CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id f97e
authors Commission of the European Communities
year 2001
title The e-learning action plan: designing tomorrow’s education
source Communication from the Commission to the Council and the EuropeanParliament, COM(2001) 172 final, 28 March 2001
summary The "eLearning: Designing tomorrow's education" initiative1 was adopted by the European Commission on 24 May 2000. Following up the conclusions of the Lisbon European Council, it set out the principles, objectives and lines of action of eLearning, defined as the use of new multimedia technologies and the Internet to improve the quality of learning by facilitating access to resources and services as well as remote exchanges and collaboration. The eLearning initiative was welcomed by the Ministers of Education and by the Feira European Council in June 2000. The eLearning initiative is part of the comprehensive eEurope Action Plan2, the aim of which is to allow Europe to exploit its strengths and overcome the barriers holding back the uptake of digital technologies. It also falls in with the Report on the concrete future objectives of education systems3 by adopting information and communication technology development as one of its objectives. The effectiveness of education systems depends entirely on the effectiveness of the approaches to teaching and learning. In order to be effective, the introduction of information and communication technologies will have to be accompanied by a far-reaching reorganisation of learning structures. The eLearning initiative is also of relevance for the candidate countries given the interest they have shown for the eEurope action plan.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d5a7
authors Mark, E., Martens, B. and Oxman, R.
year 2002
title Round Table Session on “Theoretical and Experimental Issues in the Preliminary Stages of Learning/Teaching CAAD”
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 205-212
summary According to eCAADe’s mission, the exchange and collaboration within the area of computer aided architectural design education and research, while respecting the pedagogical and administrative approaches in the different schools and countries, can be regarded as a core activity. The current education session follows up on a round table discussion held at eCAADe 2000 in Weimar, Germany, which was continued in the form of a plenary session at eCAADe 2001, focusing on sharing ideas on a more progressive curriculum under the topic “The Ideal Computer Curriculum”. The primary objective for the 2002 education session is to engage participants in an active discussion, not the longer format presentation of prepared positions. The round-table itself is limited to short opening statements so as to ensure time is allowed for viewpoints to be exchanged and for the conference attendees to weigh in on the issues discussed. The panel will critique current patterns teaching of computer aided design in schools of architecture, a review of past practices with the potential for guiding future direction.
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 6b25
authors Pini, E.L., Abades, I.S. and Paolucci, A.L.
year 2000
title El Modelo Digital en los Primeros Años de la Enseñanza de la Arquitectura (The Digital Model in the First Years of the Architectural Education)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 336-338
summary We will analyze a pedagogic exercise that joined together both the Informatics and Morphology Courses, required in the second year of Architecture School. The objective of the analysis is to explore the possibilities of the computer as a tool for design, and also to contribute some ideas for planning, curriculum development, and the necessary training to introduce the use of computer graphics in the Architecture School. We based our analysis on some preliminary hypotheses: (1) Students must learn to use digital models with a certain degree of simultaneity with learning design and the other techniques used to develop models. (2) Professors of Design, Representation, and Morphology are main actors in this learning process; they do not have to become experts in informatics, but have some understanding of the topic. (3) Many universities and professional associations are offering students and professionals courses based in the use of programs, instead of addressing their real needs.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id 988d
authors Russell, Peter and Forgber, Uwe
year 2000
title The E-Talier: Inter-university Networked Design Studios
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 45-50
summary The widespread infiltration of internet based variations of traditional areas of society (e-commerce, e-business, e-mail etc.) will not spare the halls of academia in its propagation. The term courseware is well nigh 20 years old and considerable research and development has been done in bringing network based distributed courses to university consortiums including those in architecture and civil engineering. Indeed, the European Commission has recently approved funding for a 3-year web-based virtual university of architecture and construction technology: the WINDS project led by the University of Ancona. Such attempts to create e-courses are largely an extension of typical courseware where the syllabus is quantified and divided into lessons for use by the students alone or in conjunction with their tutors and professors. This is quite adequate in conveying the base knowledge of the profession. However, the tenants of being an architect or engineer involve the deft use of that unwieldy named and deliciously imprecise tool called "design". Teaching design sooner or later involves the design studio: a pedagogically construed environment of simulation intended to train, not teach the skills of designing. This is fundamentally different from normal courseware. A network based design studio (Etalier) must be able to reflect the nature of learning design. Design studios typically involve specifically chosen design problems, researched