CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 736

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ca7b
authors Howes, Jaki
year 1999
title IT or not IT? An Examination of IT Use in an Experimental Multi-disciplinary Teamwork Situation
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 370-373
summary Leeds Metropolitan University is well placed to carry out research into multi-disciplinary team-working, as all the design and construction disciplines are housed in one faculty. Staff have set up an experimental project, TIME IT (Team-working in Multi-disciplinary Environments using IT) which examines ways of working in the design/construction process and how IT is used when there is no commercial pressure. Four groups of four students, one graduate diploma architect, and one final year student from each of Civil Engineering, Construction Management and Quantity Surveying have been working on feasibility studies for projects that are based on completed schemes or have been devised by collaborators in the Construction Industry. Students have been asked to produce a PowerPoint presentation, in up to five working days, of a design scheme, with costs, structural analysis and construction programme. The students are not assessed on the quality of the product, but on their own ability to monitor the process and use of IT. Despite this, aggressive competition evolved between the teams to produce the 'best' design. Five projects were run in the 1998/99 session. A dedicated IT suite has been provided; each group of students had exclusive use of a machine. They were not told how to approach the projects nor when to use the available technology, but were asked to keep the use of paper to a minimum and to keep all their work on the server, so that it could be monitored externally. Not so. They plotted the AO drawings of an existing building that had been provided on the server. They like paper - they can scribble on it, fold it, tear it and throw it at one another.
keywords IT, Multi-disciplinary, Teamwork
series eCAADe
email J.Howes@imu.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 5c2c
authors Donath, Dirk (Ed.)
year 2000
title Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / 0-9523687-6-5 / Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, 334 p.
summary This years annual eCAADe conference in Weimar about the theme "promise and reality", wants to focus on the "effusive feelings" related to the use of computers, digital media and information technology in the field of architecture. It was strictly forced by the conference committee to discuss and highlight the actual situation in applied computer science in architectural design and planning. The reader will find both in the conference proceedings, the formal description of interesting research and teaching projects as well as the description of existing or expected conflicts in using computer technologies as an architect. Scientists from around the world contributed the results of their action research in the field of applied computer science for the building and urban design, planning and construction process. Architects, civil engineers, computer scientists, designers, philosophers and social scientists will illuminate and critically reflect their current work. Their contributions circumstantiate the present situation in Computer Aided Architectural Design. It might be said that we all share imaginations about the use of digital media in the future.
series eCAADe
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
more http:www.ecaade.org
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 0594
authors Kazakeviciute, G., Cinelis, G. and Kamaitis, Z.
year 2000
title Forming and automated energy analysis of integrated models of the public buildings and their enclosing structures
source Civil Engineering, 6(3), pp. 147-157
summary The article concerns the modelling and energy analysis problem of the spatial and structural solutions of newly designed buildings or those under renovation. The results of that task serve as a base for defining thermal indices of the project on different design stages. The core of the developed automated system is formed of integrated graphical digital spatial models of the parts of buildings. These models include different kind of structured geometric and non-geometric (physical, economical) information about the object. The proposed method could be used by interested experts as a tool for controll thermal and energy indices at various design stages, searching for rational architectural forms and structural solutions. It takes into account the latest requirements of Lithuanian building regulations concerning heating energy saving.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 03af
authors Kvan, Th., Schmitt, G., Maher, M.L. and Cheng, N.
year 2000
title Teaching Architectural Design in Virtual Studios
source Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, Renate Fruchter, Feniosky Pena-Mora and W. M. Kim Roddis, ASCE 2000, pp. 162–169
summary Virtual studios have provided a valuable content in which to explore and test approaches to both collaborative design and pedagogy. While there has been extensive earlier experience in virtual campuses; not least that at The Open University in England; virtual design studios have explored a different nature of collaboration and interaction; shedding light on a new range of tasks and methods. These lessons have been applied in many fields. For example; the lessons have been used to understand the nature of collaboration. Most directly; they have been applied to the context of teaching design and understanding better how students learn to design. The change in technology can open up new opportunities in what is taught; not only how it is taught. Most broadly; they have been taken in to consideration in the creation of virtual campuses for broader university teaching. All these aspects are explored in this paper.
keywords Pedagogy; Learning; Virtual Studio; Collaboration
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id ddssar0022
id ddssar0022
authors Peng, C., Cerulli, C., Lawson, B., Cooper, G., Rezqui, Y. and Jackson, M.
