CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ń either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Đ seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 03b7
authors Zhou, Ming
year 2000
title Use of Computers in Reconstruction of Ancient Buildings
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 223-225
summary Many cities in China today are in the midst of a profound architectural transformation. Among these rapidly developing cities, most of them are many centuries old, possessing rich historical architecture of distinct local traditions. However, the ancient buildings and the neighborhood are disappearing quickly, because of the wholesale demolition for urban development or many years of neglect. In this paper, the use of computers in reconstruction of ancient buildings is briefly discussed with some case studies. The advanced computer technology provides a powerful tool for the ancient architecture preservation and reproduction. It makes the reconstruction engineering more efficient, true to the original, and low cost.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id ga0017
id ga0017
authors McLean, A., Ward, A. and Cox, G.
year 2000
title The aesthetics of generative code
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Aesthetics, in general usage, lays an emphasis on subjective sense perception associated with the broad field of art and human creativity. This paper suggests that it might be useful to revisit the troubled relationship between art and aesthetics for the purpose of discussing the value of generative code. It is now generally accepted that sense perception alone is simply not enough unless contextualised within the world of ideas. Similarly, the world of multimedia is all too easily conflated with a multi-sensory experience (of combining still and moving image, sound, interaction and so on). Thus the limits of traditional aesthetics is emphasised in the problem of defining which of the senses the highest of the arts adheres to -according to Kant and Hegel - the ‘arts of speech’. Poetry throws such crude classificatory distinctions into question as it is both read and heard; or written and spoken/performed. Hegel suggests a way out of this paradox by employing dialectical thinking; as we do not hear speech by simply listening to it. He suggests that we need to represent speech to ourselves in written form in order to grasp what it essentially is. Thus poetry can neither be reduced to audible signs (the time of the ear) nor visible signs (the space of the eye) but is composed of language itself. This suggests that written and spoken forms work together to form a language that we appreciate as poetry. But does code work in the same way? By analogy, generative code has poetic qualities too, as it does not operate in a single moment in time and space but as a series of consecutive ‘actions’ that are repeatable, the outcome of which might be imagined in different contexts. Code is a notation of an internal structure that the computer is executing, expressing ideas, logic, and decisions that operate as an extension of the author's intentions. The written form is merely a computer-readable notation of logic, and is a representation of this process. Yet the written code isn't what the computer really executes, since there are many levels of interpreting and compiling and linking taking place. Code is only really understandable with the context of its overall structure – this is what makes it a language (be it source code or machine code, or even raw bytes). It may be hard to understand someone else’s code but the computer is, after all, multi-lingual. In this sense, understanding someone else's code is very much like listening to poetry in a foreign language - the appreciation goes beyond a mere understanding of the syntax or form of the language used, and as such translation is infamously problematic. Code itself is clearly not poetry as such, but retains some of its rhythm and metrical form. Code is intricately crafted, and expressed in multitudinous and idiosyncratic ways. Like poetry, the aesthetic value of code lies in its execution, not simply its written form. To appreciate it fully we need to ‘see’ the code to fully grasp what it is we are experiencing and to build an understanding of the code’s actions. To separate the code and the resultant actions would simply limit the aesthetic experience, and ultimately the study of these forms - as a form of criticism (what might be better called ‘poetics’).
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 4cd1
authors Abdelmawla, S., Elnimeiri, M. and Krawczyk, R.
year 2000
title Structural Gizmos
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 115-121
summary Architects are visual learners. The Internet has enabled interactive learning tools that can be used to assist in visual thinking of structural concepts, especially at the introductory levels. Here, we propose a visual approach for understanding structures through a series of interactive learning modules, or ’gizmos’. These gizmos, are the tools that the student may use to examine one structural concept at a time. Being interactive, they offer many more possibilities beyond what one static problem can show. The approach aims to enhance students’ visual intuition, and hence understanding of structural concepts and the parameters affecting design. This paper will present selected structural gizmos, how they work, and how they can enhance structural education for architects.
series ACADIA
email krawczyk@iit.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id f08d
authors Abrahamson, S., Wallace, D., Senin, N. and Sferro, P.
year 2000
title Integrated design in a service marketplace
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 32 (2) (2000) pp. 97-107
summary This paper presents a service marketplace vision for enterprise-wide integrated design modeling. In this environment, expert participants and product developmentorganizations are empowered to publish their geometric design, CAE, manufacturing, or marketing capabilities as live services that are operable over the Internet. Theseservices are made available through a service marketplace. Product developers, small or large, can subscribe to and flexibly inter-relate these services to embody adistributed product development organization, while simultaneously creating system models that allow the prediction and analysis of integrated product performance. It ishypothesized that product development services will become commodities, much like many component-level products are today. It will be possible to rapidly interchangeequivalent design service providers so that the development of the product and the definition of the product development organization become part of the same process.Computer-aided design tools will evolve to facilitate the publishing of live design services. A research prototype system called DOME is used to illustrate the concept and apilot study with Ford Motor Company is used in a preliminary assessment of the vision.
keywords Integrated Modeling, System Modeling, Design Service Marketplace
series journal paper
email drwallac@mit.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id eb8a
authors Achten, H., De Vries, B. and Jessurun, J.
year 2000
title DDDOOLZ. A Virtual Reality Sketch Tool for Early Design
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 451-460
summary This paper presents DDDoolz, a desktop-VR three-dimensional voxel sketchtool. DDDoolz is developed in the Design Systems Group to explore the use of Virtual Reality technology in the early design stage. The aim is to offer a sketch-like environment in VR with an unobtrusive interface. The paper presents DDDoolz, how it is used in education and with partners in architectural practice, and some future developments.
series CAADRIA
email h.h.Achten@tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id fa3e
id fa3e
authors Achten, H., de Vries, B. and van Leeuwen, J.
year 2001
title THE VR-DIS RESEARCH PROGRAMME
source Achten, H.H., de Vries, B. and Hennessey, J. (eds). Design Research in the Netherlands 2000, 155-163
series book
type normal paper
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl
more http://www.designresearch.nl/PDF/DRN2000_AchtenDeVriesVanLeeuwen.pdf
last changed 2005/10/12 13:41