supporting information to assist design decisions, focussed discussions, individual consultation and criticism, group criticism, public forums for presentation discussion and criticism as well as a myriad of informal undocumented communication among the students themselves. So too must an Etalier function. Essentially, it must allow collaboration through communication. Traditional barriers to collaboration include language, culture (both national and professional) and distance. Through the internet's capricious growth and the widespread use of English as a second language, the largest hurdle to attaining fruitful collaboration is probably cultural. In the case of an Etalier in a university setting, the cultural difficulties arise from administrative rules, the pedagogical culture of specific universities and issues such as scheduling and accreditation. Previous experiments with virtual design studios have demonstrated the criticality of such issues. The proposed system allows participating members to specify the degree and breadth with which they wish to partake. As opposed to specifying the conditions of membership, we propose to specify the conditions of partnership. Through the basic principal of reciprocity, issues such as accreditation and work load sharing can be mitigated. Further, the establishment of a studio market will allow students, tutors and professors from participating institutions to partake in studio projects of their choosing in accordance with their own constraints, be they related to schedule, expertise, legal or other matters. The paper describes these mechanisms and some possible scenarios for collaboration in the Etalier market.
keywords e-Studio, Virtual Design Studio, Courseware, CSCW
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 7e64
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1999
title Approaches to the Integration of CAAD Education in the Electronic Era: Two Value Systems
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 238-243
summary In recent years the democratization of information and communication technologies (ICT) has become the greatest influence on the structure of CAAD education. While the content of the CAAD courses simply had to absorb the new technological possibilities, the structure of the courses and in particular their relationship to the rest of the curriculum has become the subject of speculation and experimentation. Integration of CAAD education in an architectural curriculum occurs either by (a) placing emphasis on designing in CAAD courses, or by (b)  integrating computing in design courses. Both approaches respond to the democratization of ICT by making design computing widely available and acceptable. Further improvement is possible if the student becomes the carrier of integration. This is based on the long-term amplification of two value systems. The first refers to personal cognition: rather than rewarding a student with the teacher's approval, educational goals should be translated into individual skills and knowledge. The second system addresses the values of the peer group: such groups support learning by comparison to other individuals and emerging communal characteristics, either as a result of competition or for reasons of assimilation.
keywords Education, Democracy, Personal Cognition
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id eabb
authors Boeykens, St. Geebelen, B. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2002
title Design phase transitions in object-oriented modeling of architecture
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 310-313
summary The project IDEA+ aims to develop an “Integrated Design Environment for Architecture”. Its goal is providing a tool for the designer-architect that can be of assistance in the early-design phases. It should provide the possibility to perform tests (like heat or cost calculations) and simple simulations in the different (early) design phases, without the need for a fully detailed design or remodeling in a different application. The test for daylighting is already in development (Geebelen, to be published). The conceptual foundation for this design environment has been laid out in a scheme in which different design phases and scales are defined, together with appropriate tests at the different levels (Neuckermans, 1992). It is a translation of the “designerly” way of thinking of the architect (Cross, 1982). This conceptual model has been translated into a “Core Object Model” (Hendricx, 2000), which defines a structured object model to describe the necessary building model. These developments form the theoretical basis for the implementation of IDEA+ (both the data structure & prototype software), which is currently in progress. The research project addresses some issues, which are at the forefront of the architect’s interest while designing with CAAD. These are treated from the point of view of a practicing architect.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id sigradi2016_499
id sigradi2016_499
authors Crivelli, Juliana de Mello; Vizioli, Simone Helena Tanoue
year 2016
title Gamificaç?o na educaç?o patrimonial: Escola Álvaro Gui?o (SP-BR) [Gamification in patrimonial education: Escola Álvaro Gui?o (SP-BR)]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.860-864
summary This article integrates works developed in the Núcleo de Apoio em Pesquisa em Estudos de Linguagem em Arquitetura e Cidade (N.elac) of the Instituto de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de S?o Paulo, and aims to evaluate the contribution of the game as an auxiliary instrument to the patrimonial education (Horta, Grunberg & Monteiro, 1999). Games present themselves as one of the constitutive elements of culture, and many are the authors that discuss the theme. Between them, Huizinga, 2000; Callois, 1990 and Broug?re, 2004. The developed game is an interactive narrative inside a building listed as herritage by the Conselho Municipal de Defesa do Patrimônio Histórico, Arquitetônico, Artístico e Turístico (CONDESPHAASC): the Escola Estadual Dr. Álvaro Gui?o.