year 2000
title Recording and managing design decision-making processes through an object-oriented framework
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary In this paper we describe our current research into an object-oriented approach to the recording and managing of design decision-making in the processes of building design. The Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process (ADS) project, funded under the Innovative Manufacturing Initiative by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), aims to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD-based Design Decision Support System. The research focuses on how to provide designers with tools for recording and managing the group dynamics of design decision making in a project's life time without intruding too much on the design process itself. In collaboration with Building Design Partnership, a large multidisciplinary construction design practice, we look at design projects that require decision-making on an extraordinarily wide range of complex issues, and many different professional consultants were involved in making and approving these decisions. We are interested in developing an advanced CAD tool that will facilitate capturing designers' rationales underlying their design decision making throughout the project. The system will also enable us to explore how a recorded project history of decision-making can be searched and browsed by members of the project team during and after design development.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 988d
authors Russell, Peter and Forgber, Uwe
year 2000
title The E-Talier: Inter-university Networked Design Studios
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 45-50
summary The widespread infiltration of internet based variations of traditional areas of society (e-commerce, e-business, e-mail etc.) will not spare the halls of academia in its propagation. The term courseware is well nigh 20 years old and considerable research and development has been done in bringing network based distributed courses to university consortiums including those in architecture and civil engineering. Indeed, the European Commission has recently approved funding for a 3-year web-based virtual university of architecture and construction technology: the WINDS project led by the University of Ancona. Such attempts to create e-courses are largely an extension of typical courseware where the syllabus is quantified and divided into lessons for use by the students alone or in conjunction with their tutors and professors. This is quite adequate in conveying the base knowledge of the profession. However, the tenants of being an architect or engineer involve the deft use of that unwieldy named and deliciously imprecise tool called "design". Teaching design sooner or later involves the design studio: a pedagogically construed environment of simulation intended to train, not teach the skills of designing. This is fundamentally different from normal courseware. A network based design studio (Etalier) must be able to reflect the nature of learning design. Design studios typically involve specifically chosen design problems, researched supporting information to assist design decisions, focussed discussions, individual consultation and criticism, group criticism, public forums for presentation discussion and criticism as well as a myriad of informal undocumented communication among the students themselves. So too must an Etalier function. Essentially, it must allow collaboration through communication. Traditional barriers to collaboration include language, culture (both national and professional) and distance. Through the internet's capricious growth and the widespread use of English as a second language, the largest hurdle to attaining fruitful collaboration is probably cultural. In the case of an Etalier in a university setting, the cultural difficulties arise from administrative rules, the pedagogical culture of specific universities and issues such as scheduling and accreditation. Previous experiments with virtual design studios have demonstrated the criticality of such issues. The proposed system allows participating members to specify the degree and breadth with which they wish to partake. As opposed to specifying the conditions of membership, we propose to specify the conditions of partnership. Through the basic principal of reciprocity, issues such as accreditation and work load sharing can be mitigated. Further, the establishment of a studio market will allow students, tutors and professors from participating institutions to partake in studio projects of their choosing in accordance with their own constraints, be they related to schedule, expertise, legal or other matters. The paper describes these mechanisms and some possible scenarios for collaboration in the Etalier market.
keywords e-Studio, Virtual Design Studio, Courseware, CSCW
series eCAADe
email peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de, uwe@forgber.de
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 6078
authors Wilkins, Brian and Barrett, John
year 2000
title The virtual construction site: a web-based teaching/learning environment in construction technology
source Automation in Construction 10 (1) (2000) pp. 169-179
summary Site visits form an important component in teaching/learning in many aspects of civil engineering education. However, due to scheduling and access difficulties, and the overriding need for safety, real time site visits may not be possible, and alternative approaches need to be investigated. One approach, described in this paper, is the creation of multimedia databases of actual buildings under construction. This material, suitably structured, can then be delivered through the World Wide Web or from a CD-ROM, thus creating "virtual construction sites." The web site described in this paper forms part of a much larger group of web sites developed by four Universities in Hong Kong over the past 2 years and now approaching completion. This large series of linked web sites is known as CIVCAL and provides a comprehensive teaching/learning environment for students in many aspects of civil engineering. This paper describes the web site being developed by City University within CIVCAL. The City University web site is known as the Virtual Building & Construction Environment and is designed specifically to support teaching/learning in building construction technology.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 7ee9
authors Wood, J. B. and Chambers, Tom
year 2000
title CAD - Enabled by the Organisation of Science and the Poetics of a Visual Language
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 327-329
summary CADET, CAD education and training, a research unit with the Department of Architecture and Building Science (Faculty of Engineering, University of Strathclyde) promotes an integrated approach to the built environment, seeking to bring together the rational and expressive modes of thought by teaching design through IT and CAD. In recent years this has been introduced as a pilot project within the primary and secondary school sector as well as Year 1 and Year 2 of the Building Design Engineering (BDE). The presentations discussed in this paper demonstrate recent projects in a social context - modelling possible spaces via virtual reality on behalf of clients in education and social work environments. The motivation for such a creative and participatory dialogue in a community context acknowledges that, in the wake of post industrialisation, the reconstruction of our urban environments demands that we develop the tools required for a meaningful participation in the design process. The nature of a participatory process demands a demystification of the design process, which is a reality made possible by CAD.