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 1dfa
id 1dfa
authors Achten, H.H., de Vries, B. and Hennessey, J. (eds.)
year 2001
title DESIGN RESEARCH IN THE NETHERLANDS 2000 - PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM, EINDHOVEN MAY 25-26 2000
source Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology
series book
type symposium
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl
more http://www.designresearch.nl/PDF/DRN2000_AchtenDeVriesHennessey_Proceedings.pdf
last changed 2005/10/12 13:28

_id f3a9
id f3a9
authors Achten, H.H., de Vries, B. and Hennessey, J.
year 2001
title DESIGN RESEARCH IN THE NETHERLANDS 2000
source Achten, H.H., de Vries, B. and Hennessey, J. (eds). Design Research in the Netherlands 2000, i-vi
series book
type normal paper
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl
more http://www.designresearch.nl/PDF/DRN2000_AchtenDeVriesHennessey_Introduction.pdf
last changed 2005/10/12 13:42

_id ddssar0001
id ddssar0001
authors Achten, Henri and Leeuwen, Jos van
year 2000
title Towards generic representations of designs formalised as features
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Feature-Based Modelling (FBM) is an information modelling technique that allows the formalisation of design concepts and using these formal definitions in design modelling. The dynamic nature of design and design information calls for a specialised approach to FBM that takes into account flexibility and extensibility of Feature Models of designs. Research work in Eindhoven has led to a FBM framework and implementation that can be used to support design.. Feature models of a design process has demonstrated the feasibility of using this information modelling technique. To develop the work on FBM in design, three tracks are initiated: Feature model descriptions of design processes, automated generic representation recognition in graphic representations, and Feature models of generic representations. The paper shows the status of the work in the first two tracks, and present the results of the research work.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ae61
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1999
title CAAD - Integrated with the First Steps into Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 266-272
summary How and when should CAAD be introduced in the curriculum of the School of Architecture? This paper begins with some arguments for starting CAAD education at the very beginning. At the School of Architecture in Lund teachers in the first year courses have tried to integrate CAAD with the introduction to architectural concepts and techniques. Traditionally the first year is divided by several subjects running courses separatly without any contact for coordination. From the academic year 96/97 the teachers of Aplied aestetics, Building Science, Architectural design and CAAD have decided to colaborate as much as possible to make the role of our different fields as clear as possible to the students. Therefore integrating CAAD was a natural step in the academic year 98/99. The computer techniques were taught one step in advance so that the students can practise their understanding of the programs in their tasks in the other subjects. The results were surprisingly good! The students have quickly learned to mix the manual and computer techniques to make expressive and interesting visual presentations of their ideas. Some students with antipaty to computers have overcome this handicap. Some interesting observations are discussed.
keywords Curriculum, First Year Studies, Integration, CAAD, Modelling
series eCAADe
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 01c0
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 2000
title Modelling for Virtual Reality in Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 209-213
summary CAAD systems are using object modelling methods for building databases to make information available. Object data must then be made useful for many different purposes in the design process. Even if the capacity of the computer will allow an almost unlimited amount of information to be transformed, the eye does not make the transformations in the same “simple” mathematical way. Trained architects have to involve in an inventive process of finding ways to “harmonize” this new medium with the human eye and the architect’s professional experience. This paper will be an interimistic report from a surveying course. During the spring semester 2000 the CAAD division of TU-Lund is giving a course “Modelling for VR in Architecture”. The students are practising architects with experience from using object modelling CAAD. The aims are to survey different ways to use available hard- and software to create VR-models of pieces of architecture and evaluate them in desktop and CAVE environments. The architect is to do as much preparation work as possible with his CAAD program and only the final adjustments with the special VR tool.
keywords CAAD, VR, Modelling, Spatial Experience
series eCAADe
email jonas.af_klercker@caad.lth.se
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 37c2
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 1999
title Visualisation of Design Using Animation for Virtual Prototyping
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 519-525
summary Although recent technology in time-based representation has vastly improved, animation in virtual prototype design field remains the same. Some designers invest a huge amount of money in the latest visualisation and multimedia technology and yet may create even worse animation. They often cramp sequences resulting in many viewers failing to interpret the design positively as they miss a lot of vital information that explains the design. This paper basically reports the importance of film-making understanding for producing good virtual prototype animation. It will be based on a part of a research project on the use of time-based media in architectural practices. It also includes an empirical analysis of several architectural-based documentary films (including an interview with the film director) and past and present computer animation. This paper then concludes with recommendations of good techniques for making animated visualisation relative to the stage at which the animation is produced for better design decision.