series SIGraDi
last changed 2017/06/21 12:19

_id b5f3
authors Johnson, Brian R.
year 2000
title Sustaining Studio Culture: How Well Do Internet Tools Meet the Needs of Virtual Design Studios?
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 15-22
summary The Internet beckons seductively to students. The prospect of nearly instantaneous communication with acquaintances spread across the face of the earth is alluring. The ease with which rich graphical content can be made available to the world is stunning. The possibility of a design being seen by friends, family, and famous architects is tantalizing. Faculty are drawn by the potent synergy and learning that can be found in the opposition and cooperation of different cultural roots. It is probable that entire design studio sequences will be offered through distance-learning programs in the near future. Is that a good idea? Much has been written about "virtual design studios" in architecture schools and "virtual offices" in practice. Most offices have largely or totally abandoned drafting boards in favor of digital tools of production. Yet, regarding design, Ken Sanders, author of The Digital Architect, and Manager of Information Services at Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership (ZGF), of Portland, Oregon, has written "we still make an effort to locate project teams together and always will". Production CAD work requires different kinds of interaction than design and design instruction. The experiments have been invaluable in developing strategies for use of the Internet as a component of a design studio series, but rarely depend entirely on use of the Internet for all course communications. In fact, most describe fairly isolated efforts to augment some aspect of traditional design environments using Internet tools (ftp, email, web). A few have implemented new pedagogic or collaboration paradigms (e.g., ETH’s phase(x)). This paper considers the traditional design studio in terms of formal and informal activities, characterizes the major Internet technologies with regard to the resulting interaction issues. In particular, it describes an area of informal work group communications that appears to be ill-supported with existing tools. The paper goes on to describe a web-based collaboration tool which was developed to address the need for less formal communication. The context for this development is the concept of a fully distributed collaboration environment with particular attention to questions of informal communication. Finally, it describes how the tool was deployed in an experimental "web studio" setting and student responses to use of the tool.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, Collaboration, Online Communities, Web Tools
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id cdc4
authors Lemos Motta, Maria Inês and Spitz, Rejane
year 2000
title Webdesign e Inclusão Social: em Busca de uma Sociedade Melhor Conectada (Web Design and Social Inclusion: In Search for a Better Connected Society)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 27-29
summary The expanding use of computers in developing countries - alongside the results of surveys revealing dramatic social indicators for illiteracy - demands careful analysis of the necessary education and training for people to be able to take part and to survive in the information society.”For a citizen of international society, it is no longer enough to know how to read and write, or to have learned a skill. One must have access to information, know how to look for it and find it, master the usage, organize it, understand its organizational forms and, above all, make appropriate, adequate and effective use of it. “ (Spitz, 2000). In this article we raise issues concerning the use of the Internet by low-income classes in Brazil, aiming at discussing the fundamental role Design plays in terms of the inclusion of people from these classes in the inter-connected society.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id 2a47
authors Mortola, E., Giangrande, A., Mirabelli, P. and Fortuzzi, A.
year 1999
title Interactive Didactic Modules for On-Line Learning via Internet
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 273-278
summary On-line learning can become a very efficient method of teaching in the University of the future. The Students can plan their curricula by selecting the offers of some universities coordinated that meet their specific aims. The communication interchange between student and teacher can be enriched through new forms of interaction via network technology. Laboratories of interactive design, which involve the participation of citizens, can become a good occasion to learn designing linked to the human needs. The architect who is interested in the sustainable development has to consider local needs and interact with users to build a new environment full of local values.
