CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 737

_id b759
authors Chen, Shu-Ling
year 2000
title How Verbalization Influences Design Cognition? A Methodological Study
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 317-329
summary The concurrent verbalization would affect not only the normal design behaviors but also the perceptual interactions between designers and their own sketches, while limited by short-term memory, video/audio retrospective protocols may probably induce some selective of memory trace and ambiguous verbal data, resulting in a lower accuracy of reports. This research focuses on examining the validity of video/audio retrospective and think aloud protocols, based on the qualitative comparison of the two methodologies. And we also want to understand the difference of the ability of collecting perceptual information between these two protocols. Moreover the segment and coding scheme for the drawings are primitively developed.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id caadria2007_659
id caadria2007_659
authors Chen, Zi-Ru
year 2007
title The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991; Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993; Kim, 1990; Sternberg, 1988; Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designer’s creations(Schenk, 1991; Goldschmidt, 1994; Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991; Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Goel, 1995; Suwa et al., 2000; Verstijnen et al., 1998; Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001; Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993; Mitchell, 1993; Schmitt, 1994; Gero, 1996, 2000; Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993; Boden, 1998; Huang, 2001; Chen, 2001; Manolya et al. 1998; Verstijinen et al., 1998; Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
series CAADRIA
email Ru.zero@gmail.com
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id ddssar0006
id ddssar0006
authors Ciftcioglu, Ö., Durmisevic, S. and Sariyildiz, S.
year 2000
title Multi-objective design for space layout topology
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary A novel method to produce space layout topologies for architectural design is described. From the uniformly distributed design solutions in the solution space the corresponding design requirements are computed according to a given norm and metric function. The system is based on graph representation of the layout so that the desired relations between the pairs of nodes are considered to be independent variables of appropriate series of multivariable functions mapping the requirements into the solution space. The system so established is used as a knowledge-base for robust layout design where knowledge base having been established, the layout design requirements are introduced to the system as design constraints and the output is identified in the multidimensional solution space by means of interpolation. Since the smoothness of the interpolation is guaranteed, robust design layout, in the form of node locations, is obtained.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id de43
authors Counsell, J.
year 2000
title The management and visualisation of 3-dimensional models using a spatial database
source CIDAC, Volume 2 Issue 4 November 2000, pp. 225-235
summary Each year, computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) systems in common use are enhanced and gain facilities that ease 3-dimensional (3D) modelling. Consequently, large complex datasets are increasinly common during the creation and management of 3D models of buildings and urban areas. Uses for such models range from the automatic generation of drawings and schedules to virtual reality (VR) and visualisation across the web. Geographic information systems (GISs) are optimised for the management and retrieval of spatial data and may be used to assist both management and visualisation of large 3D datasets using open standards, such as the ISO standard virtual reality modelling langauge (VRML). Experience gained in the use of such systems indicates a need for specific procedures for recording 3D data and creating linkages to other information. It is suggested that these procedures are applicable to a broad range of such models.
keywords VRML, Urban 3-Dimensional Models, GIS Management
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 8ff1
authors Cáceres Jara, Hugo
year 2001
title EL COLOR DIGITAL EN EL DISEÑO DE TESELACIONES PERIODICAS (The Digital Color in the Design of Periodical Teselations)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 64-66
summary The present study of fundamentally exploratory type tries to examine the distribution of the color in the structures of repetition designed according to the Mathematical Theory of the Tessellations and inspired in the grafphic work of the artist holandes M.C.Escher. The results reached are product of the exercises pedagogicos carried out in the catedra of design of the color of the Design Workshop I, Universidad del Bío-Bío, among the years 1996 and 2000 to pursue a design graphic degree.
