CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 697

_id ga0022
id ga0022
authors Tokui, Nao and Iba, Hitoshi
year 2000
title Music Composition with Interactive Evolutionary Computation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC), i.e., Evolutionary Computation whose fitness function is provided by a user his/herself, has been applied to esthetic areas, such as art, design and music. We cannot necessarily define fitness functions explicitly in these areas. With IEC, however, we can embed the user's implicit preference into the optimization system. This paper describes a new approach to music composition, more precisely the composition of rhythms, by means of IEC. The main feature of our method is to combine Genetic Algorithms (GA) and Genetic Programming (GP). In our system, GA individuals represent short pieces of rhythmic patterns, while GP individuals express how these patterns are arranged in terms of their functions. Both populations are evolved interactively through the user's evaluation. The integration of interactive GA and GP makes it possible to search for musical structures effectively in the vast search space. In this paper, we show how successfully our proposed method can generate attractive musical rhythms. The effectiveness of our system is demonstrated by the evolved rhythm phrases, which are available from our web site as sound files.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 735b
authors Tolone, W.J.
year 2000
title Virtual situation rooms: connecting people across enterprises for supply-chain agility
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 32 (2) (2000) pp. 109-117
summary Agility and time-based manufacturing are critical success factors for today's manufacturing enterprise. To be competitive, enterprises must integrate their supply chains moreeffectively and forge close memberships with customers and suppliers more quickly. Consequently, technologies must be developed that enable enterprises to respond toconsumer demand more quickly, integrate with suppliers more effectively, adapt to market variations more efficiently and evolve product designs with manufacturing practicesmore seamlessly. The mission of the Extended-Enterprise Coalition for Integrated Collaborative Manufacturing Systems coalition is to research, develop, and demonstratetechnologies to enable the integration of manufacturing applications in a multi-company supply chain planning and execution environment. We believe real-time andasynchronous collaboration technology will play a critical role in allowing manufacturers to increase their supply chain agility. We are realizing our efforts through our VirtualSituation Room (VSR) technology. The primary goal of the VSR technology is to enhance current ad-hoc, limited methods and mechanisms for spontaneous, real-timecommunication using feature-rich, industry standards-based building blocks and network protocols. VSR technology is being designed to find and engage quickly all relevantmembers of a problem solving team supported by highly interactive, conversational access to information and control and enabled by business processes, security policies andtechnologies, intelligence, and integration tools.
keywords Collaborative Systems, Supply Chain Integration, Real-Time Conferencing
series journal paper
email wjtolone@uncc.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 35d4
authors Tzonis, Alexander
year 2000
title Community in the Mind. A Model for Personal and Collaborative Design
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 1-14
summary The present paper will discuss a landmark historical change that occurred during the last decade redefining architecture from an insular, solitary, and private activity into a distributed, cooperative, and community-based one. It will inquire into the reasons for this shift and explore the need to develop a new framework for personal and collaborative design and the opportunities resulting from it. How do we reason together in design? What are the criteria for selecting the technology to be used? How is knowledge acquired in such interactive framework? What are the new problems that emerge out of Collaborative Design? What are the new criteria to be applied when evaluating new design methods in the new context of Design Community? The paper will also examine some ideas related to a model for Personal and Collaborative Design and explore cognitive aspects of Community in the Mind. It will raise some basic question concerning new directions for research: The relation between Collaborative Design model to the cross-cultural design practice and the relation between cognitive organization of the Design Mind and the social organization of the Design Community.