keywords On-Line Learning, Internet, Teaching Modules, Participation, Collaborative Design, Neighbourhood Municipal Laboratories
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id f4da
authors Oritsland, Trond Are and Buur, Jacob
year 2000
title Taking the Best from a Company History -- Designing with Interaction Styles New Directions for Design
source Proceedings of DIS'00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000 pp. 27-38
summary In architecture and industrial design, the concept of style plays a major role in education as a way of explaining the historical inheritance and comparing alternative design expressions. In this article we claim that interaction design can benefit greatly from an understanding of the concept of style. It can provide designers with strong visions and a sense of direction in designing new interfaces. In particular we focus on Solid User Interface design, i.e. products with small displays and a limited number of keys, because of the tight coupling between interaction and industrial design. The authors share the concern that interaction designers in enthusiasm with new technologies fail to preserve the qualities of use from products with outdated technologies. This paper attempts to formulate an aesthetics of interaction design and reports on experiments with introducing interaction style thinking in a user centred design practice in industry.
keywords Computing Milieux-Management; Systems Analysis and Design; Information Systems; Interaction Styles; Interaction Design; Solid User Interface
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id f86b
authors Pratschke, A., Tramontano, M. and Dos Santos Moreira, E.
year 2000
title Designer Wanted! Interface Usuário-Computador,O design de um Diálogo
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 316-318
summary This paper discusses the designer’s role in the process of computer interfaces production. Understood as virtual spaces, they polarize the user’s attention as they are the vague and little known territory in which user and system can, finally, communicate. For so far, a parallel will be established between the architect’s education as a designer of concrete spaces, whose wideness qualifies him to dialogue with specialized engineers about technical construction matters, and the need of being formed a (new?) professional interface designer, able to dialogue with the experts of technological aspects concerning the building of virtual spaces. The paper also analyses the education of nowadays’ interface designers - computer scientists, web designers, writers, artists, architects and information architects -, searching to identify ways of potentializing their performance.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 2abf
id 2abf
authors Rafi, A
year 2001
title Design creativity in emerging technologies
source In Von, H., Stocker, G. and Schopf, C. (Eds.), Takeover: Who’s doing art of tomorrow (pp. 41-54), New York: SpringerWein.
summary Human creativity works best when there are constraints – pressures to react to, to shape, to suggest. People are generally not very good at making it all up from scratch (Laurel, 1991). Emerging technology particularly virtual reality (VR) Multimedia and Internet is yet to be fully discovered as it allows unprecedented creative talent, ability, skill set, creative thinking, representation, exploration, observation and reference. In an effort to deliver interactive content, designers tend to freely borrow from different fields such as advertising, medicine, game, fine art, commerce, entertainment, edutainment, film-making and architecture (Rafi, Kamarulzaman, Fauzan and Karboulonis, 2000). As a result, content becomes a base that developers transfer the technique of conventional medium design media to the computer. What developers (e.g. artist and technologist) often miss is that to develop the emerging technology content based on the nature of the medium. In this context, the user is the one that will be the best judge to value the effectiveness of the content.

The paper will introduce Global Information Infrastructure (GII) that is currently being developed in the Asian region and discuss its impact on the Information Age society. It will further highlight the ‘natural’ value and characteristics of the emerging technologies in particular Virtual Reality (VR), Multimedia and Internet as a guidance to design an effective, rich and innovative content development. This paper also argues that content designers of the future must not only be both artist and technologist, but artist and technologist that are aware of the re-convergence of art and science and context in which content is being developed. Some of our exploration at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University will also be demonstrated. It is hoped that this will be the evidence to guide future ‘techno-creative designers’.

keywords design, creativity, content, emerging technologies
series book
type normal paper
last changed 2007/09/13 01:46

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 3888
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2000
title Computational Situated Learning in Designing - Application to Architectural Shape Semantics
source The University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture
summary Learning the situatedness (applicability conditions), of design knowledge recognised from design compositions is the central tenet of the research presented in this thesis. This thesis develops and implements a computational system of situated learning and investigates its utility in designing. Situated learning is based on the concept that "knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by its situation". In this sense learning is tuned to the situations within which "what you do when you do matters". Designing cannot be predicted and the results of designing are not based on actions independent of what is being designed or independent of when, where and how it was designed. Designers' actions are situation dependent (situated), such that designers work actively with the design environment within the specific conditions of the situation where neither the goal state nor the solution space is completely predetermined. In designing, design solutions are fluid and emergent entities generated by dynamic and situated activities instead of fixed design plans. Since it is not possible in advance to know what knowledge to use in relation to any situation we need to learn knowledge in relation to its situation, i.e. learn the applicability conditions of knowledge. This leads towards the notion of the situation as having the potential role of guiding the use of knowledge.