keywords Virtual Prototype, Animation, Time-Based, Film-Making
series eCAADe
email rafi@unitele.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 9b44
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2000
title The Importance of Virtual Environments in the Design of Electronic Games and Their Relevance to Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 181-185
summary Ever increasing complexity in architectural design and the need to deliver a cost effective solution requires the employment and adoption of innovative design methods. Although technological changes have entered the field of architecture at a slower pace, the recent adoption of 3D modelling, Virtual Environment and multimedia represent significant changes in architectural design, visualisation and presentation. These now include tools for conceptualisation, design synthesis, design presentation, desktop publishing, animation, Internet and hypermedia authoring. Uddin argues that the major activities involved in the creative and dynamic process of architectural design deal with conceptualisation, visualisation and expression of alternative ideas through two-dimensional and three-dimensional model. This paper highlights the need for the employment of emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to enhance the design process through better decision-making, higher quality communication and collaboration, error reduction, spatial awareness, interactive design and real-time visualisation.
keywords CAD, Game Design, Virtual Reality, Virtual Environments, Virtual Prototyping, Internet Technologies, Architecture
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 63cb
authors Ai, J., Tang, H. and Chen, Y.
year 2000
title An Approach to Generate 3D Animation by Integrating Building Model into Site Pictures
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 433-439
summary The paper deals with a simple and cheap solution to represent 3Danimation of a future building at its actual site scenery. It is hopeful to be used in small or middle projects in order to get satisfy effect and save design cost.
series CAADRIA
email aijixi@yahoo.com.cn, webmouse@cool.com.cn
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 449f
authors Aish, Robert
year 2000
title Collaborative Design using Long Transactions and "Change Merge"
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 107-111
summary If our goal is implement collaborative engineering across temporal, spatial and discipline dimensions, then it is suggested that we first have to address the necessary pre-requisites, which include both the deployment of "enterprise computing" and an understanding of the computing concepts on which such enterprise systems are based. This paper will consider the following computing concepts and the related concepts in the world of design computing, and discuss how these concepts have been realised in Bentley SystemsŐ ProjectBank collaborative engineering data repository: Computing Concept Related Design Concept Normalisation Model v. Report (or Drawing) Transaction Consistency of Design Long Transaction Parallelisation of Design Change Merge Coordination (synchronisation) Revisions Coordination (synchronisation) While we are most probably familiar with the applications of existing datadase concepts (such as Normalisation and Transaction Management) to the design process, the intent of this paper to focus
series eCAADe
email robert.aish@bentley.com
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 6d7d
id 6d7d
authors Aken, J. van
year 2001
title DOMAIN INDEPENDENT DESIGN THEORY
source Achten, H.H., de Vries, B. and Hennessey, J. (eds). Design Research in the Netherlands 2000, 9-17
series book
type normal paper
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl
more http://www.designresearch.nl/PDF/DRN2000_vanAken.pdf
last changed 2005/10/12 13:32

_id 1838
authors Akleman, E., Chen, J. and Meric, B.
year 2000
title Intuitive and Effective Design of Periodic Symmetric Tiles
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 123-127
summary This paper presents a new approach for intuitive and effective design of periodic symmetric tiles. We observe that planar graphs can effectively represent symmetric tiles and graph drawing provides an intuitive paradigm for designing symmetric tiles. Moreover, based on our theoretical work to represent hexagonal symmetry by rectangular symmetry, we are able to present all symmetric tiles as graphs embedded on a torus and based on simple modulo operations. This approach enables us to develop a simple and efficient algorithm, which has been implemented in Java. By using this software, designers, architects and artists can create interesting symmetric tiles directly on the web. We also have designed a few examples of symmetric tiles to show the effectiveness of the approach.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id b088
authors Al-Qawasmi, Jamal
year 2000
title Learning Virtually: A Paradigm Shift in Design Education
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 123-133
summary We still think of architectural design education in terms of a "classroom" paradigm, that is, of an instructor teaching design skills to a class of students in a face-to-face format. However, emerging communication and collaboration technologies have created tremendous new opportunities to distribute students and faculty, while maintaining a close personal contact. This paper discusses and characterizes several aspects of the evolving paradigm of teaching design made possible by the ability to work in shared virtual environments.
series CAADRIA
email qawasmij@yahoo.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

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