CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 737

_id 3888
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2000
title Computational Situated Learning in Designing - Application to Architectural Shape Semantics
source The University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture
summary Learning the situatedness (applicability conditions), of design knowledge recognised from design compositions is the central tenet of the research presented in this thesis. This thesis develops and implements a computational system of situated learning and investigates its utility in designing. Situated learning is based on the concept that "knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by its situation". In this sense learning is tuned to the situations within which "what you do when you do matters". Designing cannot be predicted and the results of designing are not based on actions independent of what is being designed or independent of when, where and how it was designed. Designers' actions are situation dependent (situated), such that designers work actively with the design environment within the specific conditions of the situation where neither the goal state nor the solution space is completely predetermined. In designing, design solutions are fluid and emergent entities generated by dynamic and situated activities instead of fixed design plans. Since it is not possible in advance to know what knowledge to use in relation to any situation we need to learn knowledge in relation to its situation, i.e. learn the applicability conditions of knowledge. This leads towards the notion of the situation as having the potential role of guiding the use of knowledge.

Situated Learning in Designing (SLiDe) is developed and implemented within the domain of architectural shape composition (in the form of floor plans), to construct the situatedness of shape semantics. An architectural shape semantic is a set of characteristics with a semantic meaning based on a particular view of a shape such as reflection symmetry, adjacency, rotation and linearity. Each shape semantic has preconditions without which it cannot be recognised. Such preconditions indicate nothing about the situation within which this shape semantic was recognised. The situatedness or the applicability conditions of a shape semantic is viewed as, the interdependent relationships between this shape semantic as the design knowledge in focus, and other shape semantics across the observations of a design composition. While designing, various shape semantics and relationships among them emerge in different representations of a design composition. Multiple representations of a design composition by re-interpretation have been proposed to serve as a platform for SLiDe. Multiple representations provide the opportunity for different shape semantics and relationships among them to be found from a single design composition. This is important if these relationships are to be used later because it is not known in advance which of the possible relationships could be constructed are likely to be useful. Hence, multiple representations provide a platform for different situations to be encountered. A symbolic representation of shape and shape semantics is used in which the infinite maximal lines form the representative primitives of the shape.

SLiDe is concerned with learning the applicability conditions (situatedness), of shape semantics locating them in relation to situations within which they were recognised (situation dependent), and updating the situatedness of shape semantics in response to new observations of the design composition. SLiDe consists of three primary modules: Generator, Recogniser and Incremental Situator. The Generator is used by the designer to develop a set of multiple representations of a design composition. This set of representations forms the initial design environment of SLiDe. The Recogniser detects shape semantics in each representation and produces a set of observations, each of which is comprised of a group of shape semantics recognised at each corresponding representation. The Incremental Situator module consists of two sub-modules, Situator and Restructuring Situator, and utilises an unsupervised incremental clustering mechanism not affected by concept drift. The Situator module locates recognised shape semantics in relation to their situations by finding regularities of relationships among them across observations of a design composition and clustering them into situational categories organised in a hierarchical tree structure. Such relationships change over time due to the changes taken place in the design environment whenever further representations are developed using the Generator module and new observations are constructed by the Recogniser module. The Restructuring Situator module updates previously learned situational categories and restructures the hierarchical tree accordingly in response to new observations.

Learning the situatedness shape semantics may play a crucial role in designing if designers pursue further some of these shape semantics. This thesis illustrates an approach in which SLiDe can be utilised in designing to explore the shapes in a design composition in various ways; bring designers! attention to potentially hidden features and shape semantics of their designs; and maintain the integrity of the design composition by using the situatedness of shape semantics. The thesis concludes by outlining future directions for this research to learn and update the situatedness of design knowledge within the context of use; considering the role of functional knowledge while learning the situatedness of design knowledge; and developing an autonomous situated agent-based designing system.

