design information without intruding too much on the design process itself. It provides the possibility to effectively link design decisions back to requirements, to gather rationale information for later stages of the building lifecycle, and to gather knowledge of rationale for later projects. The system enables members of the project team, including clients and constructors, to browse and search the recorded project history of decision making both during and after design development. ADS aims to facilitate change towards a more collaborative process in construction design, to improve the effectiveness of decision-making throughout the construction project and to provide clients with the facility to relate design outcomes to design briefs across the whole building life cycle. In this paper we will describe the field trials of the ADS prototype carried out over a three-month period at the Building Design Partnership (BDP) Manchester office. The objective of these trials is to assess the extent, to which the approach underlying ADS enhances the design process, and to gather and document the views and experiences of practitioners. The ADS prototype was previously tested with historical data of real project (Peng, Cerulli et al. 2000). To gather more valuable knowledge about how a Decision Support System like ADS can be used in practice, the testing and evaluation will be extended to a real project, while it is still ongoing. The live case study will look at some phases of the design of a mixed residential and retail development in Leeds, UK, recording project information while it is created. The users’ feedback on the system usability will inform the continuous redevelopment process that will run in parallel to the live case study. The ADS and COMMIT Projects were both funded by EPSRC.
keywords Design Rationale, Design Support Systems, Usability Evaluation
series CAAD Futures
email c.cerulli@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 9d16
authors Chan, Chiu-Shui
year 2000
title A Virtual Reality Tool to Implement City Building Codes on Capitol View Preservation
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 203-209
summary In urban planning, the urban environment is a very complicated system with many layers of building codes cross-referenced and interacting together to guide urban growth. Especially, if a new urban design is located in a historical area, additional restrictions will be imposed upon regular zoning regulations to maintain the area’s historical characteristics. Often, urban regulations read as text are difficult to understand. A tool that generates adequate urban information and a quick visualization of the design will ease decision-making and enhance urban design processes. The goal of this research project is to develop a virtual reality (VR) tool with high resolution, speedy computation, and a userfriendly environment. This project initiates an interactive visualization tool to enforce city-planning regulations on viewing access to the state capitol building in Des Moines, Iowa. The capitol building houses the Iowa Legislature and is a symbol of state power. Maintaining the view from surrounding areas will preserve the building’s monumental and symbolic meaning. To accomplish this, the City Community Development Department and the Capitol Planning Committee developed a Capitol View Corridor Project, which sets up seven visual corridors to prevent the view toward the capitol from being blocked by any future designs. Because city regulations are not easy for the public and designers to interpret and comprehend, this project intends to develop a VR tool to create a transparent environment for visualizing the city ordinances.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id 6352
authors Chase, Scott and Murty, Paul
year 2000
title Evaluating the Complexity of CAD Models as a Measure for Student Assessment
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 173-182
summary The feasibility of a proposed CAD project is often judged in terms of two conceptions of complexity: design complexity, based on visible features of the object to be modeled; and CAD complexity, based on the actual CAD embodiment of the design. The latter is suggested as a more useful guide. Clearer articulation of this underutilized concept is proposed for use in both educational and industrial settings. A formal model of CAD complexity is introduced, and initial experiments to determine the complexity of CAD models are described.
series ACADIA
email s.c.chase@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id 93ff
authors Chateau, H.B., Alvarado, R.G., Vergara, R.L. Parra Márquez, J.C.
year 2000
title Un Modelo Experimental em el Espacio-Tiempo de la Realidad Virtual (An Experimental Model in the Space-Time of Virtual Reality)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 251-253
summary Virtual environments are a convergence between communicational media and computational capacities, that progressively integrate in interactive and global systems. This technological evolution has been progressively creating artificial contexts that find their latest and most integral expression in virtual environments. The influence of virtual worlds in our culture questions architecture, and arises the challenge of understanding the approach that should exist from architecture into virtual reality. This paper consists on an experimental exercise in virtual time-space oriented to the news information (News Information Centre), recognising that a relevant architectural event of our time is that virtual worlds represent a meeting between communicational technologies and the interest of contemporary society on being always informed (on line). This project is basically an exploration of virtual design that widens the professional field of architectural study, into the new technological and cultural challenges, that will probably influence significantly on the relations between architecture and urban culture.