series SIGRADI
email hcaceres@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id 1429
authors Da Rosa Sampaio, Andréa and Borde, Andréa
year 2000
title Será que na Era Digital o Desenho Ainda é a Marca Pessoal do Arquiteto? (Will Drawings still be the Architect's Individual Mark in Digital Era?)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 383-387
summary Technological innovations are driven in such dynamism, which do not favour a reflective process. Novelty is absorbed, in many cases, without criticism, in an immediate way. Concerning Architectural and Urbanism Education, a systematic reflection on the impact of new information technology to students training should not be omitted. As visual codes are the prime expression of architects, it is important to evoke the assumption of drawing as a language in order to evaluate it in regard to the new reality. Intending to broaden the discussion on these issues and to pose in theoretical means practical matters on didactics, it will be investigated the implications of computational resources - specially CAD systems - in graphic expression, in design thinking and their consequences to the education of future architects. Learning visual thinking, and being skillful at traditional as much as digital means, challenges today’s student.
series SIGRADI
email asampaio.trp@terra.com.br, andreaborde@pobox.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id 389b
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2000
title Sketch that Scene for Me: Creating Virtual Worlds by Freehand Drawing
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 265-268
summary With the Web people can now view virtual threedimensional worlds and explore virtual space. Increasingly, novice users are interested in creating 3D Web sites. Virtual Reality Modeling Language gained ISO status in 1997, although it is being supplanted by the compatible Java3D API and alternative 3D Web technologies compete. Viewing VRML scenes is relatively straightforward on most hardware platforms and browsers, but currently there are only two ways to create 3D virtual scenes: One is to code the scene directly using VRML. The other is to use existing CAD and modeling software, and save the world in VRML format or convert to VRML from some other format. Both methods are time consuming, cumbersome, and have steep learning curves. Pen-based user interfaces, on the other hand, are for many an easy and intuitive method for graphics input. Not only are people familiar with the look and feel of paper and pencil, novice users also find it less intimidating to draw what they want, where they want it instead of using a complicated tool palette and pull-down menus. Architects and designers use sketches as a primary tool to generate design ideas and to explore alternatives, and numerous computer-based interfaces have played on the concept of "sketch". However, we restrict the notion of sketch to freehand drawing, which we believe helps people to think, to envision, and to recognize properties of the objects with which they are working. SKETCH employs a pen interface to create three-dimensional models, but it uses a simple language of gestures to control a three-dimensional modeler; it does not attempt to interpret freehand drawings. In contrast, our support of 3D world creation using freehand drawing depend on users’ traditional understanding of a floor plan representation. Igarashi et al. used a pen interface to drive browsing in a 3D world, by projecting the user’s marks on the ground plane in the virtual world. Our Sketch-3D project extends this approach, investigating an interface that allows direct interpretation of the drawing marks (what you draw is what you get) and serves as a rapid prototyping tool for creating 3D virtual scenes.
keywords Freehand Sketching, Pen-Based User Interface, Interaction, VRML, Navigation
series eCAADe
email ellendo@cmu.edu
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id sigradi2006_k004
id sigradi2006_k004
authors Dutta Madhu C.
year 2006
title The Myth of Cyberspace: Towards a New Technopolis
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 41-44
summary Professor Madhu C. Dutta has worked professionally as an urban planner and architect and was an Assistant Professor of Architecture at the University of Texas at San Antonio before coming to Wentworth. She teaches a broad range of courses, from design studio and architectural history through digital media and advanced computer applications for architectural design. Some of her most significant works include a city-wide urban riverfront design project in Varanasi, India, and “Solar Sails” a renewable energy design for the U.S. Department of Energy competition (2000) for which she was awarded the second prize among 110 entries. She has presented her scholarly work at conferences in Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the U.S. Her research interests are eclectic; she has recently been exploring the expansion of our notions of architectural space to include hybridized and virtual milieus in the “new frontier” of digital architecture. Professor Dutta is deeply committed to the creative and performing arts as well. She studied and performed Indian classical dance for sixteen years. She holds a BArch from the Manipal Institute of Technology of Mangalore University, and a Master’s in Architecture, specializing in Urban Design, from the University of Texas at Austin.
