CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 737

_id 8d90
authors Johnson, Brian R.
year 2000
title Between Friends: Support of Workgroup Communications
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 41-49
summary The web offers both business and academic users potential benefits from on-line collaboration. Online education presents universities with a means of handling the “baby boom echo” without expanding physical campuses (Carnevale 2000). Business “extranets” allow greater coordination amongst team members on projects where the cast of players involves experts in different locations. Both involve substituting computer-mediated communications (CMC) for traditionally face-to-face communications. Over the past several years, the author has deployed several of the available CMC technologies in support of small group interaction in academic and administrative settings. These technologies include email, video conferencing, web publication, web bulletin boards, web databases, mailing lists, and hybrid web BBS/email combinations. This paper reflects on aspects of embodied human interaction and the affordances of current CMC technology, identifying opportunities for both exploitation and additional development. One important but under-supported aspect of work group behavior is workspace awareness, or peripheral monitoring. The Compadres web-based system, which was developed to support workspace awareness among distributed workgroup members, is described. These findings are relevant to those seeking to create online communities: virtual design studios, community groups, distributed governance organizations, and workgroups formed as parts of virtual offices.
series ACADIA
email brj@u.washington.edu
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id 4815
authors Johnson, Scott and Johnson, Brian
year 2000
title Binary Oppositions: Should Designers Learn to Think Differently in order to Better Utilize Digital Design Tools?
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 2-4
summary The development of information technology and its application to design disciplines has changed how buildings are described and even how they are built. Engineers, architects, contractors, and other parties often exchange files instead of paper drawings, and manufacturers can be sent numeric data to guide the fabrication of customized building components. The tools of the trade, even the things possible in the trade, are changing. This brings up the issue of how best to utilize this emerging technology. Should we mold this technology to fit the tasks and concepts we have in mind, or should we learn new ways of thinking about architecture and our role as architects? Do we need to get used to thinking in terms of RGB values, external file references, geometric transformations, and paper space vs. model space? In short, should designers learn to think differently in order to better utilize digital design tools?
series ACADIA
email sven@umich.edu
last changed 2003/03/24 20:01

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id b352
authors Kilkelly, Michael
year 2000
title Off The Page: Object-Oriented Construction Drawings
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 147-151
summary This paper discusses methods in which inefficiencies in the construction documentation process can be addressed through the application of digital technology. These inefficiencies are directly related to the time consuming nature of the construction documentation process, given that the majority of time is spent reformatting and redrawing previous details and specifications. The concepts of objectoriented programming are used as an organizational framework for construction documentation. Database structures are also used as a key component to information reuse in the documentation process. A prototype system is developed as an alternative to current Computer-Aided Drafting software. This prototype, the Drawing Assembler, functions as a graphic search engine for construction details. It links a building component database with a construction detail database through the intersection of dissimilar objects.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id sigradi2008_081
id sigradi2008_081
authors Kirschner, Ursula
year 2008
title Study of digital morphing tools during the design process - Application of freeware software and of tools in commercial products as well as their integration in AutoCAD
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This research work examines methods of experimental designing with CAAD in a CAD laboratory with architecture students as the testing persons. Thereby the main focus is on the early phase of finding forms, in which different techniques with digital media are tried out in the didactic architectural design lessons. In these work have been traced the influences of the media employed on the design processes and combined the approaches of current CAAD research with aspects from classic design theory. For mathematical rules of proportion, atmospheric influence factors and analogy concepts in architecture, I have developed design methods which have been applied and verified in several series of seminars. (Kirschner, U.: 2000, Thesis, a CAAD supported architectural design teaching, Hamburg, school of arts). Previous experimental exercises showed that morphological sequences of modeling are effective sources for playful designing processes. In the current work these approaches are enhanced and supplemented by different morphological architectural concepts for creating shapes. For this purpose 2D based software like Morphit, Winmorph and other freeware were used. Whereas in the further development of this design technique we used 3D freeware morphing programs like zhu3D or Blender. The resulting morphological shapes were imported in CAD and refined. Ideally the morphing tool is integrated in the modeling environment of the standard software AutoCAD. A digital city model is the starting basis of the design process to guarantee the reference to the reality. The applied design didactic is predicated on the theories of Bernhard Hoesli. The act of designing viewed as „waiting for a good idea“ is, according to him, unteachable; students should, in contrast, learn to judge the „the force of an idea“. On the subject of morphology a form-generating method in the pre-design phase has been tested. Starting from urban-planning lines on an area map, two simple geometric initial images were produced which were merged by means of morphing software. Selected images from this film sequence were extruded with CAAD to produce solid models as sectional drawings. The high motivation of the students and the quality of the design results produced with these simple morphing techniques were the reason for the integration of the artistic and scientific software into the creative shape modeling process with the computer. The students learned in addition to the „bottom up “and „ top down” new design methods. In the presentation the properties and benefits of the morphing tools are presented in tables and are analyzed with regard to the architectural shape generating in an urban context. A catalogue of criteria with the following topics was developed: user friendliness, the ability of integrating the tools or as the case may be the import of data into a CAD environment, the artistic aspects in terms of the flexibility of shape generating as well as the evaluation of the aesthetic consideration of shapes.