series thesis:PhD
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/06 09:34

_id ga0003
id ga0003
authors Riley, Howard
year 2000
title Algorithms of the Mind. The generative art of drawing
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Throughout the disciplines of art and design, interest in the possibilities of algorithmic methods for generating two- and three-dimensional visual forms grows apace. Evidence supporting this observation may be found in the increasingly diverse range of contributions to the Generative Art conferences. Two research scenarios may be identified: 1 in which the generative process itself is the object of research, 2 in which the forms generated are the objects of research. The question of what criteria may be appropriate to the evaluation of such research is addressed in this paper. Lincoln and Guba's term "criteria of authenticity" is elaborated in a case study based on the author's research into teaching drawing to fine art undergraduates. Although the drawings produced are not computer-generated, it is argued that the concept of 'algorithm' as a set of rules for the generating of visual representations may be usefully applied to the mental ontological constructions, or 'mind-set', of the student. Such mind-sets affect the ways that drawings are constructed. It is suggested that a teaching method which enables students to recognise their mental algorithms as cultural constructions, may also empower them to reconstruct those algorithms in order to generate visual representations previously unimagined.
series other
email howard.riley@sihe.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 988d
authors Russell, Peter and Forgber, Uwe
year 2000
title The E-Talier: Inter-university Networked Design Studios
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 45-50
summary The widespread infiltration of internet based variations of traditional areas of society (e-commerce, e-business, e-mail etc.) will not spare the halls of academia in its propagation. The term courseware is well nigh 20 years old and considerable research and development has been done in bringing network based distributed courses to university consortiums including those in architecture and civil engineering. Indeed, the European Commission has recently approved funding for a 3-year web-based virtual university of architecture and construction technology: the WINDS project led by the University of Ancona. Such attempts to create e-courses are largely an extension of typical courseware where the syllabus is quantified and divided into lessons for use by the students alone or in conjunction with their tutors and professors. This is quite adequate in conveying the base knowledge of the profession. However, the tenants of being an architect or engineer involve the deft use of that unwieldy named and deliciously imprecise tool called "design". Teaching design sooner or later involves the design studio: a pedagogically construed environment of simulation intended to train, not teach the skills of designing. This is fundamentally different from normal courseware. A network based design studio (Etalier) must be able to reflect the nature of learning design. Design studios typically involve specifically chosen design problems, researched supporting information to assist design decisions, focussed discussions, individual consultation and criticism, group criticism, public forums for presentation discussion and criticism as well as a myriad of informal undocumented communication among the students themselves. So too must an Etalier function. Essentially, it must allow collaboration through communication. Traditional barriers to collaboration include language, culture (both national and professional) and distance. Through the internet's capricious growth and the widespread use of English as a second language, the largest hurdle to attaining fruitful collaboration is probably cultural. In the case of an Etalier in a university setting, the cultural difficulties arise from administrative rules, the pedagogical culture of specific universities and issues such as scheduling and accreditation. Previous experiments with virtual design studios have demonstrated the criticality of such issues. The proposed system allows participating members to specify the degree and breadth with which they wish to partake. As opposed to specifying the conditions of membership, we propose to specify the conditions of partnership. Through the basic principal of reciprocity, issues such as accreditation and work load sharing can be mitigated. Further, the establishment of a studio market will allow students, tutors and professors from participating institutions to partake in studio projects of their choosing in accordance with their own constraints, be they related to schedule, expertise, legal or other matters. The paper describes these mechanisms and some possible scenarios for collaboration in the Etalier market.