keywords Technopolis, cyberspace, future, digital society
series SIGRADI
type keynote paper
email duttam@wit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id 2e77
authors Ekholm, A. and Fridqvist, S.
year 2000
title A concept of space for building classification, product modelling, and design
source Automation in Construction 9 (3) (2000) pp. 315-328
summary Information about a building's spaces is of interest in every stage of the construction and facility management processes. An organisation1 or enterprise is located in and uses the building's spaces, and many of the building's spatial properties are determined on the basis of the user organisation's requirements. The definition of the concept "space" as applied in information systems for building classification and building product modelling today is unclear. A fundamental problem is to reconcile a material and construction method viewpoint with a space-centred viewpoint. In order to enable communication among actors and computer systems in the construction process, the concepts used in model development and the corresponding terms have to be formally defined and standardised. In this article, we analyse the concept of space and suggest a comprehensive definition for the construction context. The identification of a space in a building is based on a spatial view. We introduce the concept of aspectual unit and show how this concept can be used to integrate different aspect views in a conceptual schema. Additionally, we define the user organisation as a thing, which is separate from the building and has spatial properties of its own, so-called "activity spaces". Finally, we show how space may be represented in a comprehensive conceptual schema.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 5007
authors Elezkurtaj, Tomor and Franck, Georg
year 1999
title Genetic Algorithms in Support of Creative Architectural Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 645-651
summary The functions supported by commercial CAAD software are drawing, construction and presentation. Up to now few programs supporting the creative part of architectural problem solving have become available. The grand hopes of symbolic AI to program creative architectural design have been disappointing. In the meantime, methods called referred to as New AI have become available. Such methods includegenetic algorithms (GA). But GA, though successfully applied in other fields of engineering, still waits to be applied broadly in architectural design. A main problem lies in defining function in architecture. It is much harder to define the function of a building than that of a machine. Without specifying the function of the artifact, the fitness function of the design variants participating in the survival game of artificial evolution remains undetermined. It is impossible to fully specify the fitness function of architecture. The approach presented is one of circumventing a full specification through dividing labor between the GA software and its user. The fitness function of architectural ground plans is typically defined in terms only of the proportions of the room to be accommodated and certain topological relations between them. The rest is left to the human designer who interactively intervenes in the evolution game as displayed on the screen.
keywords Genetic Algorithms, Creative Architectural Design
series eCAADe
email tomor@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at, franck@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id f91f
authors Elezkurtaj, Tomor and Franck, Georg
year 2000
title Geometry and Topology. A User-Interface to Artificial Evolution in Architectural Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 309-312
summary The paper presents a system that supports architectural floor plan design interactively. The method of problem solving implemented is a combination of an evolutionary strategy (ES) and a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem to be solved consists of fitting a number of rooms (n) into an outline by observing functional requirements. The rooms themselves are specified concerning size, function and preferred proportion. The functional requirements entering the fitness functions are expressed in terms of the proportions of the rooms and the neighbourhood relations between them. The system is designed to deal with one of the core problems of computer supported creativity in architecture. For architecture, form not only, but also function is relevant. Without specifying the function that a piece of architecture is supposed to fulfil, it is hard to support its design by computerised methods of problem solving and optimisation. In architecture, however, function relates to comfort, easiness of use, and aesthetics as well. Since it is extraordinary hard, if not impossible, to operationalise aesthetics, computer aided support of creative architectural design is still in its infancy.
keywords New AI, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Evolution, creative Architectural Design, Interactive Design, Topology
series eCAADe
email tomor@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 8805
authors Flemming, U., Erhan, H.I. and Ozkaya, I.
