CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 736

_id 1eac
authors Garner, S.
year 2000
title Is Sketching Still Relevant in Virtual Design Studios?
source Proceedings of DCNet, Sydney
summary Sketching, as a particular subset of drawing, has for a long time, been valued within design activity. Although they can appear rough, inaccurate or incomplete, sketches have been presented as both valuable output from, and evidence of, essential activity in designing by individuals and groups. This paper reflects on this value and asks whether sketching is relevant today, given the advances in computing and communications technology seen in modern virtual design environments. Is it time to let go of the metaphor of drawing or can this ancient human capability still tell us something relevant for the improvement of the virtual design studio? While freehand line drawings may not have the same importance in current virtual design studios the support of incompleteness, ambiguity and shared meaning in solution-focused and problem-focused thinking remains essential. The paper proposes that attention to 'graphic acts' has improved our understanding of sketching within collaborative designing. A particular type of fast, transitory 'thumbnail' sketch would appear to be important. If this is so then attention to its modern counterpart in the latest 3D, multi-user, immersive virtual design studios is overdue if they are to support the cognitive processes of creativity vital to design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ea7a
authors Gero, J.S.
year 2000
title Research methods for design science research: Computational and cognitive approaches
source D. Durling and K. Friedman (Eds.), Doctoral Education in Design, Staffordshire University Press, Stoke-on-Trent, pp.143-162
summary Reasoning by analogy, applied into designing, is investigated from the perspective of situated cognition. This cognitive paradigm emphasizes the importance of the environment in which a particular cognitive task is performed. The paper describes a computational system for situated analogy in designing
keywords Analogy, Situated Cognition
series other
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/06 07:10

_id c2df
authors Gero, John S. and Kulinski, Jaroslaw M.
year 2000
title A Situated Approach to Analogy in Designing
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 225-234
summary Reasoning by analogy, applied into designing, is investigated from the perspective of situated cognition. This cognitive paradigm emphasizes the importance of the environment in which a particular cognitive task is performed. The paper describes a computational system for situated analogy in designing.
series CAADRIA
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au, jarek@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id fa1b
authors Haapasalo, H.
year 2000
title Creative computer aided architectural design An internal approach to the design process
source University of Oulu (Finland)
summary This survey can be seen as quite multidisciplinary research. The basis for this study has been inapplicability of different CAD user interfaces in architectural design. The objective of this research is to improve architectural design from the creative problem-solving viewpoint, where the main goal is to intensify architectural design by using information technology. The research is linked to theory of methods, where an internal approach to design process means studying the actions and thinking of architects in the design process. The research approach has been inspired by hermeneutics. The human thinking process is divided into subconscious and conscious thinking. The subconscious plays a crucial role in creative work. The opposite of creative work is systematic work, which attempts to find solutions by means of logical inference. Both creative and systematic problem solving have had periods of predominance in the history of Finnish architecture. The perceptions in the present study indicate that neither method alone can produce optimal results. Logic is one of the tools of creativity, since the analysis and implementation of creative solutions require logical thinking. The creative process cannot be controlled directly, but by creating favourable work conditions for creativity, it can be enhanced. Present user interfaces can make draughting and the creation of alternatives quicker and more effective in the final stages of designing. Only two thirds of the architects use computers in working design, even the CAD system is being acquired in greater number of offices. User interfaces are at present inflexible in sketching. Draughting and sketching are the basic methods of creative work for architects. When working with the mouse, keyboard and screen the natural communication channel is impaired, since there is only a weak connection between the hand and the line being drawn on the screen. There is no direct correspondence between hand movements and the lines that appear on the screen, and the important items cannot be emphasized by, for example, pressing the pencil more heavily than normally. In traditional sketching the pen is a natural extension of the hand, as sketching can sometimes be controlled entirely by the unconscious. Conscious efforts in using the computer shift the attention away from the actual design process. However, some architects have reached a sufficiently high level of skill in the use of computer applications in order to be able to use them effectively in designing without any harmful effect on the creative process. There are several possibilities in developing CAD systems aimed at architectural design, but the practical creative design process has developed during a long period of time, in which case changing it in a short period of time would be very difficult. Although CAD has had, and will have, some evolutionary influences on the design process of architects as an entity, the future CAD user interface should adopt its features from the architect's practical and creative design process, and not vice versa.