series CAADRIA
email a.tzonis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 2aaa
authors Vásquez de Velasco, Guillermo and Hutchison, David
year 1999
title Virtual Reality Meets Telematics: Design and Development of the Infinity Room
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 466-472
summary The paper presents the findings of three years of experimentation in the use of compressed videoconferencing in international virtual design studios. Based on these findings, the authors elaborate on the development of a new videoconferencing interface: "The Infinity Room". The Infinity Room is a design studio space containing a floor-to-ceiling rear projection screen wall that conceals a dark room equipped with 5 video cameras and 4 video projectors that reproduce, on one-to-one scale, the images captured in a similar installation at a remote location. Operationally, the video cameras feed a computer that eliminate image redundancies, codes all the sources into a single entity and sends it as a compressed video signal to a remote computer that decodes and decompresses the images for synchronized delivery through the video projectors. The tiling effect of 4 synchronized and fully interactive video images creates the illusion of an adjacent room. The paper describes the design parameters used in the development of the Infinity Room and elaborates on the technology that makes it feasible. Requirements and constraints on physical space, hardware, software, and networking are discussed. The paper ends with conclusions that highlight the technical feasibility of building a small-scale prototype.
keywords Virtual Design Studio (VDS), Virtual Reality (VR), Telematics, Videoconferencing, Collaborative Design
series eCAADe
email vasquez@archone.tamu.edu
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id d3e9
authors Whyte, J., Bouchlaghem, N., Thorpe, A. and McCaffer, R.,
year 2000
title From CAD to virtual reality: modelling approaches, data exchange and interactive 3D building design tools
source Automation in Construction 10 (1) (2000) pp. 43-55
summary Virtual reality has the potential to improve visualisation of building design and construction, but its implementation in the industry has yet to reach maturity. Present day translation of building data to virtual reality is often unidirectional and unsatisfactory. Three different approaches to the creation of models are identified and described in this paper. Consideration is given to the potential of both advances in computer-aided design and the emerging standards for data exchange to facilitate an integrated use of virtual reality. Commonalities and differences between computer-aided design and virtual reality packages are reviewed, and trials of current system, are described. The trials have been conducted to explore the technical issues related to the integrated use of CAD and virtual environments within the house building sector of the construction industry and to investigate the practical use of the new technology.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 3e51
authors Cerulli, C., Peng, C. and Lawson, B.
year 2001
title Capturing Histories of Design Processes for Collaborative Building Design Development. Field Trial of the ADS Prototype
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 427-437
summary The ADS Project - Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process - builds on the technological results of the previous COMMIT Project to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD based Design Decision Support System. COMMIT provides a system for storing knowledge about knowledge within the design process. It records design decisions, the actors who take them and the roles they play when doing so. ADS links COMMIT to an existing object-oriented CAD system, MicroStation/J from Bentley Systems. The project focuses on tackling the problem of managing design information without intruding too much on the design process itself. It provides the possibility to effectively link design decisions back to requirements, to gather rationale information for later stages of the building lifecycle, and to gather knowledge of rationale for later projects. The system enables members of the project team, including clients and constructors, to browse and search the recorded project history of decision making both during and after design development. ADS aims to facilitate change towards a more collaborative process in construction design, to improve the effectiveness of decision-making throughout the construction project and to provide clients with the facility to relate design outcomes to design briefs across the whole building life cycle. In this paper we will describe the field trials of the ADS prototype carried out over a three-month period at the Building Design Partnership (BDP) Manchester office. The objective of these trials is to assess the extent, to which the approach underlying ADS enhances the design process, and to gather and document the views and experiences of practitioners. The ADS prototype was previously tested with historical data of real project (Peng, Cerulli et al. 2000). To gather more valuable knowledge about how a Decision Support System like ADS can be used in practice, the testing and evaluation will be extended to a real project, while it is still ongoing. The live case study will look at some phases of the design of a mixed residential and retail development in Leeds, UK, recording project information while it is created. The users’ feedback on the system usability will inform the continuous redevelopment process that will run in parallel to the live case study. The ADS and COMMIT Projects were both funded by EPSRC.