keywords Architectural design, freeware morphing software, AutoCAD
series SIGRADI
email kirschner@uni.leuphana.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id 0beb
authors Koch, Volker and Russell, Peter
year 2000
title VuuA.Org: The Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 23-25
summary In 1998, architecture schools in the three nation region of the upper Rhine came together to undertake a joint design studio. With the support of the Center for Entrepeneurship in Colmar, France, the schools worked on the reuse of the Kuenzer Mill situated near Herbolzheim, Germany. The students met jointly three times during the semester and then worked on the project at their home universities usng conventional methods. This project was essential to generating closer ties between the participating students, tutors and institutions and as such, the results were quite positive. So much so, that the organisers decided to repeat the exercise one year later. However, it became clear that although the students had met three times in large groups, the real success of a co-operative design studio would require mechanisms which allow far more intimate interaction among the participants, be they students, teachers or outside experts. The experiences from the Netzentwurf at the Institut für Industrielle Bauproduktion (ifib) showed the potential in a web based studio and the addition of ifib to the three nation group led to the development of the VuuA platform. The first project served to illuminate the the differences in teaching concepts among the partner institutions and their teaching staff as well as problems related to the integration of students from three countries with two languages and four different faculties: landscape architecture, interior design, architecture and urban planning. The project for the Fall of 1999 was the reuse of Fort Kléber in Wolfisheim by Strasbourg, France. The students again met on site to kick off the Semester but were also instructed to continue their cooperation and criticism using the VuuA platform.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, CSCW, International Cooperation, Planning Platform
series eCAADe
email volker.koch@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de, peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
more http://www.vuua.org
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 217b
authors Kolarevic, B. Schmitt, G., Hirschberg, U., Kurmann, D. and Johnson, Brian
year 2000
title An experiment in design collaboration
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 73-81
summary Computer supported communication and collaboration among partners in the building design and construction process are no longer mere possibilities, but, given the will and know-how of the participants, a reality. Team members could work on a building design at any place, simultaneously together (synchronously) or separately (asynchronously), while the latest state of the design would always be available in a shared database. But to be successful, this emerging type of cooperation often requires new design and communication methods. This paper documents an experimental approach to design collaboration, tested in an intensive, one-week long Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions. It briefly describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting process of collaboration, and the lessons learned.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 30c8
authors Koutamanis, A., Barendse, P.B74 and Kempenaar, J.W.
year 1999
title Web-based CAAD Instruction: The Delft Experience
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 159-168
summary In the early 1990s, the introduction of an extensive CAAD component in the compulsory curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, stimulated experimentation with computer-based instruction systems. The emergence of the World Wide Web presented new possibilities. Nevertheless, the reasons for investing in Web-based CAAD instruction were mostly pragmatic, i.e. a reaction to necessity, rather than an intention to explore, experiment and revolutionize. One of the problems addressed in our Web-based CAAD instruction is CAAD literacy. Help files and manuals that accompany software have proven to be unsuitable for introductory courses in design computing. This led to the development of a series of dynamic Web-based tutorials, in the form of interactive slide shows. The implementation of the tutorials is based on a cooperative framework that allows teachers and students to contribute at different levels of technical and methodical complexity. The use of the Web in CAAD education also stimulated a more active attitude among students. Despite the limited support and incentives offered by the Faculty, the Web-based CAAD courses became an invitation to intelligent and meaningful use of Web technologies by students for design presentation and communication. This is not only a useful addition to the opportunities offered by CAAD systems but also a prerequisite to new design communities.