keywords Creativity, Systematicism, Sketching
series thesis:PhD
email harri.haapasalo@oulu.fi
more http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514257545/
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ga0008
id ga0008
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2000
title Redirecting design generation in architecture
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Design generation has been the traditional culmination of computational design theory in architecture. Motivated either by programmatic and functional complexity (as in space allocation) or by the elegance and power of representational analyses (shape grammars, rectangular arrangements), research has produced generative systems capable of producing new designs that satisfied certain conditions or of reproducing exhaustively entire classes (such as all possible Palladian villas), comprising known and plausible new designs. Most generative systems aimed at a complete spatial design (detailing being an unpopular subject), with minimal if any intervention by the human user / designer. The reason for doing so was either to give a demonstration of the elegance, power and completeness of a system or simply that the replacement of the designer with the computer was the fundamental purpose of the system. In other words, the problem was deemed either already resolved by the generative system or too complex for the human designer. The ongoing democratization of the computer stimulates reconsideration of the principles underlying existing design generation in architecture. While the domain analysis upon which most systems are based is insightful and interesting, jumping to a generative conclusion was almost always based on a very sketchy understanding of human creativity and of the computer's role in designing and creativity. Our current perception of such matters suggests a different approach, based on the augmentation of intuitive creative capabilities with computational extensions. The paper proposes that architectural generative design systems can be redirected towards design exploration, including the development of alternatives and variations. Human designers are known to follow inconsistent strategies when confronted with conflicts in their designs. These strategies are not made more consistent by the emerging forms of design analysis. The use of analytical means such as simulation, couple to the necessity of considering a rapidly growing number of aspects, means that the designer is confronted with huge amounts of information that have to be processed and integrated in the design. Generative design exploration that can combine the analysis results in directed and responsive redesigning seems an effective method for the early stages of the design process, as well as for partial (local) problems in later stages. The transformation of generative systems into feedback support and background assistance for the human designer presupposes re-orientation of design generation with respect to the issues of local intelligence and autonomy. Design generation has made extensive use of local intelligence but has always kept it subservient to global schemes that tended to be holistic, rigid or deterministic. The acceptance of local conditions as largely independent structures (local coordinating devices) affords a more flexible attitude that permits not only the emergence of internal conflicts but also the resolution of such conflicts in a transparent manner. The resulting autonomy of local coordinating devices can be expanded to practically all aspects and abstraction levels. The ability to have intelligent behaviour built in components of the design representation, as well as in the spatial and building elements they signify, means that we can create the new, sharper tools required by the complexity resulting from the interpretation of the built environment as a dynamic configuration of co-operating yet autonomous parts that have to be considered independently and in conjunction with each other.   P.S. The content of the paper will be illustrated by a couple of computer programs that demonstrate the princples of local intelligence and autonomy in redesigning. It is possible that these programs could be presented as independent interactive exhibits but it all depends upon the time we can make free for the development of self-sufficient, self-running demonstrations until December.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 7e64
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1999
title Approaches to the Integration of CAAD Education in the Electronic Era: Two Value Systems
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 238-243
summary In recent years the democratization of information and communication technologies (ICT) has become the greatest influence on the structure of CAAD education. While the content of the CAAD courses simply had to absorb the new technological possibilities, the structure of the courses and in particular their relationship to the rest of the curriculum has become the subject of speculation and experimentation. Integration of CAAD education in an architectural curriculum occurs either by (a) placing emphasis on designing in CAAD courses, or by (b)  integrating computing in design courses. Both approaches respond to the democratization of ICT by making design computing widely available and acceptable. Further improvement is possible if the student becomes the carrier of integration. This is based on the long-term amplification of two value systems. The first refers to personal cognition: rather than rewarding a student with the teacher's approval, educational goals should be translated into individual skills and knowledge. The second system addresses the values of the peer group: such groups support learning by comparison to other individuals and emerging communal characteristics, either as a result of competition or for reasons of assimilation.