year 2001
title Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD
source Technical Report 48-01-01. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, Institute of Complex Engineered Systems
summary This report describes a graduate interdisciplinary course offered to students in the graduate program of the School of Architecture at Carnegie Mellon and related departments in fall 2000. The motivation was the realization that when commercial CAD (Computer-Aided Design) systems recently switched from procedural application programming languages to object-oriented ones, third-party application must undergo a significant cognitive retooling"; i. e. they must know more than the syntax and semantics of the new programming language to be used and must be able to employ appropriate software development strategies that are appropriate for the new paradigm. especially with respect to the importance of modeling, a distinguishing characteristic of object-oriented programming. The goal of the course was (a) to introduce and test strategies of object-oriented application development in general and in the context of MicroStation, a state-of-the-art commercial CAD package; (b) to develop-as a course team project-an interesting application that gives students practice with these strategies and team work; and (c) to document our approach and findings so that others can learn from them. The strategies introduced were the use-case approach of Jacobson et al. and the complementary object-modeling tools of Rumbaugh that were recently integrated into the Unified Modeling Language UML. The software platform supporting the course comprised MicroStation, JMDL (a superset of Java) and ProjectBank on the CAD side and RationalRose on the modeling side. The application developed by students in the course supports the generation of drawings for remodeling projects from a set of dgn files describing the existing state of the building to be remodeled. The course was supported by a grant and in-kind contributions from Bentley with matching funds from the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technology Alliance (PITA)."
series report
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id gerardgabriel_phd
id gerardgabriel_phd
authors Gabriel, Gerard Caesar
year 2000
title COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION IN DESIGN
source PhD Thesis, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sydney
summary Up till now, architects collaborating with other colleagues did so mostly face-to-face (FTF). They had to be in the same space (co-located) at the same time. Communication was ‘spontaneous’ and ideas were represented, whether verbal or nonverbal, by talking and using ‘traditional drawing tools’. If they were geographically displaced, the interaction was then space affected as well as the probability of being time affected. In this case communication was usually mediated through the telephone, and graphically represented ideas were sent by Fax or posted documents. Recently, some architectural firms started using modems and Internet connections to exchange information, by transferring CAD drawings as well as design information, through e-mail and file transfer protocol (FTP). Discussing ideas in architecture, as a more abstract notion, is different from discussing other more concrete arguments using video conferencing. It is more important to ‘see’ what is being discussed at hand than ‘watch’ the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the mode of communication. Taking into consideration recent developments in computer and communication technologies this thesis investigates different communication channels utilised in architectural collaboration through Computer Mediated Collaborative Design (CMCD) sessions as opposed to FTF sessions. This thesis investigates the possible effects these different channels have on collaborative design in general and collaborative design communication in particular. We argue that successful CMCD does not necessarily mean emulating close proximity environments. Excluding certain communication channels in a CMCD environment might affect the flow and quantity of synchronous collaborative communication, but not necessarily the quality and content of mutually communicated and represented design ideas. Therefore different communication channels might affect the type of communication and not necessarily the content of the communication. We propose that audio and video are not essential communication channels in CMCD environments. We posit that architects will collaborate and communicate design representations effectively although with some differences, since those two channels might cause interruptions and successful collaborative sessions can take place without them. For this purpose we conducted twenty-four one-hour experiments involving final year architecture students all working to the same design brief. The experiments were divided into three categories, FTF, full computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-a; audio-video conferencing plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space) and limited computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-b; with Lambda MOO used as a chat medium plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space). The experiments were video and audio taped, transcribed and coded into a custom developed coding scheme. The results of the analysed coded data and observations of the videotapes provided evidence that there were noticeable differences between the three categories. There was more design communication and less communication control in the CMCD-b category compared to the FTF and CMCD-a categories. Verbal communication became shorter and straight to the point in CMCD-b as opposed to spontaneous non-stop chat in the other two categories. Moreover in CMCD-b the subjects were observed to be more reflective as well as choosing and re-examining their words to explain ideas to their partners. At times they were seen scrolling back through the text of the conversation in order to re-analyse or interpret the design ideas at hand. This was impossible in FTF and CMCD-a sessions, since the subjects were more spontaneous and audio representations were lost as soon as they were uttered. Also the video channel in the CMCD-a category was ignored and hardly used except for the first few minutes of the experiments, for a brief exchange of light humour on the appearance of each subject. The results obtained from analysing the experiments helped us conclude that different communication channels produce different collaborative environments. The three categories of communication for architectural collaboration explored in our experiments are indicative of the alternatives available to architects now. What is not clear to architects is why they would choose one category over another. We propose that each category has its own strengths and difficulties for architectural collaboration, and therefore should be selected on the basis of the type of communication considered to be most effective for the stage and tasks of the design project.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email gerard.gabriel@usyd.edu.au
last changed 2005/09/09 11:02

_id 1eac
authors Garner, S.