keywords WWW Technologies, Teaching
series eCAADe
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id ddssar0016
id ddssar0016
authors Koutamanis, Alexander and Mitossi, Vicky
year 2000
title Grammatical and syntactic properties of CAAD representations for the early design stages
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary CAAD representations for the early design stages have traditionally focused on aspects apparently relating to design creativity, such as flexible, effortless and rich geometric modelling. However, modelling capabilities are generally unconnected to the control and analysis of design constraints that affect the further development of the design. These usually refer to functional and spatial aspects that are only implicit in a CAAD representation of design ‘solids’. Moreover, the stability and reliability of control and analysis rely on the grammatical and syntactic quality of the representation. In particular, (a) the grammatical well-formedness of spatial and building primitives, and (b) the syntactic completeness and unambiguity of spatial relations are essential prerequisites to any meaningful analysis of aspects such as fulfilment of programmatic requirements, indoor climate, lighting or human interaction with the built environment. The paper describes a dual spatial and building element representation implemented on top of a standard drawing system. The representation attempts to minimize input requirements, while at the same time providing feedback on the grammatical and syntactic quality of the design description.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 3760
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2000
title Recognition and Indexing of Architectural Features in Floor Plans on the Internet
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 357-366
summary The Internet promises a worldwide information system, capable of uniting different sources and types of original, up-to-date and directly usable information. Among the main components of this system are retrieval mechanisms characterized by high precision and recall, as well as by supportive relevance feedback. The textual versions of these retrieval mechanisms have been available for some time and have achieved a certain degree of efficiency and sophistication. Image retrieval lags behind, despite the recent advances in content-based retrieval. In architecture this is largely due to the lack of integration of domain knowledge and known formalisms. Indexing and retrieval of architectural floor plans can rely on existing generative systems such as shape grammars and rectangular arrangements. By reversing generative systems in purpose we derive compact descriptions that describe completely a floor plan and make explicit all relevant features rather than a small number of features. The main limitation of reversed generative systems is that they apply to specific classes of designs. Unification in indexing and retrieval can only take place at the level of basic primitives, i.e. spaces and building elements. In both vector and pixel images of architectural floor plans this can be achieved by a universal recognition system that identifies salient local features to produce a basic spatial representation.
series CAADRIA
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id dc5a
authors Luque, Manuel J.
year 1999
title Working with a CAAD's Spreadsheet
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 217-222
summary This paper shows the content of a subject imparted at the ETSAB (UPC). It describes the use of CAD systems in tasks that could not even be thought before new technology arrival and traditional methods had to be used. CAD systems potential to simultaneously work with constitutive objects and relations between them is taken into advantage. The definite design is not only the juxtaposition of some but the tight relation linking them. This work proposes CAD systems to be used in architectural design projects as spreadsheets to perform arithmetic calculations. The process to obtain an architectural model has ended in a logic sequence of formal operations, which uses completely defined objects as data. Any element of the project, data or operation, can be changed and model updating is automatically performed obtaining the new result. Finally a concrete exercise developed along the course is shown like a practical example.