keywords Teaching, Organisation, Participation, Knowledge and Demystification
series eCAADe
email j.b.wood@strath.ac.uk
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 0dc3
authors Chambers, Tom and Wood, John B.
year 1999
title Decoding to 2000 CAD as Mediator
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 210-216
summary This paper will present examples of current practice in the Design Studio course of the BDE, University of Strathclyde. The paper will demonstrate an integrated approach to teaching design, which includes CAD among other visual communication techniques as a means to exploring design concepts and the presentation of complex information as part of the design process. It will indicate how the theoretical dimension is used to direct the student in their areas of independent study. Projects illustrated will include design precedents that have involved students in the review and assessment of landmarks in the history of design. There will be evidence of how students integrate DTP in the presentation of site analysis, research of appropriate design precedents and presentation of their design solutions. CADET underlines the importance of considering design solutions within the context of both our European cultural context and of assessing the environmental impact of design options, for which CAD is eminently suited. As much as a critical method is essential to the development of the design process, a historical perspective and an appreciation of the sophistication of communicative media will inform the analysis of structural form and meaning in a modem urban context. Conscious of the dynamic of social and historical influences in design practice, the student is enabled "to take a critical stand against the dogmatism of the school "(Gadamer, 1988) that inevitably insinuates itself in learning institutions and professional practice.
keywords Design Studio, Communication, Integrated Teaching
series eCAADe
email j.b.wood@strath.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 0014
authors Hsu, W. and Liu, B.
year 2000
title Conceptual design: issues and challenges
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 32 (14) (2000) pp. 849-850
summary Decisions made during conceptual design have significant influence on the cost, performance, reliability, safety and environmental impact of a product. It has been estimated that design decisions account for more than 75% of final product costs. It is, therefore, vital that designers have access to the right tools to support such design activities. In the early 1980s, researchers began to realize the impact of design decisions on downstream activities. As a result, different methodologies such as design for assembly, design for manufacturing and concurrent engineering, have been proposed. Software tools that implement these methodologies have also been developed. However, most of these tools are only applicable in the detailed design phase. Yet, even the highest standard of detailed design cannot compensate for a poor design concept formulated at the conceptual design phase. In spite of this, few CAD tools have been developed to support conceptual design activities. This is because knowledge of the design requirements and constraints during this early phase of a product's life cycle is usually imprecise and incomplete, making it difficult to utilize computer-based systems or prototypes. However, recent advances in fields such as fuzzy logic, computational geometry, constraints programming and so on have now made it possible for researchers to tackle some of the challenging issues in dealing with conceptual design activities. In this special issue, we have gathered together discussions on various aspects of conceptual design phase: from the capturing of the designer's intent, to modelling design constraints and solving them in an efficient manner, to verifying the correctness of the design.