Situated Learning in Designing (SLiDe) is developed and implemented within the domain of architectural shape composition (in the form of floor plans), to construct the situatedness of shape semantics. An architectural shape semantic is a set of characteristics with a semantic meaning based on a particular view of a shape such as reflection symmetry, adjacency, rotation and linearity. Each shape semantic has preconditions without which it cannot be recognised. Such preconditions indicate nothing about the situation within which this shape semantic was recognised. The situatedness or the applicability conditions of a shape semantic is viewed as, the interdependent relationships between this shape semantic as the design knowledge in focus, and other shape semantics across the observations of a design composition. While designing, various shape semantics and relationships among them emerge in different representations of a design composition. Multiple representations of a design composition by re-interpretation have been proposed to serve as a platform for SLiDe. Multiple representations provide the opportunity for different shape semantics and relationships among them to be found from a single design composition. This is important if these relationships are to be used later because it is not known in advance which of the possible relationships could be constructed are likely to be useful. Hence, multiple representations provide a platform for different situations to be encountered. A symbolic representation of shape and shape semantics is used in which the infinite maximal lines form the representative primitives of the shape.

SLiDe is concerned with learning the applicability conditions (situatedness), of shape semantics locating them in relation to situations within which they were recognised (situation dependent), and updating the situatedness of shape semantics in response to new observations of the design composition. SLiDe consists of three primary modules: Generator, Recogniser and Incremental Situator. The Generator is used by the designer to develop a set of multiple representations of a design composition. This set of representations forms the initial design environment of SLiDe. The Recogniser detects shape semantics in each representation and produces a set of observations, each of which is comprised of a group of shape semantics recognised at each corresponding representation. The Incremental Situator module consists of two sub-modules, Situator and Restructuring Situator, and utilises an unsupervised incremental clustering mechanism not affected by concept drift. The Situator module locates recognised shape semantics in relation to their situations by finding regularities of relationships among them across observations of a design composition and clustering them into situational categories organised in a hierarchical tree structure. Such relationships change over time due to the changes taken place in the design environment whenever further representations are developed using the Generator module and new observations are constructed by the Recogniser module. The Restructuring Situator module updates previously learned situational categories and restructures the hierarchical tree accordingly in response to new observations.

Learning the situatedness shape semantics may play a crucial role in designing if designers pursue further some of these shape semantics. This thesis illustrates an approach in which SLiDe can be utilised in designing to explore the shapes in a design composition in various ways; bring designers! attention to potentially hidden features and shape semantics of their designs; and maintain the integrity of the design composition by using the situatedness of shape semantics. The thesis concludes by outlining future directions for this research to learn and update the situatedness of design knowledge within the context of use; considering the role of functional knowledge while learning the situatedness of design knowledge; and developing an autonomous situated agent-based designing system.

series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/05/06 09:34

_id 5da8
authors Tokman, Leyla Y.
year 2001
title Collaborative e-Design
source DCNET'2000: Design Computing on the Net'2000, Organized by Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney ve the International Journal of Design Computing
summary In early 1900’s, successful architects who have a strong influencewith not only their ideas on architecture but also their own work gave desk criticism ‘the form of one-on-one conversation’ in their atelier or studio. Being in these studios was a big opportunity for limited number of accepted students. The architectural education in the first half of 1900’s has many other parallels to education from the other professions. Developments in computer technology have been created a new medium in architectural design and education since 1960’s. Today, Computer technology and communication technology together (Information Technology- IT) help architects and students communicate ideas. This is a big opportunity for architecture candidates in 1990’s comparing with the candidates in 1900âs. One of the main changes is desk criticism from ‘the form of one-on-one conversation’ to ‘the form of multiple consultants’. That means today, not only students but also professionals can develop projects together with any adviser/ partner at any time and at any place where IT can be accessible. Moreover, This collaboration for synchronous - asynchronous studies in virtual environments also brings the equal opportunity to the students from not only developed countries but also developing countries. Students and professionals can share and enhance different ideas, progression of design decisions in educational view and practice view. In this study, some experiences will be shared on design computing and also some new visions/ conceptual models of design computing in collaborative environments will be offered.