keywords Education, Democracy, Personal Cognition
series eCAADe
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id c97f
authors Kvan, Thomas and Candy, Linda
year 2000
title Designing Collaborative Environments for Strategic Knowledge in Design
source Knowledge-Based Systems, 13:6, November 2000, pp. 429-438
summary This paper considers aspects of strategic knowledge in design and some implications for designing in collaborative environments. Two key questions underline the concerns. First; how can strategic knowledge for collaborative design be taught and second; what kind of computer-based collaborative designing might best support the learning of strategic knowledge? We argue that the support of learning of strategic knowledge in collaborative design by computer-mediated means must be based upon empirical evidence about the nature of learning and design practice in the real world. This evidence suggests different ways of using computer-support for design learning and acquistion of strategic design knowledge. Examples of research by the authors that seeks to provide that evidence are described and an approach to computer system design and evaluation proposed.
keywords Collaborative Design; Strategic Knowledge; Empirical Studies; Computer Support
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id e2ea
authors Lee, Hwa-Ryong
year 1999
title The Changing Face of Architectural Computing Research
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 11-17
summary This paper examines the existing commercial and on-going research computer applications for architectural design. It investigates their uses, predictions and limitations; and reviews the teleology, technologies and theories exploited for computerising design. Finally, I will discuss two trends in the developments of CAAD, and present the new directions in CAAD research. This study will be based on understanding the computer's roles in designing, and further on establishing a new theoretical paradigm for mediating a computer system.
keywords Historical Context, Theoretical Paradigms
series eCAADe
email hlee@moe.go.kr
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id fcb5
authors Lee, Yuan-Jang
year 2000
title The Relationship between Problem-Finding and Computing Media in Design Creativity
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 277-285
summary Designing is defined as a process of problem-finding and problem-solving. According to studies, the problem-finding during the early period of designing is the key point for influencing creativity, and the study also indicates that the computer originally used for presenting during the late period of designing can also be used during the early stage, but now we lack studies about creativity and computers. This study uses protocol analysis as an experimental methodology. We hope to clarify the relationship between computers and problem-solving, and to compare the differences between traditional materials and computers when used to discover problems.
series CAADRIA
email zone@iaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 52a4
authors Llavaneras S., Gustavo J.
year 2000
title Bases para el desarrollo de un Asistente Inteligente que ayude a los diseñadores con las fenestraciones (Base for the Development of an Intelligent Assistant Who Helps the Designers with Fenestrations)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 230-235
summary In this paper we discuss the basis for the design of an Intelligent Design Assistants system, as for the development and application of an intelligent agent for design, predict and evaluate fenestrations. Its main goal is to answer our worries about the possibility of the implementation of the Partnership Paradigm through the development of one Intelligent Design Assistant. The paper deals from the difficulties of defining what design is, through its two main Paradigms, their instrumentation in CAAD systems, definition and explanation of the Partnership Paradigm, as proposed by Swerdloff y Kalay, agents approach, to the Intelligent Design Assistants system, in special one Assistant for Designing fenestrations. The paper finishes with the author’s vision on what the future on the Architecture profession will be in a world of Intelligent Design Assistants.
series SIGRADI
email gustavo@posta.arq.ucv.ve
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id e501
authors Maher, M.L., Simoff, S., Gu, N., and Lau, H.K.