keywords Teaching, CAD, Architectural Design, Planning
series eCAADe
email manuel.luque@ega1.upc.es
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 80b9
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 2000
title Computers and architectural design: going beyond the tool
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 5-17
summary More often than not, discussions taking place in specialised conferences dealing with computers and design tend to focus mostly on the tool itself. What the computer can do that other tools cannot, how computers might improve design and whether a new aesthetic would result from the computer; these are among the most recurrent issues addressed in those forums. But, by placing the instrument at the center of the debate, we might be distorting the nature of design. In the course KEYWORDS, carried out in the years 1992 and 1993 at the ETH Zurich, the goal was to transcend the discourses that concentrate on the computer, integrating it in a wider theoretical framework including principles of modern art and architecture. This paper presents a summary of the content and results of this course.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 2720
authors Magyar, Peter and Temkin, Aron
year 2000
title Developing an Algorithm for Topological Transformation
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 203-205
summary This research intends to test the architectural application of Jean Piaget’s clinical observations, described in the book: The Child’s Conception of Space (Piaget, 1956), according to which topology is an ordering discipline, active in the human psyche. Earlier attempts, based on the principles of graph-theory, were able to cover only a narrow aspect of spatial relations, i.e. connectivity, and were mostly a-perceptional, visually mute. The “Spaceprint” method, explained and illustrated in co-author’s book: Thought Palaces (Magyar, 1999), through dimensional reduction, investigates volumetric, 3D characteristics and relationships with planar 2D configurations. These configurations, however, represent dual values: they are simultaneously the formal descriptors of both finite matter and (fragments of) infinite space. The so- called “Particular Spaceprint”, as a tool of design development in building, object, or urban scales, with the help of digital technology, could express - again simultaneously - qualities of an idea-gram and the visual, even tactile aspects of material reality. With topological surface-transformations, the “General Spaceprints”, these abstract yet visually active spatial formulas can be obtained.
series SIGRADI
email pmagyar@fau.edu, atemkin@fau.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id e345
authors Marx, John
year 2000
title A proposal for alternative methods for teaching digital design
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 19-35
summary Computers have the potential to radically change the process of architectural design, and match more closely the formal aspirations of contemporary designers. What, then, should be the direction educators take in response to the opportunities created by the use of computers in the design process? There are, perhaps, two obvious methods of teaching Digital Design at a university level; a course adjunct to a design studio, or a course offered independently of a design studio. The computer is a facilitator of design ideas, but by itself, is not a creator of content. The primary responsibility of the design studio is the creation of content. It is the implementation of theory and critical analysis which should be the core concern of studio instruction. Given the limited time students are exposed to design studio it would seem appropriate, then, that the digital tools, which facilitate the design process, be taught separately, so as not to dilute the design studios importance. Likewise, this separation should allow the student to concentrate attention on Digital Design as a comprehensive process, beginning with initial massing studies and ending with high resolution presentation drawings. The burden of learning this new process is difficult as well as time consuming. Students are generally struggling to learn how to design, much less to design on the computer. In addition, the current lack of digital skills on the part of design faculty makes it difficult to create a level of consistency in teaching digital design. Compounding these problems is the cost to architectural departments of providing hardware and software resources sufficient to have a computer on every studio desk.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id fdb8
authors Montagu, A., Rodriguez Barros, D. and Chernobilsky, L.
year 2000
title The New Reality through Virtuality
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 225-229
summary In this paper we want to develop some conceptual reflections of the processes of virtualization procedures with the aim to indicate a series of misfits and mutations as byproducts of the “digital-graphic culture” (DGC) when we are dealing with the perception of the “digital space”. Considering the present situation, a bit chaotic from a pedagogical point of view, we also want to propose a set of “virtual space parameters” in order to organize in a systemic way the teaching procedures of architectural design when using digital technology. Nowadays there is a great variety of computer graphics applications comprising practically all the fields of “science & technology”, “architecture, design & urbanism”, “video & film”, “sound” and the massive amount of information technology protocols. This fact obliges us to have an overall view about the meaning of “the new reality through virtuality”. The paper is divided in two sections and one appendix. In the first section we recognise the relationships among the sensory apparatus, the cognitive structures of perception and the cultural models involved in the process of understanding the reality. In the second section, as architects, we use to have “a global set of social and technical responsabilities” to organize the physical space, but now we must also be able to organize the “virtual space” obtained from a multidimensional set of computer simulations. There are certain features that can be used as “sensory parameters” when we are dealing with architectural design in the “virtual world”, taking into consideration the differences between “immersive virtual reality” and “non inmersive virtual reality”. In the appendix we present a summary of some conclusions based on a set of pedagogical applications analysing the positive and the negative consequences of working exclusively in a “virtual world”.