keywords e-Studio, Virtual Design Studio, Courseware, CSCW
series eCAADe
email peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de, uwe@forgber.de
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 8f95
authors Saito, Keiko E. and Combes, Leonardo
year 2000
title Posicionamiento de Objetos en el Espacio: un Caso de Aplicación Concreta (Positioning of Objects in Space: An Actual Application Case)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 209-211
summary In the first part of the paper theoretical aspects are briefly discussed, followed by an equally brief description of special procedures. In the second part, working in a concrete problem, a case study about public libraries interior design is exposed to illustrate positioning procedures. Computer graphics techniques are used in the generation of a large range of possible locations of typical library furniture. The results are governed by sets of rules, which are introduced following functional and dimensional needs. The case of public libraries is intended to be just one example of the general system directed to locate objects in the space. The discussion of different alternatives is accompanied by drawings showing geometrical aspects in correspondence with the specifical case of the small public libraries reading rooms.
series SIGRADI
email labsist@herrera.unt.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id e688
authors Schweikardt, Eric and Gross, Mark D.
year 2000
title Digital clay: deriving digital models from freehand sketches
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 107-115
summary During the initial stages of design, it is not uncommon to find an architect scribbling furiously with a thick pencil. Later in the design process, however, one might not be surprised to encounter the same individual in front of a computer monitor, manipulating three dimensional models in a series of activities that seem completely divorced from their previous efforts. Armed with evidence that sketching is an effective design method for creative individuals, we also recognize that modeling and rendering applications are invaluable design development and presentation tools, and we naturally seek a connection between these methodologies. We therefore present Digital Clay, a working prototype of a sketch recognition program that interprets gestural and abstracted projection drawings and constructs appropriate three dimensional digital models.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 160c
authors Selles, Pascual
year 1999
title RGB Winds are Blowing in the Design Studio
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 286-291
summary This paper presents the results of two design studio elective courses offered to students in their second and third semester of studies at the Design Studio Department, "Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, UPV." Classes are based on a methodology that directly relates the language of architectural form and space, to the language of the specific software being used. Our focus is not only to discover what may be represented, but most important what may not, and why. We aim to point out the differences between architecture as perceived and experienced by a human being, and its digital representation as a computer data structure. At the Digital Design Studio, students are faced with a sequence of two projects so as to learn the basics of architecture, while developing their skill to build a digital representation of it. The first exercise within this CAD sequence is reading and analyzing a built project: a study of precedent. With this exercise we aim at two goals: to decipher the keys or parameters of architectural design, from drawings and pictures, trying to recognize an "architectural language"; and to learn a particular syntax of digital modeling. The second exercise is a project of a single family house within a narrow rectangular site and with only one street elevation. With this project we focus on the strong impact of stairs on the organization of functions and circulation, the illumination and ventilation of spaces with double heights and patios, and study the power of the section to express clearly the organization of spaces.
keywords Computer Aided Design, Studio, Education
series eCAADe
email pselles@upv.es
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4e7c
authors Shih, N. J. and Tsai, Y. T.
year 2000
title A Photogrammetry and Perception Study of Chernikhov Fantasy No. 32 and 38
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 461-470
summary This research investigated the object composition in Chernikhov's 101 Architectural Fantasies through computer-aided visualization, for the purpose of interpreting the relationships between architectural components. In contrast to traditional simulation analysis, this research applied photogrammetry to investigate the orthogonal and parallel ambiguity of 3D objects in 2D drawings by calculating the position of matching geometries. This test took Fantasy no. 38 and 32 as examples to confirm their spatial relationship. 60 architectural students were asked to conduct 3 tests. The algorithmic approach (photogrammetry calculation) was referenced by a cognitive approach (the perception survey) as a comparison base. Photogrammetry test proved that the relation between objects was usually oriented by personal spatial experiences that did control the deduction process of an observer. Perception survey showed that orthogonal assumption existed in the interpretation process of an object's position. It turned out that a testee would still consider two linear objects intersected in orthogonal angle within a tolerance of 15 degree or parallel position between 4 and -16 degree. The finding showed that the interpretation of paper architecture drawings not only was given by the author, but tended to be re-interpreted by an observer. The interpretation process, just like modeling and rendering process, should be a two-way process that facilitates a study oriented either from 2D images or 3D models.