series journal paper
email whsu@comp.nus.edu.sg
last changed 2003/05/15 08:54

_id ddssar0023
id ddssar0023
authors Jens Pohl, Art Chapman, and Kym Jason Pohl
year 2000
title Computer-aided design systems for the 21st century: some design guidelines
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper proposes nine design principles for a new generation of computer-aided design (CAD) systems that actively support the decision making and problem solving activities of environmental design. Foremost among these are: a meaningful internal object-based representation of the artifact being designed within its environmental context; a collaborative problem solving paradigm in which the human designer and the computer form a complementary partnership; and, the notion of decision-support tools rather than predefined solutions. Two prototype computer-aided design systems implemented by the CAD Research Center that embody most of these concepts are described. ICADS (Intelligent Computer-Aided Design System) incorporates multiple expert agents in domains such as natural and artificial lighting, noise control, structural system selection, climatic determinants, and energy conservation. Given a particular building design context, the agents in ICADS draw upon their own expertise and several knowledgebases as they monitor the actions of the human designer and collaborate opportunistically. KOALA (Knowledge-Based Object-Agent Collaboration) builds on the multi-agent concepts embodied in ICADS by the addition of two kinds of agents. Mentor agents represent the interests of selected objects within the ontology of the design environment. In the implemented KOALA system building spaces are represented by agents capable of collaborating with each other, with domain agents for the provision of expert services, and with the human designer. Facilitator agents listen in on the communications among mentor agents to detect conflicts and moderate arguments. While both of these prototype systems are limited in scope by focussing on the earliest design stages and restricted in their understanding of the inherent complexity of a design state, they nevertheless promise a paradigm shift in computer-aided design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 40d5
authors Koskenniemi, Outi
year 2003
title Information systems for monitoring land use planning in the Finnish Environmental Administration. GISALU (Land Use GIS) and KATSE (the Information System for Monitoring Land Use Planning)
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary The primary aim of the monitoring of land use planning is to obtain information about the state and development of land use planning. The new Land Use and Building Act of Finland has obliged the authorities to monitor land use since the beginning of the year 2000. Two information systems help to fulfil this task in the Finnish Environmental Administration. GISALU (Land Use GIS) is a collection of data sets containing geographical data on land use plans, deviation decisions and the cultural environment. KATSE(the Information System for Monitoring Land Use Planning) mainly contains statistical data on the state of planning as a whole and changes in it. GISALU is an important information source for KATSE. Both information systems form part of ALUTJ (the information systems for land use), and they are also subsystems of HERTTA (the Finnish Environmental Information System).
series other
email outi.koskenniemi@environment.fi
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id 899f
authors Papamichael, K., Pal, V., Bourassa, N., Loffeld, J. and Capeluto, I.G.
year 2000
title An Expandable Software Model for Collaborative Decision-Making During the Whole Building Life Cycle
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 19-28
summary Decisions throughout the life cycle of a building, from design through construction and commissioning to operation and demolition, require the involvement of multiple interested parties (e.g., architects, engineers, owners, occupants and facility managers). The performance of alternative designs and courses of action must be assessed with respect to multiple performance criteria, such as comfort, aesthetics, energy, cost and environmental impact. Several stand-alone computer tools are currently available that address specific performance issues during various stages of a building’s life cycle. Some of these tools support collaboration by providing means for synchronous and asynchronous communications, performance simulations, and monitoring of a variety of performance parameters involved in decisions about a building during building operation. However, these tools are not linked in any way, so significant work is required to maintain and distribute information to all parties. In this paper we describe a software model that provides the data management and process control required for collaborative decision-making throughout a building’s life cycle. The requirements for the model are delineated addressing data and process needs for decision making at different stages of a building’s life cycle. The software model meets these requirements and allows addition of any number of processes and support databases over time. What makes the model infinitely expandable is that it is a very generic conceptualization (or abstraction) of processes as relations among data. The software model supports multiple concurrent users, and facilitates discussion and debate leading to decision-making. The software allows users to define rules and functions for automating tasks and alerting all participants to issues that need attention. It supports management of simulated as well as real data and continuously generates information useful for improving performance prediction and understanding of the effects of proposed technologies and strategies.
keywords Decision Making, Integration, Collaboration, Simulation, Building Life Cycle, Software.
series ACADIA
email K_Papamichael@lbl.gov
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 54f5
authors Wakisaka, T. Furuya, N. Inoue, Y. and Shiokawa, T.
year 2000
title Automated construction system for high-rise reinforced concrete buildings
source Automation in Construction 9 (3) (2000) pp. 229-250
summary An all-weather automated construction system has been developed to reduce the total cost of high-rise reinforced concrete building construction. It was applied for the first time ever to the construction of a 26-story reinforced concrete condominium project located in the Tokyo Metropolitan area in 1995. This system incorporates four major elements: (a) a synchronously climbing all-weather temporary roof; (b) a parallel material delivery system; (c) prefabrication and unification of construction materials; and (d) a material management system. It ensures good quality; improves working and environmental conditions; reduces the construction period, manpower, and waste; and improves overall productivity.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id f2ff
id f2ff
authors Calderon, C., van Schaik, P., and Hobbs, B
year 2000
title IS VR AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION MEDIUM FOR BUILDING DESIGN?