year 2000
title Designing Virtual Architecture
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 481-490
summary Virtual architecture as the design of functional virtual places is not well understood. Most virtual places are created by programmers rather than designed a places in the sense that buildings are designed. As a result, we are in the era of vernacular virtual architecture. While current virtual architecture fulfills certain needs of online users, a well-designed virtual place is becoming essential to cope with the growing complexity and demand in virtual worlds. This paper presents a basis for the design of virtual places that draws on our knowledge of architectural design.
series CAADRIA
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au, simeon@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 6722
authors Marques, Sandra Oliveira and Goulette, Jean-Pierre
year 2000
title Architecture and Cyberspace: Reciprocal Spatial Contamination (Architecture and Cyberspace: Reciprocal Spatial Contamination)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 81-83
summary Fascinated by the possibility of designing the world, human being has always searched for tools to mediate this process. Cyberspace became one of this tools. Virtual technologies associated to communicational technologies are changing human’s cultural, social, and material context, consequently changing the idea of architecture itself. The decreasing material content of our activities and their increasing perceptual, communicative and cognitive contents are drawing a new framework to our spatial experiences. Objects, spaces, buildings and institutions can now be constructed, navigated, experienced and manipulated across cyberspace. The particular focus in this paper is to discuss the architectural aspects of the Virtual Architectures (VAs) and an initial framework for its design.
series SIGRADI
email sandra.marques@toulouse.archi.fr, jean-pierre.goulette@toulouse.archi.fr
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 17ae
authors McCullogh, M.
year 2000
title Abstracting Craft: The Practised Digital Hand
source MIT Press, Cambridge Mass.
summary Can designing for computers be a craft? This is the question this book sets out to answer. At first sight, the situation is unpromising: craft is the work of hands, and "hands are underrated," in modern life; especially as computers are seen as abstract, conceptual, creations of pure mind. Yet since computation has become a medium, rather than just a tool kit, the correspondence between digital work and traditional craft is increasing. Modern software products, though immaterial, are nevertheless the creation of "practised hands" and eyes, as well as minds. Moreover, to craft is to care: humane values can - and should - inform a software designer's work just as a potter's or carpenter's. McCullough gives all those who work with code the chance to proclaim: "I am not a programmer! I am a digital craftsperson!"
series other
email mmmc@umich.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e6fb
authors McFadzean, Jeanette
year 1999
title Computational Sketch Analyser (CSA): Extending the Boundaries of Knowledge in CAAD
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 503-510
summary This paper focuses on the cognitive problem-solving strategies of professional architectural designers and their use of external representations for the production of creative ideas. Using a new form of protocol analysis (Computational Sketch Analysis), the research has analysed five architects' verbal descriptions of their cognitive reasoning strategies during conceptual designing. It compares these descriptions to a computational analysis of the architects' sketches and sketching behaviour. The paper describes how the current research is establishing a comprehensive understanding of the mapping between conceptualisation, cognition, drawing, and complex problem solving. The paper proposes a new direction for Computer Aided Architectural Design tools (CAAD). It suggests that in order to extend the boundaries of knowledge in CAAD an understanding of the complex nature of architectural conceptual problem-solving needs to be incorporated into and supported by future conceptual design tools.
keywords Computational Sketch Analysis, Conceptual Design
series eCAADe
email j.mcfadzean@open.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 2a47
authors Mortola, E., Giangrande, A., Mirabelli, P. and Fortuzzi, A.
year 1999
title Interactive Didactic Modules for On-Line Learning via Internet
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 273-278
summary On-line learning can become a very efficient method of teaching in the University of the future. The Students can plan their curricula by selecting the offers of some universities coordinated that meet their specific aims. The communication interchange between student and teacher can be enriched through new forms of interaction via network technology. Laboratories of interactive design, which involve the participation of citizens, can become a good occasion to learn designing linked to the human needs. The architect who is interested in the sustainable development has to consider local needs and interact with users to build a new environment full of local values.