series CAADRIA
email shihnj@mail.ntust.edu.tw
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 7b68
authors Shounai, Y., Morozumi, M., Homma , R. and Murakami, Y.
year 1999
title On the Development of Group Work CAD for Network PC: GW-CAD III
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 473-481
summary The number of Virtual Design Studio experiments that use a Digital Pin-up Board (WWW) and video conferencing tools is rapidly increasing. As we see that several schools have introduced group-ware to support asynchronous communication of their projects, it is possible to regard that techniques for asynchronous communication have already been developed to some extent. However, participants of those projects still have difficulty with synchronous communication. For example, though designers often desire to exchange models among members to get critical feedback and achieve fast problem solving while working at their desks, there are few CADs that can support concurrent synchronous design communication among members. The first half of this paper discusses a model of synchronous design communication that uses CAD models, and then proposes a prototype of tools that use Microsoft NetMeeting and AutoCAD R14: GW-CAD III. In the middle, a user interface system that enables designers to conveniently model and exchange separate sets of models necessary to elaborate different aspects of design is proposed: "Network Clipboard" "Modeling Space", "Plan Face", and "Section Face". Finally, this paper discusses the results of several experiments that used the prototype.
keywords Synchronous Collaboration, Internet, CAD, Prototype, Schematic Design
series eCAADe
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id ddssar0025
id ddssar0025
authors Smeets, J., Jessurun, J. and Zutphen, R. van
year 2000
title An application of the REN manager in the field of housing management
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary There is a continuous and urgent need for standardisation of discussion about quality of real estate. On behalf of this discussion, a tool called REN Manager has been developed. REN is an abbreviation of Real Estate Norm, a client-oriented tool for measuring, planning and communication in the field of housing management. The development of the REN Manager is a continuation of REN research-project. In this paper we start with an introduction of the REN research project. Further we focus on the application of the REN tool in the field of housing management as part of a set of tools for strategic portfolio management. After this introduction we will elaborate more about the REN and the underlying analyses. One of the essential functions of REN is the match between the demanded and offered performance of a dwelling estate. By several surveys among tenants the relevant aspects and parameters are determined. These parameters are related to the performance level of a dwelling as well as to the weight of these levels. This part of the paper deals with the results of these analyses and the problems involved in the method used. The results are used as the input for the REN Manager. At the end we will discuss the functionality of the REN Manager as a decision support system on both operational level (matching) and strategic portfolio management (allocation of investment).
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0e2f
authors Stach, Edgar
year 2000
title EXPO 2000 Pavilion and Exposition: Precedent Studies
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 18-20
summary Included in this article are two second year architecture graduate student precedent studies to understand the complexity of a built project and its functional, structural and spatial design concept. Students were instructed to ‘disassemble’ the building according to Form & Function, Structure & Construction, Materials, and Display Methods. Through the use of computer-generated models the students were able to understand the relationship between space and structure without having to physically travel to the pavilion sites. The computer offered the unique ability to explore a spatial study of buildings and places that no longer exist (such as the IBM Pavilion by Renzo Piano), as well as to anticipate the spatial qualities of spaces that are not yet built (similar to the Swiss Pavilion by Peter Zumthor). Final analysis drawings were created through manipulating the computer models to explain the Space & Form (spatial hierarchies), Spatial Sequence (circulation, path & place, and exhibition sequencing), and Space & Order (structure, proportion, and systems).
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id f727
authors Stouffs, Rudi and Krishnamur, Ramesh
year 2000
title Alternative Computational Design Representations
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 200-202
summary Supporting data sharing among different disciplines, applications, and users in the building industry is a complex and difficult task. Standardization efforts and research into product models have since long attempted to facilitate data exchange among building partners, with little result so far. Different technologies have resulted in different approaches, in particular, an object-oriented approach has led to the specification of IFCs as a basis for information sharing, while other initiatives adopt XML as a flexible language for marking up and describing project information. We propose a concept for representational flexibility, named sorts, that combines many of the advantages of both approaches. Based on an extensible vocabulary of representational classes and compositional relationships and grounded in an object-oriented framework that has each of the representational classes specify its own operational behavior, it will enable a designer to define, develop, and adopt alternative design representations that can suit a specific purpose or task at hand.