year 2000
title Is Sketching Still Relevant in Virtual Design Studios?
source Proceedings of DCNet, Sydney
summary Sketching, as a particular subset of drawing, has for a long time, been valued within design activity. Although they can appear rough, inaccurate or incomplete, sketches have been presented as both valuable output from, and evidence of, essential activity in designing by individuals and groups. This paper reflects on this value and asks whether sketching is relevant today, given the advances in computing and communications technology seen in modern virtual design environments. Is it time to let go of the metaphor of drawing or can this ancient human capability still tell us something relevant for the improvement of the virtual design studio? While freehand line drawings may not have the same importance in current virtual design studios the support of incompleteness, ambiguity and shared meaning in solution-focused and problem-focused thinking remains essential. The paper proposes that attention to 'graphic acts' has improved our understanding of sketching within collaborative designing. A particular type of fast, transitory 'thumbnail' sketch would appear to be important. If this is so then attention to its modern counterpart in the latest 3D, multi-user, immersive virtual design studios is overdue if they are to support the cognitive processes of creativity vital to design.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a8b2
authors Goldberg, H. Edward
year 2000
title Architectural Desktop 3 Book
source Prentice Hall
summary This book teaches Autodesk Architectural Desktop 3, enabling learners to relate commands to producing drawings presenting topics in the order in which they are actually used. Numerous conceptual, modeling, drawing, dimensioning, and documentation exercises are provided throughout. A five-part organization provides detailed topics on the program concepts, concept menu, design, documentation, and desktop. For architects, and interior and environmental designers who use Architectural Desktop.
series other
last changed 2003/02/26 17:58

_id ddssar0011
id ddssar0011
authors Hartog, J.P. den, Koutamanis, A. and Luscuere, P.G.
year 2000
title Possibilities and limitations of CFD simulation for indoor climate analysis
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary With the democratization of information and communication technologies, simulation techniques that used to be computationally expensive and time-consuming are becoming feasible instruments for the analysis of architectural design. Simulation is an indispensable ingredient of the descriptive design approach, which provides the designer with precise and accurate projections of the performance and behavior of a design. The paper describes the application of a particular class of simulation techniques, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to the analysis and evaluation of indoor climate. Using two different CFD systems as representatives of the class, we describe: relevant computational possibilities and limitations of CFD simulation; the accessibility of CFD simulation for architects, especially concerning the handling of simulation variables; the compatibility of CFD representations of built space with similar representations in standard CAD and modeling systems, including possibilities for feedback; The relations between geometric representation and accuracy / precision in CFD simulation. We propose that CFD simulation can become an operational instrument for the designer, provided that CFD simulation does not become a trial and error game trying to master computational techniques. A promising solution to this problem is the use of case based reasoning. A case base of analyzed, evaluated and verified buildings provides a flexible source of information (guidance and examples) for both the CFD simulation and the designer.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c6db
authors Heylighen, Ann
year 2000
title In Case of Architectural Design. Critique and Praise of Case-Based Design in Architecture
source Dissertation - Doct. Toegepaste wetenschappen, KU Leuven, Fac. Toegepaste wetenschappen, Dep. architectuur, stedebouw en ruimtelijke ordening (ISBN 90-5682-248-9)
summary Architects are said to learn design by experience. Learning design by experience is the essence of Case-Based Design (CBD), a sub-domain of Artificial Intelligence. Part I critically explores the CBD approach from an architectural point of view, tracing its origins in the Theory of Dynamic Memory and highlighting its potential for architectural design. Seven CBD systems are analysed, experienced architects and design teachers are interviewed, and an experiment is carried out to examine how cases affect the design performance of architecture students. The results of this exploration show that despite its sound view on how architects acquire (design) knowledge, CBD is limited in important respects: it reduces architectural design to problem solving, is difficult to implement and has to contend with prejudices among the target group. With a view to stretching these limits, part II covers the design, implementation and evaluation of DYNAMO (Dynamic Architectural Memory On-line). This Web-based design tool tailors the CBD approach to the complexity of architectural design by effecting three transformations: extending the concern with design products towards design processes, turning static case bases into dynamic memories and upgrading users from passive case consumers to active case-based designers.