source Proceedings. Virtual Reality International Conferences 2000, Laval, France 18-21 May 2000 (pp 46-55)
summary This paper is concerned with the effectiveness of the use of Virtual Reality (VR) to inform the early design stages of construction projects. The investigation has developed a new experimental methodology for assessing building designs and an enabling tool “ASSET”. A first VR model of a building has been produced as a vehicle for evaluating the methodology and ASSET and, incidentally, influencing the design of the building. An experi-ment has been completed to assess if design constraints have been fulfilled.
keywords Building Design, Communication, Users, VR Technologies
series other
type normal paper
email carlos.calderon@ncl.ac.uk
last changed 2005/12/02 10:02

_id b4c4
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2000
title A framework for an Architectural Collaborative Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 57-60
summary The building industry involves a larger number of disciplines, operators and professionals than other industrial processes. Its peculiarity is that the products (building objects) have a number of parts (building elements) that does not differ much from the number of classes into which building objects can be conceptually subdivided. Another important characteristic is that the building industry produces unique products (de Vries and van Zutphen, 1992). This is not an isolated situation but indeed one that is spreading also in other industrial fields. For example, production niches have proved successful in the automotive and computer industries (Carrara, Fioravanti, & Novembri, 1989). Building design is a complex multi-disciplinary process, which demands a high degree of co-ordination and co-operation among separate teams, each having its own specific knowledge and its own set of specific design tools. Establishing an environment for design tool integration is a prerequisite for network-based distributed work. It was attempted to solve the problem of efficient, user-friendly, and fast information exchange among operators by treating it simply as an exchange of data. But the failure of IGES, CGM, PHIGS confirms that data have different meanings and importance in different contexts. The STandard for Exchange of Product data, ISO 10303 Part 106 BCCM, relating to AEC field (Wix, 1997), seems to be too complex to be applied to professional studios. Moreover its structure is too deep and the conceptual classifications based on it do not allow multi-inheritance (Ekholm, 1996). From now on we shall adopt the BCCM semantic that defines the actor as "a functional participant in building construction"; and we shall define designer as "every member of the class formed by designers" (architects, engineers, town-planners, construction managers, etc.).
keywords Architectural Design Process, Collaborative Design, Knowledge Engineering, Dynamic Object Oriented Programming
series eCAADe
email fioravanti@uniroma1.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 3e51
authors Cerulli, C., Peng, C. and Lawson, B.
year 2001
title Capturing Histories of Design Processes for Collaborative Building Design Development. Field Trial of the ADS Prototype
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 427-437
summary The ADS Project - Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process - builds on the technological results of the previous COMMIT Project to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD based Design Decision Support System. COMMIT provides a system for storing knowledge about knowledge within the design process. It records design decisions, the actors who take them and the roles they play when doing so. ADS links COMMIT to an existing object-oriented CAD system, MicroStation/J from Bentley Systems. The project focuses on tackling the problem of managing design information without intruding too much on the design process itself. It provides the possibility to effectively link design decisions back to requirements, to gather rationale information for later stages of the building lifecycle, and to gather knowledge of rationale for later projects. The system enables members of the project team, including clients and constructors, to browse and search the recorded project history of decision making both during and after design development. ADS aims to facilitate change towards a more collaborative process in construction design, to improve the effectiveness of decision-making throughout the construction project and to provide clients with the facility to relate design outcomes to design briefs across the whole building life cycle. In this paper we will describe the field trials of the ADS prototype carried out over a three-month period at the Building Design Partnership (BDP) Manchester office. The objective of these trials is to assess the extent, to which the approach underlying ADS enhances the design process, and to gather and document the views and experiences of practitioners. The ADS prototype was previously tested with historical data of real project (Peng, Cerulli et al. 2000). To gather more valuable knowledge about how a Decision Support System like ADS can be used in practice, the testing and evaluation will be extended to a real project, while it is still ongoing. The live case study will look at some phases of the design of a mixed residential and retail development in Leeds, UK, recording project information while it is created. The users’ feedback on the system usability will inform the continuous redevelopment process that will run in parallel to the live case study. The ADS and COMMIT Projects were both funded by EPSRC.
keywords Design Rationale, Design Support Systems, Usability Evaluation
series CAAD Futures
email c.cerulli@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

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