series SIGRADI
email r.stouffs@bk.tudelft.nl, ramesh+@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id 1e1b
authors Svilanovich Zaldumbide, Paulina A.
year 2000
title Arquitectura Mediatica: De lo temporal a lo espacial de lo colectivo a lo virtual (Architecture of Media: From the Time-Base to the Space-Base, From the Colective to the Virtual)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 84-89
summary The objective of this investigation is to explore in the digital configuration and to discuss its implications, inspirations and applications. This investigation intends a design method to be applied spacely in what we have called the re-interpretation of the space experienciable, to drive the project but well toward the production of “scenarios” able to harbor the unpredictability of the civic eventses, fomenting a such organization that articulates the one among of non physical spaces. As final product five “scenarios“ were created (new experiencial virtual experenciable), using technical film in their methodological development where is recognized in the process their qualities and possible bonds, then in a final stage the inter-relationship among the methodological constants generates and feedback the general proposal: The inductive sequence of the ASSEMBLY (expressed through animations), understanding this last concept like the paradigm of the film development applied in this occasion to the architectural proposal.
series SIGRADI
email psvilanov@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id 5ba3
authors Tan, M., Tan, B.K. and Ngahtemin, J.
year 2000
title By Rhyme or Reason. Rapid Design Thinking by Digital Cross Referencing
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 399-410
summary A prime objective of a visual database for design thinking is to support trains of thought. The game of "Rhyme or Reason" provides a clue for the cognitive basis for mind racing. In particular, it shows why in creative design speed matters, why we need memory cues, why reasoning by lateral association and conceptual positioning are as important as logical pattern matching. Unlike a conventional database, such as a banking system, which is concerned with the correct convergence on specific records, visual databases for design thinking need to support divergent exploration. The paper presents a method of "multivalent" tagging of discrete items in the database. It provides for knowledge of relations. This achieves two things. Firstly, it enables the search engine to return a specific database item in different exploratory contexts because of the multiple ways it can meet the search criteria. Secondly, the different tagged aspects of the item can be used to trigger new exploratory routes. The user can explore other tagged aspects whose relationship to the original search criteria need not exist in the indexing system. Short of this, a search is dependent on direct literal or other variants of pattern matching to retrieve only parts of a database. The strategies for sustainable input-output, and for search-storage of a visual database demand high modularity and generic structures which are not dependent on specific software or computer system. The paper specifies its open structure and its transparent and re-configurable methods. These are non-trivial design issues.
series CAADRIA
email akitanbk@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2002/11/29 16:54

_id 0c9c
authors Tweed, Christopher
year 1999
title Prescribing Designs
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 51-57
summary Much of the debate and argument among CAAD researchers has turned on the degree to which CAAD systems limit the ways in which designers can express themselves. By defining representations for design objects and design functions, systems determine what it is possible to describe. Aart Bijl used the term 'prescriptiveness' to refer to this property of systems, and the need to overcome it was a major preoccupation of research at EdCAAD during the 1980s, including the development of the MOLE (Modelling Objects with Logic Expressions) system. But in trying to offer designers the freedom that was judged to be essential to evolving design practices, MOLE transferred much of the burden of programming from system developers to end-users - you can have any design objects you want, as long as you write the code. Close examination of MOLE's logic reveals that it too had to rely on fundamental definitions that, even if not domain-specific, are certainly historically contingent. This paper will return to the issue of prescriptiveness, summarising the lessons learned from the MOLE 'experiment,' and identifying new prescriptions that are deciding what designs can be. Looking beyond computer representations, we find that designs are shaped by much larger, and arguably more powerful, historical, social and cultural forces surrounding design practice. These forces are shaping the way CAAD is used and how new systems are conceived and developed.