series SIGRADI
email hbarria@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 976f
authors Cheng, Nancy and Kvan, Thomas
year 2000
title Design Collaboration Strategies
source Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture, pp. 62-73
summary This paper explains the logistical and technical issues involved in design collaboration and how to address them strategically in projects for design, teaching and research. Five years of arranging projects, studying peer results and involving novices in exchanges point out the benefits and pitfalls of Internet partnering. Rather than a single universal technical solution, multiple solutions exist: Technical means must be tailored to specifics concerning the task and participants. The following factors need to be considered in finding the best fit between technology and group design: 1) Collaboratorsí profiles, 2) Mutual value of produced information, 3) Collaboration structure, and 4) Logistical opportunities. The success of a virtual studio depends upon clear task definition, aligned participant expectations and suitable engagement methods. We question the efforts required in the installation of expensive technologies for communication and visualization. Often technical systems support ancillary and non-beneficial activity.
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id ddssar0005
id ddssar0005
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen and Kvan, Thomas
year 2000
title Design collaboration strategies
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary How can we best use computer technology to facilitate remote design teamwork? From looking at virtual studio collaborations, we propose that multiple solutions exist rather than a single one. In examining both published results and own student projects, we identify the following factors to be considered in finding the best fit between technology and group design: 1) Collaborators’ profiles; 2) Mutual value of produced information; 3) Collaboration structure and 4) Logistical opportunities
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 36ab
authors Chiu, M.-L., Lin, Y.-T., Tseng, K.-W. and Chen, C.-H.
year 2000
title Museum of Interface. Designing the Virtual Environment
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 471-480
summary A virtual environment (VE) has been designed for functioning as a three-dimensional interface to a repository of images and sounds. This paper attempts to study design interface in VEs. This study first examines the characteristics of VEs. The difference between physical and virtual environments is also studied. The relationship between both is classified as three types, i.e. complement, replacement, or independence. Then it establishes the design interface in VEs, and presents an experimental project, the virtual architecture museum (VAM). Four elements of VEs are highlighted, i.e. wayfinding, linkage, context, and atmosphere. In VAM, the interface is implemented on the web and is integrated with an architectural database. It is found that the appropriateness of design interface can enhance the users' spatial awareness, and consequently facilitate the task of navigation and wayfinding within VEs. The context and atmosphere of VEs can be defined by means of simile or metaphor through the visual or acoustic experience for gaining senses of a place.
series CAADRIA
email mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw, n7687401@dec4000.cc.ncku.edu.tw, n7687103@dec4000.cc.ncku.edu.tw, n7687405@sparc1.cc.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id ga0018
id ga0018
authors Ciao, Quinsan
year 2000
title Hearing Architectural Design: Simulation and Auralization for Generating Better Acoustic Spaces
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper with demonstration is devoted to revealing and establishing the relationship between space and sound through computational acoustic analysis, simulation and electronic synthesis of audible sound. Based on science of acoustics and computing technology, acoustic effect of an architectural 3-D design can be analyzed and the resulted sound in space can be synthesized and predicted accordingly and being heard. Auralization refers to this process of acoustic analysis, sound synthesis and audio presentation of the result in the form of audible sound. Design alternatives can be experimented until satisfactory acoustic effect is achieved. Traditionally, designers rely on some minimum and vague understanding or specialists’ experiences to predict and design for a desirable sound behavior in spaces. Most likely acoustic design and analysis are seen as a luxury remedy only affordable in large-scale theatres and concert halls. The recent available PC based auralization tools brought significance in both in terms of new knowledge towards the science and art of architectural acoustics and the methods and practice in the design process. The examples demonstrated in the presentation will indicate that the auralization technology make it possible for the designers, consultants, end users or potential occupants to examine and evaluate the performance of different designs by hearing it directly before an informed decision can be made. The case studies also illustrated that the auralization is a powerful tool for general public with common building types to uncover everyday acoustic problems that have been constantly harming their well being and would otherwise be undetected.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0007