keywords Collaborative Design, Computing, Information Technology, Participation, Opportunity, Network, Team Design
series journal paper
more http://www.arch.usyd.EDU.AU/kcdc/journal/vol3/dcnet/tokman
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 2c7d
authors Urdan, T.A., and Weggen, C.C.
year 2000
title Corporate elearning: exploring a new frontier
source Report nr. 415.551.8600, WR Hambrecht + Co, Berwyn, Penn., March 2000
summary This report focuses on corporate training, one of the five segments of the education and training market. In particular, we identify key drivers, perform preliminary market segmentation, and estimate growth for market segments and product groups of the technology-based corporate training industry. We outline major trends and likely winning strategies for companies targeting the corporate e-learning market, which we also refer to as etraining market. Since the e-learning industry is a relatively new, unexplored frontier, this report is intended to provide a concise overview of the key aspects of this emerging market and to offer a framework for analysis for industry players and the investment community.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 70cc
authors Witten, I.H. and Frank, E.
year 2000
title Data Mining - Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques with JAVA Implementations
source Morgan Kaufmann
summary Witten and Frank's textbook was one of two books that I used for a data mining class in the Fall of 2001. The book covers all major methods of data mining that produce a knowledge representation as output. Knowledge representation is hereby understood as a representation that can be studied, understood, and interpreted by human beings, at least in principle. Thus, neural networks and genetic algorithms are excluded from the topics of this textbook. We need to say "can be understood in principle" because a large decision tree or a large rule set may be as hard to interpret as a neural network. The book first develops the basic machine learning and data mining methods. These include decision trees, classification and association rules, support vector machines, instance-based learning, Naive Bayes classifiers, clustering, and numeric prediction based on linear regression, regression trees, and model trees. It then goes deeper into evaluation and implementation issues. Next it moves on to deeper coverage of issues such as attribute selection, discretization, data cleansing, and combinations of multiple models (bagging, boosting, and stacking). The final chapter deals with advanced topics such as visual machine learning, text mining, and Web mining.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id caadria2018_142
id caadria2018_142
authors Zeng, Jia, Xing, Kai and Sun, Cheng
year 2018
title A Parametric Approach for Ascertaining Daylighting in Unit Offices with Perforated Solar Screens in Daylight Climate of Northeast China
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 133-142
summary Perforated solar screens (PSS) are broadly adopted, providing obvious control over daylight, and also affecting heating and cooling loads. In this paper, a parametric information model is proposed for analyzing daylight of unit offices with PSS, aiming to ascertain the impact exerted by PSS design variables on daylighting, i.e. perforation size, porosity, overhanging distance and perforation width/height ratio. As the results uncover, in comparison to cases of no shading, PSS can reduce overlighting possibility and increase quantity of useful daylight percentage in the near and middle zones of room, but decrease illuminance in the far zone. Porosity is the factor of most significance with UDI100-2000 inclining maximally by 65%. Overhanging distance and width/height ratio rank behind and larger overhanging distance and ratio at 1 are recommend with more useful daylight in the maximum range. Perforation size is of the least importance.
keywords Perforated solar screens; Dynamic daylight performance simulation; The Northeast China; Parametric design
series CAADRIA
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id 4cd1
authors Abdelmawla, S., Elnimeiri, M. and Krawczyk, R.
year 2000
title Structural Gizmos
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 115-121
summary Architects are visual learners. The Internet has enabled interactive learning tools that can be used to assist in visual thinking of structural concepts, especially at the introductory levels. Here, we propose a visual approach for understanding structures through a series of interactive learning modules, or ’gizmos’. These gizmos, are the tools that the student may use to examine one structural concept at a time. Being interactive, they offer many more possibilities beyond what one static problem can show. The approach aims to enhance students’ visual intuition, and hence understanding of structural concepts and the parameters affecting design. This paper will present selected structural gizmos, how they work, and how they can enhance structural education for architects.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

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