keywords Bijl, Prescriptiveness
series eCAADe
email c.tweed@qub.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 672b
authors Vélez Jahn, Gonzalo
year 2000
title Arquitectura Virtual: Fronteras (Virtual Architecture: The Border)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 126-131
summary This paper seeks to provide an updated vision about activities occurring in the area of Virtual Architecture, while identifying an important trend in that area, and pointing a way towards future development of architectural objects based on its ultimate virtual existence. It also forecasts the future rise and boom of the architectural designers of the virtual. As such, this paper is structured according to three basic parts. (1) Basic concepts, environment and evolution. (2) Current state and limitation of virtual architecture. . (3) Foreseeable future- new professional opportunities. // As the focal point in this presentation, this third part presents recent advances identified in the research activity concerning the subject of PermanentVirtual Architecture: multi-user models, inhabited television, mixed realities among others. A number of considerations are also included regarding new design activities opportunities in this new area apparently opening to architectural designers within a foreseeable future.
series SIGRADI
email gvelez@reacciun.ve
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id 6fa1
authors Wang, L., Jozen, T. and Sasada, T.
year 1999
title Construction of a Support System for Environmental Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 545-551
summary The technique described here can be used to support the design process. To do this we constructed a system as follows: First, to obtain resources of design, a semi-structured database was constructed to be share among designers; Second, to collaborate in operations, an XML-based collaborative information system using a semi-structured database was defined; Thirdly, to re-compose the 3DCG model parts, a re-compose system which can compose scenes in a visual space, were constructed; and finally, to support architects at the conceptual stage, a sketch VRML system which can compose 3D sketches, was constructed.
keywords Environmental Design, Re-composition 3DCG, Database
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id ddssar0031
id ddssar0031
authors Witt, Tom
year 2000
title Indecision in quest of design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Designers all start with a solution (Darke, 1984), with what is known (Rittel, 1969, 1970). Hans Menghol, Svein Gusrud and Peter Opvik did so with the chair in the 1970s. Not content with the knowledge of the chair, however, they walked backward to the ignorance of the question that has always elicited the solution of chair and asked themselves the improbable question, “What is a chair?” Their answer was the Balans chair. “Until the introduction of the Norwegian Balans (balance) chair, the multi-billion dollar international chair industry had been surprisingly homogeneous. This chair is the most radical of the twentieth century and probably since the invention of the chair-throne itself (Cranz 1998). Design theorists have tried to understand in a measurable way what is not measurable: the way that designers think. Rather than attempt to analyze something that cannot be taken apart, I attempt to illuminate methods for generating new knowledge through ways of seeing connections that are not logical, and in fact are sometimes ironic. Among the possibilities discussed in this dialogue are the methodological power of language in the form of metaphor, the power of the imagination in mind experiments, the power of mythological story telling, and the power of immeasurable intangibles in the generation of the new knowledge needed to design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2190
authors Yan-chuen, L., Phil, M. and Gilleard, John D.
year 2000
title Refurbishment of building services engineering systems under a collaborative design environment
source Automation in Construction 9 (2) (2000) pp. 185-196
summary In this paper hypermedia is suggested as a suitable paradigm to represent the design processes associated with a shopping center refurbishment project. In addition, by adopting a collaborative design model, the paper makes reference to such factors as synchronous vs. asynchronous and active vs. passive modeling. Concepts in complex problem solving are also explored such as the soft system methodology as well as the application of agent-based decision support systems. Identification of primary information elements and analysis of the relations between these elements indicates that the flow of design information may be readily represented in hypermedia which features nonlinear characteristics in organizing information. The justification of developing a hypermedia tool to cope with changing conditions of a complex design problem instead of providing a solution for a predetermined problem is also argued. The paper illustrates the complex nature of collaborative design process with reference to a case study associated with the building services systems design for a Hong Kong Housing Authority refurbishment project.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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