id ga0007
authors Coates, Paul and Miranda, Pablo
year 2000
title Swarm modelling. The use of Swarm Intelligence to generate architectural form
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary .neither the human purposes nor the architect's method are fully known in advance. Consequently, if this interpretation of the architectural problem situation is accepted, any problem-solving technique that relies on explicit problem definition, on distinct goal orientation, on data collection, or even on non-adaptive algorithms will distort the design process and the human purposes involved.' Stanford Anderson, "Problem-Solving and Problem-Worrying". The works concentrates in the use of the computer as a perceptive device, a sort of virtual hand or "sense", capable of prompting an environment. From a set of data that conforms the environment (in this case the geometrical representation of the form of the site) this perceptive device is capable of differentiating and generating distinct patterns in its behavior, patterns that an observer has to interpret as meaningful information. As Nicholas Negroponte explains referring to the project GROPE in his Architecture Machine: 'In contrast to describing criteria and asking the machine to generate physical form, this exercise focuses on generating criteria from physical form.' 'The onlooking human or architecture machine observes what is "interesting" by observing GROPE's behavior rather than by receiving the testimony that this or that is "interesting".' The swarm as a learning device. In this case the work implements a Swarm as a perceptive device. Swarms constitute a paradigm of parallel systems: a multitude of simple individuals aggregate in colonies or groups, giving rise to collaborative behaviors. The individual sensors can't learn, but the swarm as a system can evolve in to more stable states. These states generate distinct patterns, a result of the inner mechanics of the swarm and of the particularities of the environment. The dynamics of the system allows it to learn and adapt to the environment; information is stored in the speed of the sensors (the more collisions, the slower) that acts as a memory. The speed increases in the absence of collisions and so providing the system with the ability to forget, indispensable for differentiation of information and emergence of patterns. The swarm is both a perceptive and a spatial phenomenon. For being able to Interact with an environment an observer requires some sort of embodiment. In the case of the swarm, its algorithms for moving, collision detection, and swarm mechanics conform its perceptive body. The way this body interacts with its environment in the process of learning and differentiation of spatial patterns constitutes also a spatial phenomenon. The enactive space of the Swarm. Enaction, a concept developed by Maturana and Varela for the description of perception in biological terms, is the understanding of perception as the result of the structural coupling of an environment and an observer. Enaction does not address cognition in the currently conventional sense as an internal manipulation of extrinsic 'information' or 'signals', but as the relation between environment and observer and the blurring of their identities. Thus, the space generated by the swarm is an enactive space, a space without explicit description, and an invention of the swarm-environment structural coupling. If we consider a gestalt as 'Some property -such as roundness- common to a set of sense data and appreciated by organisms or artefacts' (Gordon Pask), the swarm is also able to differentiate space 'gestalts' or spaces of some characteristics, such as 'narrowness', or 'fluidness' etc. Implicit surfaces and the wrapping algorithm. One of the many ways of describing this space is through the use of implicit surfaces. An implicit surface may be imagined as an infinitesimally thin band of some measurable quantity such as color, density, temperature, pressure, etc. Thus, an implicit surface consists of those points in three-space that satisfy some particular requirement. This allows as to wrap the regions of space where a difference of quantity has been produced, enclosing the spaces in which some particular events in the history of the Swarm have occurred. The wrapping method allows complex topologies, such as manifoldness in one continuous surface. It is possible to transform the information generated by the swarm in to a landscape that is the result of the particular reading of the site by the swarm. Working in real time. Because of the complex nature of the machine, the only possible way to evaluate the resulting behavior is in real time. For this purpose specific applications had to be developed, using OpenGL for the Windows programming environment. The package consisted on translators from DXF format to a specific format used by these applications and viceversa, the Swarm "engine", a simulated parallel environment, and the Wrapping programs, to generate the implicit surfaces. Different versions of each had been produced, in different stages of development of the work.