keywords Virtualisation Processes, Simulation, Philosophy, Space, Design, Cyberspace
series eCAADe
email amontagu@fadu.uba.ar
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 8369
authors Newton, Clare and Burry, Mark
year 2000
title Building Architecture. Using sticks, stones and computer visualisation
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 511-519
summary This work explores the transformation process from drawings to buildings by inserting unusual representation techniques between traditional orthographic drawings and actual buildings. The aim has been to explore the links and gaps between architecture as drawn and as built to gain a better understanding of the translation from idea to building. Computer modelling techniques enable designs to be 'built' at full scale and resolved in great detail. This type of representation was compared with built models, also at full scale, but using a mix of model making and real materials. At one school students interpreted actual working drawings from architects and at the other school, students worked from theoretical designs. By exploring the translation from idea to building using a range of representational interventions, this research creates a nexus between current issues of representation and design/construction research.
series CAADRIA
email c.newton@architecture.unimelb.edu.au, mburry@deakin.edu.au
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id eadd
authors Oxman, R.E.
year 2000
title Visual Reasoning in Case-Based Design
source AID’00 Workshop, Worcester (Mass.)
summary The interest in CBR as a relevant paradigm for design has led to a series of successful AID workshops over the last few years. Most of these workshops were focused on traditional issues and topics in CBR such as indexing, retrieval, and adaptation. Despite the long-term effort to establish the theoretical foundations for CBR in design, we have yet to achieve the promise of this affinity (CBR and Design). Though there is a general consensus of the cognitive significance of CBR to design and general optimism regarding the promise of CBR technologies for the advancement of design systems, we have yet to realize this potential. In order to strengthen the field in design it appears that additional theoretical efforts are needed in the following two directions. First, we must re-consider the complexity of design and design reasoning as it relates to CBR. One possible direction for future exploration is to view CBR as part of the complex, hybrid reasoning processes in design. This can be done by the integration of other significant cognitive aspects of design which are investigated in relevant fields in AI. Visual reasoning is a fundamental attribute of design, and therefor combining these two research areas may provide significant results for the field. The second direction is to investigate the possible integration of CBR paradigms and techniques with existing computational technologies, including CAD, and electronic media. These two subjects are the main objectives of the workshop. The first section of the workshop will focus on Re-formulating Theoretical Foundations for CBR in Design; within this part of the workshop it is proposed that special emphasis be placed upon Visual Reasoning and Case-Based Design The second part of the workshop will discuss the applicative implications of these re-formulations. The workshop aims to bring together researchers who work on visual and case-based reasoning. It aims to provide a forum for intensive interaction among researchers in these areas. We expect that a diverse background of participants (from AI as well as related cognitive and design domains) will lead to a rich and lively exchange of points of view and will contribute to the identification of significant research issues.
series other
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6645
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 2000
title Architectural Knowledge and Database Management Systems
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 135-138
summary Although the theory and practice of using database management systems in managing information has been a well recognized area of research in other disciplines such as business, urban planning, and engineering, architectural researchers have only occasionally explored the implications of these tools in structuring architectural knowledge. Among these are studies that look at facilities management aspects of databases as well as project management aspects mostly focusing on document management issues 6 . While visual databases have been the focus of other work, the term "database" has been used in architectural research sometimes to indicate any set of underlying data and at other times to indicate an actual relational database management system. Inconsistent use of terminology has led to difficulties in developing established theory regarding the use and development of database management systems for architectural problems. While such systems can be very powerful in structuring design knowledge, in architectural education the only place where their potential has been recognized is in the digitizing of slide libraries with the intention to make them accessible through electronic retrieval and viewing systems, which has mostly been seen within the purview of slide librarians with little interest from the faculty.
series eCAADe
email ozel@asu.edu
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 191a
authors Plácido, Isabel and Eloy, Sara
year 2000
title Um Modelo Planar para a Comunicação à Obra do Projecto de Arquitectura (A Planar Model for the Communication of Architectural Design's Artifacts)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 227-229
summary We report on a method that has been tested to produce the working drawings for site communication of the architectural project. The advantage of using such a method is that it allows improving the architect’s control over design while maintaining the traditional role of drawings; at the end, it will be possible the delivering of a flexible set of information more suitable to the building needs. This work is part of larger efforts to investigate the conventional methods that architects use to communicate their ideas to the builder and the potential of information technologies for partially automating this process. The research described in this paper was developed at LNEC. Funds were granted by FCT, under a Portuguese program for promoting scientific research within architecture and urbanism (PRAXIS XXI/2/2.1).
series SIGRADI
email iplacido@lnec.pt, srodrigues@lnec.pt
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

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