keywords Design Rationale, Design Support Systems, Usability Evaluation
series CAAD Futures
email c.cerulli@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ga0007
id ga0007
authors Coates, Paul and Miranda, Pablo
year 2000
title Swarm modelling. The use of Swarm Intelligence to generate architectural form
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary .neither the human purposes nor the architect's method are fully known in advance. Consequently, if this interpretation of the architectural problem situation is accepted, any problem-solving technique that relies on explicit problem definition, on distinct goal orientation, on data collection, or even on non-adaptive algorithms will distort the design process and the human purposes involved.' Stanford Anderson, "Problem-Solving and Problem-Worrying". The works concentrates in the use of the computer as a perceptive device, a sort of virtual hand or "sense", capable of prompting an environment. From a set of data that conforms the environment (in this case the geometrical representation of the form of the site) this perceptive device is capable of differentiating and generating distinct patterns in its behavior, patterns that an observer has to interpret as meaningful information. As Nicholas Negroponte explains referring to the project GROPE in his Architecture Machine: 'In contrast to describing criteria and asking the machine to generate physical form, this exercise focuses on generating criteria from physical form.' 'The onlooking human or architecture machine observes what is "interesting" by observing GROPE's behavior rather than by receiving the testimony that this or that is "interesting".' The swarm as a learning device. In this case the work implements a Swarm as a perceptive device. Swarms constitute a paradigm of parallel systems: a multitude of simple individuals aggregate in colonies or groups, giving rise to collaborative behaviors. The individual sensors can't learn, but the swarm as a system can evolve in to more stable states. These states generate distinct patterns, a result of the inner mechanics of the swarm and of the particularities of the environment. The dynamics of the system allows it to learn and adapt to the environment; information is stored in the speed of the sensors (the more collisions, the slower) that acts as a memory. The speed increases in the absence of collisions and so providing the system with the ability to forget, indispensable for differentiation of information and emergence of patterns. The swarm is both a perceptive and a spatial phenomenon. For being able to Interact with an environment an observer requires some sort of embodiment. In the case of the swarm, its algorithms for moving, collision detection, and swarm mechanics conform its perceptive body. The way this body interacts with its environment in the process of learning and differentiation of spatial patterns constitutes also a spatial phenomenon. The enactive space of the Swarm. Enaction, a concept developed by Maturana and Varela for the description of perception in biological terms, is the understanding of perception as the result of the structural coupling of an environment and an observer. Enaction does not address cognition in the currently conventional sense as an internal manipulation of extrinsic 'information' or 'signals', but as the relation between environment and observer and the blurring of their identities. Thus, the space generated by the swarm is an enactive space, a space without explicit description, and an invention of the swarm-environment structural coupling. If we consider a gestalt as 'Some property -such as roundness- common to a set of sense data and appreciated by organisms or artefacts' (Gordon Pask), the swarm is also able to differentiate space 'gestalts' or spaces of some characteristics, such as 'narrowness', or 'fluidness' etc. Implicit surfaces and the wrapping algorithm. One of the many ways of describing this space is through the use of implicit surfaces. An implicit surface may be imagined as an infinitesimally thin band of some measurable quantity such as color, density, temperature, pressure, etc. Thus, an implicit surface consists of those points in three-space that satisfy some particular requirement. This allows as to wrap the regions of space where a difference of quantity has been produced, enclosing the spaces in which some particular events in the history of the Swarm have occurred. The wrapping method allows complex topologies, such as manifoldness in one continuous surface. It is possible to transform the information generated by the swarm in to a landscape that is the result of the particular reading of the site by the swarm. Working in real time. Because of the complex nature of the machine, the only possible way to evaluate the resulting behavior is in real time. For this purpose specific applications had to be developed, using OpenGL for the Windows programming environment. The package consisted on translators from DXF format to a specific format used by these applications and viceversa, the Swarm "engine", a simulated parallel environment, and the Wrapping programs, to generate the implicit surfaces. Different versions of each had been produced, in different stages of development of the work.