series other
email p.s.coates@uel.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0020
id ga0020
authors Codignola, G.Matteo
year 2000
title [Title missing]
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper is a summary of my last degree in architecture (discussed in December 1999) with Prof. Celestino Soddu and Prof. Enrica Colabella. In this work I had the possibility to reach complexity by a generative approach with the construction of a paradigm that organizes the different codes of project identity. My general objective was to design shape complexity in variable categories : 3d space surfaces, 2d drawings and 2d textures. I was to discover the identity of one of my favourite architects of the 20th century : Antoni Gaudì, by constructing codes relative to shape complexity. I defined my particular objective in the possibility to abduct from Gaudì's imaginary reference the generatives codes that operate in the logical processing I use to create a possible species project. The next step was to verify the exact working of the new generative codes by means of 3d scenaries, that are recognizable as "Antoni Gaudì specie's architecture". Whit project processing on the generative codes and not on a possible resulting shape design, I was able to organize by my general paradigm the attributes of the project's species : different shapes, different attributes (color, scale, proportion), to get to possible and different scenarys, all recognizable by the relative class codes. I chose three examples in Barcellona built during the period 1902 to 1914 : The Parco Guell, Casa Batllò and Casa Milà are the three reference sceneryes that I used to create the generative codes. In the second step I defined different codes that operate in sequence (it is defined in the paradigm) : The generatives codes are only subjective; they are one possible solution of my interpretation of Antoni Gaudì's identity. This codes operate in four differents ways : Geometrical codes for 2d shapes Geometrical codes for interface relations Spatial codes for 3d extrusion of 2d shapes Geometrical codes for 2d and 3d texturing of generated surfaces. By a stratified application of this codes I arrived at one idea for all the generative processes but many different, possible scenaryes, all recognizable in Gaudì's species. So, my final result has made possible sceneryes belonging to related species defined previously. At the end of my research I designed a project by combination : using Antoni Gaudì's generative codes on a new 3d scenary with a shape catalyst : the Frank Lloyd Wright Guggenheim Museum of New York. In this process I created a "hybrid scenary" : a new species of architectural look; a Guggenheim museum planned by Wright with a god pinch of Gaudì.
series other
email coddoc@tin.it
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 93cc
authors Colajanni, B., Pellitteri, G. and Concialdi, S.
year 2000
title Retrieval Tools in Building Case Bases
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 113-116
summary Most of the existing aids to building design rely on data base of cases representing solutions to problems that are thought to happen again at least in a similar way. Crucial for the success of the aid is the retrieval engine. In tour its efficiency depends on the way the cases are encoded. Whichever is this way cases will be represented at different levels of abstraction. The highest level will probably consist in an accessibility and adjacency graph. Another level could be a wire plan of the building. An easily workable representation of a graph is a square matrix. For any given building typology it is possible to write a list of encoded space types. This allows forming matrices that can be compared and their diversity measured. Here we present an algorithm that makes this job. Such an algorithm can be one of the case retrieval tools in the data base. It is likely that the designer has already some idea of the shape he wants for the building he is designing. A comparison between some geometric characteristics of the wire representation of the retrieved case and the corresponding ones of the imagined solution of the design problem can constitute a second test. The matching can be done
keywords Knowledge, Case Bases, Building, Tools
series eCAADe
email bcolajan@unipa.it, pellitt@unipa.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ddssar0007
id ddssar0007
authors Cooper, G., Rezqui, Y., Jackson, M., Lawson, B., Peng, C. and Cerulli, C.
year 2000
title A CAD-based decision support system for the design stage of a construction project
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Decisions made during the design process are multi-dimensional, combining together factors which range from the highly subjective to the perfectly objective. These decisions are made by many, often non co-located, actors belonging to different disciplines. Moreover, there is a high risk for misunderstandings, inappropriate changes, and decisions, which are not notified to all interested parties. The ADS project (Advanced Decision Support for Construction Design) builds on the results of the earlier COMMIT project to provide an information management system, which addresses these problems. It defines mechanisms to handle the proactive management of information to support decision-making in collaborative projects. Different aspects of the COMMIT system have already been widely published, and the team is now applying the results in the context of construction design. These are referenced in the present paper, which gives an overview of the results of the COMMIT project and discusses some of the issue involved in applying them to the design process in conjunction with an advanced CAD tool.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 98e7
authors Coppola, Carlo
year 1999
title Computers and Creativity in Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 595-602
summary The main purpose of this teaching and research project is to define those principles capable of determining a possible approach to computer-aided design for architecture - not seen as as a mere tool but as a way of supporting decision-making.
keywords Decision-making, Expert Systems, Urban Development, Building Types
series eCAADe
email carlo.coppola@galactica.it
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

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