keywords On-Line Learning, Internet, Teaching Modules, Participation, Collaborative Design, Neighbourhood Municipal Laboratories
series eCAADe
email mortola@arch.uniroma3.it
more http://rmac.arch.uniroma3.it
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 05db
authors Peri, Christopher
year 2000
title Exercising Collaborative Design in a Virtual Environment
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 63-71
summary In the last few years remote collaborative design has been attracting interest, and with good reason: Almost everything we use today, whether it is the structure we inhabit, the vehicle we travel in, or the computer we work on, is the result of a number of participants’ contributions to a single design. At the same time, more and more design teams are working in remote locations from one another. In a distributed design situation with remote players, communication is key for successful and effective collaboration. Archville is a distributed, Web-based VR system that allows multiple users to interact with multiple models at the same time. We use it as a platform to exercise collaborative design by requiring students to build individual buildings as part of a city, or village and must share some common formal convention with their neighbors. The Archville exercise demonstrates to students how we can use computing and the Internet to design collaboratively. It also points out the need to have correct up-to-date information when working on collaborative projects because of the dynamic nature of the design process. In addition to architectural design and computer modeling, the exercise immerses students in the political and social aspects of designing within a community, where many of the design constraints must be negotiated, and where group work is often required. The paper describes both the pedagogical and the technical attributes of the Archville project.
keywords Collaboration, Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Real-Time, VRML
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id 3888
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2000
title Computational Situated Learning in Designing - Application to Architectural Shape Semantics
source The University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture
summary Learning the situatedness (applicability conditions), of design knowledge recognised from design compositions is the central tenet of the research presented in this thesis. This thesis develops and implements a computational system of situated learning and investigates its utility in designing. Situated learning is based on the concept that "knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by its situation". In this sense learning is tuned to the situations within which "what you do when you do matters". Designing cannot be predicted and the results of designing are not based on actions independent of what is being designed or independent of when, where and how it was designed. Designers' actions are situation dependent (situated), such that designers work actively with the design environment within the specific conditions of the situation where neither the goal state nor the solution space is completely predetermined. In designing, design solutions are fluid and emergent entities generated by dynamic and situated activities instead of fixed design plans. Since it is not possible in advance to know what knowledge to use in relation to any situation we need to learn knowledge in relation to its situation, i.e. learn the applicability conditions of knowledge. This leads towards the notion of the situation as having the potential role of guiding the use of knowledge.

Situated Learning in Designing (SLiDe) is developed and implemented within the domain of architectural shape composition (in the form of floor plans), to construct the situatedness of shape semantics. An architectural shape semantic is a set of characteristics with a semantic meaning based on a particular view of a shape such as reflection symmetry, adjacency, rotation and linearity. Each shape semantic has preconditions without which it cannot be recognised. Such preconditions indicate nothing about the situation within which this shape semantic was recognised. The situatedness or the applicability conditions of a shape semantic is viewed as, the interdependent relationships between this shape semantic as the design knowledge in focus, and other shape semantics across the observations of a design composition. While designing, various shape semantics and relationships among them emerge in different representations of a design composition. Multiple representations of a design composition by re-interpretation have been proposed to serve as a platform for SLiDe. Multiple representations provide the opportunity for different shape semantics and relationships among them to be found from a single design composition. This is important if these relationships are to be used later because it is not known in advance which of the possible relationships could be constructed are likely to be useful. Hence, multiple representations provide a platform for different situations to be encountered. A symbolic representation of shape and shape semantics is used in which the infinite maximal lines form the representative primitives of the shape.