series other
email p.s.coates@uel.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id d0aa
authors Colajanni, Benedetto, Concialdi, Salvatore and Pellitteri, Giuseppe
year 1999
title CoCoMa: a Collaborative Constraint Management System for the Collaborative Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 364-369
summary Collaborative Design is a topic of particular current interest. Existing software allows a multiplicity of designers to work on the same project. What the software really allows is accessing to a part of the information of the project and changing it. Sometimes there is a hierarchical distribution of the power of change: some participants can be permitted to operate only on some limited layers of the object representation. In this case the changes they propose are to be accepted by a general manager of the design process. What is lacking in this kind of software is the explicit management on the reciprocal constraints posed by different participants. In this paper, an elementary Collaborative Design System is presented whose main concern is just the management of constraints. Each participant designs the part of the project of his/her concern instantiating objects comprised of geometric description, alphanumeric variables and constraints on both. Constraints can be of two types: absolute or defined by a range of allowed values of the constrained variable. A participant intervening later can accept the constraint, choosing a value in the permitted range, or decide to violate it. In this case the proposed violation is signalled to whom posed it.
keywords Collaborative Design, Design Process, Management System, Participant Designs, Constraints Violation
series eCAADe
email bcolajan@unipa.it, ciesse@neomedia.it, pellitt@unipa.it
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id ddssar0007
id ddssar0007
authors Cooper, G., Rezqui, Y., Jackson, M., Lawson, B., Peng, C. and Cerulli, C.
year 2000
title A CAD-based decision support system for the design stage of a construction project
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Decisions made during the design process are multi-dimensional, combining together factors which range from the highly subjective to the perfectly objective. These decisions are made by many, often non co-located, actors belonging to different disciplines. Moreover, there is a high risk for misunderstandings, inappropriate changes, and decisions, which are not notified to all interested parties. The ADS project (Advanced Decision Support for Construction Design) builds on the results of the earlier COMMIT project to provide an information management system, which addresses these problems. It defines mechanisms to handle the proactive management of information to support decision-making in collaborative projects. Different aspects of the COMMIT system have already been widely published, and the team is now applying the results in the context of construction design. These are referenced in the present paper, which gives an overview of the results of the COMMIT project and discusses some of the issue involved in applying them to the design process in conjunction with an advanced CAD tool.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 10e9
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title DYNAMO in Action - Development and Use of a Web-Based Design Tool
source J. Pohl & T. Fowler (eds.), Proceedings of the Focus Symposium on Advances in Computer-Based and Web-Based Collaborative Systems - InterSymp-2000 International Conference On Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, Baden-Baden (Germany), July 31 - Aug 4, 2000 (ISBN 0-921836-88-0), pp. 233-242
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Design (CBD), the paper describes the development and use of a Web-based design tool called DYNAMO. The tool is firmly rooted in the Dynamic Memory Theory underlying the CBD approach. Yet, rather than adopting it as such, we have tried to enrich this approach by extrapolating it beyond the individual. This extrapolation stimulates and intensifies several modes of interaction. Doing so, DYNAMO tries to kill two birds with one stone. At short notice, it provides architects and architecture students with a rich source of inspiration, ideas and design knowledge for their present design task, as it is filled with a permanently growing collection of design cases that is accessible on-line. Its long-term objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by the cognitive model underlying CBD, and Case-Based Reasoning in general. DYNAMO is therefore conceived as an (inter-)active workhouse rather than a passive warehouse: it is interactively developed by and actively develops the user's design knowledge. Whereas previous papers have focused on the theoretical ideas of DYNAMO, this paper points out how Web technology enables us to implement these ideas as a working prototype. Furthermore, an annotated scenario of the system in use is described.
keywords Case-Based Design, Web Technology, Architectural Design
series journal paper
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/11/22 13:50

_id 326c
authors Hirschberg, U., Gramazio, F., Hľger, K., Liaropoulos Legendre, G., Milano, M. and Stöger, B.