keywords Architectural Design; Case-Based Design
series thesis:PhD
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/12/14 18:29

_id ca7b
authors Howes, Jaki
year 1999
title IT or not IT? An Examination of IT Use in an Experimental Multi-disciplinary Teamwork Situation
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 370-373
summary Leeds Metropolitan University is well placed to carry out research into multi-disciplinary team-working, as all the design and construction disciplines are housed in one faculty. Staff have set up an experimental project, TIME IT (Team-working in Multi-disciplinary Environments using IT) which examines ways of working in the design/construction process and how IT is used when there is no commercial pressure. Four groups of four students, one graduate diploma architect, and one final year student from each of Civil Engineering, Construction Management and Quantity Surveying have been working on feasibility studies for projects that are based on completed schemes or have been devised by collaborators in the Construction Industry. Students have been asked to produce a PowerPoint presentation, in up to five working days, of a design scheme, with costs, structural analysis and construction programme. The students are not assessed on the quality of the product, but on their own ability to monitor the process and use of IT. Despite this, aggressive competition evolved between the teams to produce the 'best' design. Five projects were run in the 1998/99 session. A dedicated IT suite has been provided; each group of students had exclusive use of a machine. They were not told how to approach the projects nor when to use the available technology, but were asked to keep the use of paper to a minimum and to keep all their work on the server, so that it could be monitored externally. Not so. They plotted the AO drawings of an existing building that had been provided on the server. They like paper - they can scribble on it, fold it, tear it and throw it at one another.
keywords IT, Multi-disciplinary, Teamwork
series eCAADe
email J.Howes@imu.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id ddssar0023
id ddssar0023
authors Jens Pohl, Art Chapman, and Kym Jason Pohl
year 2000
title Computer-aided design systems for the 21st century: some design guidelines
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper proposes nine design principles for a new generation of computer-aided design (CAD) systems that actively support the decision making and problem solving activities of environmental design. Foremost among these are: a meaningful internal object-based representation of the artifact being designed within its environmental context; a collaborative problem solving paradigm in which the human designer and the computer form a complementary partnership; and, the notion of decision-support tools rather than predefined solutions. Two prototype computer-aided design systems implemented by the CAD Research Center that embody most of these concepts are described. ICADS (Intelligent Computer-Aided Design System) incorporates multiple expert agents in domains such as natural and artificial lighting, noise control, structural system selection, climatic determinants, and energy conservation. Given a particular building design context, the agents in ICADS draw upon their own expertise and several knowledgebases as they monitor the actions of the human designer and collaborate opportunistically. KOALA (Knowledge-Based Object-Agent Collaboration) builds on the multi-agent concepts embodied in ICADS by the addition of two kinds of agents. Mentor agents represent the interests of selected objects within the ontology of the design environment. In the implemented KOALA system building spaces are represented by agents capable of collaborating with each other, with domain agents for the provision of expert services, and with the human designer. Facilitator agents listen in on the communications among mentor agents to detect conflicts and moderate arguments. While both of these prototype systems are limited in scope by focussing on the earliest design stages and restricted in their understanding of the inherent complexity of a design state, they nevertheless promise a paradigm shift in computer-aided design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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