SLiDe is concerned with learning the applicability conditions (situatedness), of shape semantics locating them in relation to situations within which they were recognised (situation dependent), and updating the situatedness of shape semantics in response to new observations of the design composition. SLiDe consists of three primary modules: Generator, Recogniser and Incremental Situator. The Generator is used by the designer to develop a set of multiple representations of a design composition. This set of representations forms the initial design environment of SLiDe. The Recogniser detects shape semantics in each representation and produces a set of observations, each of which is comprised of a group of shape semantics recognised at each corresponding representation. The Incremental Situator module consists of two sub-modules, Situator and Restructuring Situator, and utilises an unsupervised incremental clustering mechanism not affected by concept drift. The Situator module locates recognised shape semantics in relation to their situations by finding regularities of relationships among them across observations of a design composition and clustering them into situational categories organised in a hierarchical tree structure. Such relationships change over time due to the changes taken place in the design environment whenever further representations are developed using the Generator module and new observations are constructed by the Recogniser module. The Restructuring Situator module updates previously learned situational categories and restructures the hierarchical tree accordingly in response to new observations.

Learning the situatedness shape semantics may play a crucial role in designing if designers pursue further some of these shape semantics. This thesis illustrates an approach in which SLiDe can be utilised in designing to explore the shapes in a design composition in various ways; bring designers! attention to potentially hidden features and shape semantics of their designs; and maintain the integrity of the design composition by using the situatedness of shape semantics. The thesis concludes by outlining future directions for this research to learn and update the situatedness of design knowledge within the context of use; considering the role of functional knowledge while learning the situatedness of design knowledge; and developing an autonomous situated agent-based designing system.

series thesis:PhD
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/06 09:34

_id 36dc
authors Reffat, Rabee M. and Gero, John S.
year 1999
title Situatedness: A New Dimension for Learning Systems in Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 252-261
summary In this paper we adopt the approach that designing is a series of situated acts, ie designing cannot be pre-planned to completion. This is based on ideas from situated cognition theory that claims that what people perceive, how they conceive and what they do develop together and are adapted to the environment. For a system to be useful for human designers it must have the ability to associate what is learned to its environment. In order for a system to do that such a system must be able to acquire knowledge of the environment that a design constructs. Therefore, acknowledging the notion of situatedness is of importance to provide a system with such capability and add on a new dimension to existing learning systems in design. We will call such a learning system within the design domain a Situated Learning Design System (SLDS). A SLDS should be able to create its own situational categories from its perceptual experiences and modify them if encountered again to link the learned knowledge to its corresponding situation. We have chosen architectural shapes as the vehicle to demonstrate our ideas and used multiple representations to build a platform for a SLDS to learn from. In this paper the notion of situatedness and its role in both designing and learning is discussed. The overall architecture of a SLDS is introduced and how the potential outcome of such a system will support human designers while designing is discussed.
keywords Designing, Situated Knowledge, Multiple Representations, Situated Learning
series eCAADe
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id d59a
authors Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga C.
year 1999
title AI and Regional Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 584-588
summary In 1976 Richard Foqué established periods in the development of methods of designing. The first stage (the 50's and early 60's) - automatization of the designing process - properly identified language of description that is understood by a machine is vital. Christopher Alexander publishes 'Pattern Language'. The second stage (late 60's) - the use of the Arts - research techniques as interview, questionnaire, active observation; ergonomic aspects are also taken into consideration. The third stage (starts at the turn of the 60's and 70's) - co-participation of all of the parties involved in the designing process, and especially the user. The designing process becomes more complex but at the same time more intelligible to a non-professional - Alexander's 'Pattern Language' returns. It's been over 20 years now since the publication of this work. In the mid 70's prototypes of integrate building description are created. We are dealing now with the next stage of the designing methods development. Unquestionable progress of computer optimalization of technical and economical solutions has taken place. It's being forecasted that the next stage would be using computer as a simulator of the designing process. This stage may be combined with the development of AI. (Already in 1950 Alan Turing had formulated the theoretical grounds of Artificial Intelligence.) Can the development of the AI have the influence on the creation of present time regional architecture? Hereby I risk a conclusion that the development of AI can contribute to the creation of modern regional architecture.
keywords Design Process, Artificial Intelligence, Regional Architecture
series eCAADe
email zarnow@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

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