year 2000
title EventSpaces. A Multi-Author Game And Design Environment
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 65-72
summary EventSpaces is a web-based collaborative teaching environment we developed for our elective CAAD course. Its goal is to let the students collectively design a prototypical application - the EventSpaces.Game. The work students do to produce this game and the process of how they interact is actually a game in its own right. It is a process that is enabled by the EventSpaces.System, which combines work, learning, competition and play in a shared virtual environment. The EventSpaces.System allows students to criticize, evaluate, and rate each otherŐs contributions, thereby distributing the authorship credits of the game. The content of the game is therefore created in a collaborative as well as competitive manner. In the EventSpaces.System, the students form a community that shares a common interest in the development of the EventSpaces.Game. At the same time they are competing to secure as much credit as possible for themselves. This playful incentive in turn helps to improve the overall quality of the EventSpaces.Game, which is in the interest of all authors. This whole, rather intricate functionality, which also includes a messaging system for all EventSpaces activities, is achieved by means of a database driven online working environment that manages and displays all works produced. It preserves and showcases each authorŐs contributions in relation to the whole and allows for the emergence of coherence from the multiplicity of solutions. This Paper first presents the motivation for the project and gives a short technical summary of how the project was implemented. Then it describes the nature of the exercises and discusses possible implications that this approach to collaboration and teaching might have.
series eCAADe
email hirschberg@arch.ethz.ch, gramazio@arch.ethz.ch, hoeger@arch.ethz.ch, georgell@gsd.harvard.edu, milano@arch.ethz.ch, staeger@arch.ethz.ch
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ddssar0023
id ddssar0023
authors Jens Pohl, Art Chapman, and Kym Jason Pohl
year 2000
title Computer-aided design systems for the 21st century: some design guidelines
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper proposes nine design principles for a new generation of computer-aided design (CAD) systems that actively support the decision making and problem solving activities of environmental design. Foremost among these are: a meaningful internal object-based representation of the artifact being designed within its environmental context; a collaborative problem solving paradigm in which the human designer and the computer form a complementary partnership; and, the notion of decision-support tools rather than predefined solutions. Two prototype computer-aided design systems implemented by the CAD Research Center that embody most of these concepts are described. ICADS (Intelligent Computer-Aided Design System) incorporates multiple expert agents in domains such as natural and artificial lighting, noise control, structural system selection, climatic determinants, and energy conservation. Given a particular building design context, the agents in ICADS draw upon their own expertise and several knowledgebases as they monitor the actions of the human designer and collaborate opportunistically. KOALA (Knowledge-Based Object-Agent Collaboration) builds on the multi-agent concepts embodied in ICADS by the addition of two kinds of agents. Mentor agents represent the interests of selected objects within the ontology of the design environment. In the implemented KOALA system building spaces are represented by agents capable of collaborating with each other, with domain agents for the provision of expert services, and with the human designer. Facilitator agents listen in on the communications among mentor agents to detect conflicts and moderate arguments. While both of these prototype systems are limited in scope by focussing on the earliest design stages and restricted in their understanding of the inherent complexity of a design state, they nevertheless promise a paradigm shift in computer-aided design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0d08
authors Kaga, A., Nakahama, K., Yamaguchi, S., Jyozen, T., Oh, S. and> Sasada, T.
year 2000
title Collaborative Design System for Citizen Participation
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 35-44
summary Citizens are becoming increasingly aware of the issues involved in public utility projects. Therefore, it is becoming important for public works departments of local governments to obtain consent from the residents concerned. We established the collaborative design system for citizen participation with using computer graphics. With using the system we found that the related persons have some requirements about collaborative design system. It can be effectively done with network and multimedia technologies. This paper presents the requirements for new collaborative design system.
series CAADRIA
email kaga@hankyu.co.jp
last changed 2002/09/05 07:30

_id c97f
authors Kvan, Thomas and Candy, Linda
year 2000
title Designing Collaborative Environments for Strategic Knowledge in Design
source Knowledge-Based Systems, 13:6, November 2000, pp. 429-438
summary This paper considers aspects of strategic knowledge in design and some implications for designing in collaborative environments. Two key questions underline the concerns. First; how can strategic knowledge for collaborative design be taught and second; what kind of computer-based collaborative designing might best support the learning of strategic knowledge? We argue that the support of learning of strategic knowledge in collaborative design by computer-mediated means must be based upon empirical evidence about the nature of learning and design practice in the real world. This evidence suggests different ways of using computer-support for design learning and acquistion of strategic design knowledge. Examples of research by the authors that seeks to provide that evidence are described and an approach to computer system design and evaluation proposed.
keywords Collaborative Design; Strategic Knowledge; Empirical Studies; Computer Support
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id ddssar0019
id ddssar0019
authors Madrazo, Leandro
year 2000
title Networking: media, representation and architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary In this paper we present a pedagogic work, carried out in a third year architecture course, focused on the relationship between teaching content and media. The subject-matter of the course is the concept of representation; an eminently philosophical issue which transcends the limits of a particular discipline. The media that have been used are mostly the web, along with other standard programs to process text and images, create models and animations. The core of this research work is the course ‘Sistemas de Representación’, which has taken place for the first time in the academic year 1999/00. The course is structured in six themes, each one standing for a system of representation: TEXT, FIGURE, OBJECT, IMAGE, SPACE and LIGHT. Within every system, a variety of topics dealing with the concept of representation are addressed in an interdisciplinary manner. A web based learning environment named NETWORKING has been created especially for the course. This environment allows students to perform a variety of collaborative works: drawing visual and linguistic relationships, developing further the works of other students, and participating in collective processes of form generation and space perception.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0657
authors Morozumi, M., Homma, R., Shounai, Y., Yamaguchi, S. and Kawasumi, N.
year 2001
title Web-based collaborative design studio: tools and programs
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 93-102
summary Since 1996, Kumamoto University has repeated several experiments to apply web-based collaborative design techniques to a junior design studio aiming to stimulate studentsí interaction in the class and to enhance their design abilities. When it became clear after a two-year experiment that writing web pages and uploading them to a web server was a barrier of communication for students, the authors developed a web-based groupware called GW-Notebook, and started using it in 1998. In the fall semester of 2000, the authors introduced a new design studio program, and tested the revised version of the groupware, GW-Notebook III. This paper discusses the features of the system, and gives an outline of the studio program and some of the findings in the studio as well as the use of the revised system.
series CAADRIA
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 05db
authors Peri, Christopher
year 2000
title Exercising Collaborative Design in a Virtual Environment
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 63-71
summary In the last few years remote collaborative design has been attracting interest, and with good reason: Almost everything we use today, whether it is the structure we inhabit, the vehicle we travel in, or the computer we work on, is the result of a number of participants’ contributions to a single design. At the same time, more and more design teams are working in remote locations from one another. In a distributed design situation with remote players, communication is key for successful and effective collaboration. Archville is a distributed, Web-based VR system that allows multiple users to interact with multiple models at the same time. We use it as a platform to exercise collaborative design by requiring students to build individual buildings as part of a city, or village and must share some common formal convention with their neighbors. The Archville exercise demonstrates to students how we can use computing and the Internet to design collaboratively. It also points out the need to have correct up-to-date information when working on collaborative projects because of the dynamic nature of the design process. In addition to architectural design and computer modeling, the exercise immerses students in the political and social aspects of designing within a community, where many of the design constraints must be negotiated, and where group work is often required. The paper describes both the pedagogical and the technical attributes of the Archville project.
keywords Collaboration, Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Real-Time, VRML
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id ddssar0027
id ddssar0027
authors Tüzmen, AyVa
year 2000
title Process management for collaborative building design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Collaborative building design relies on people working coordinately to accomplish the requirements of a design project. Coordination is achieved by well organized, informed and communicating design teams. However, not all design teams in current design practice are well organized and well informed about where the project stands. This paper introduces a process management system that facilitates the management of the enactment of a collaborative design process. At the highest level, the process management system enables (a) the design teams to describe the design process that will be enacted by the team, (b) the enactment of the design process according to its process definition, (c) the management of the resources required for the enactment of the process. The paper also presents the findings of a validation and verification (V&V) study that is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system in the establishment of a collaborative design environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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