CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 697

_id 6fa1
authors Wang, L., Jozen, T. and Sasada, T.
year 1999
title Construction of a Support System for Environmental Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 545-551
summary The technique described here can be used to support the design process. To do this we constructed a system as follows: First, to obtain resources of design, a semi-structured database was constructed to be share among designers; Second, to collaborate in operations, an XML-based collaborative information system using a semi-structured database was defined; Thirdly, to re-compose the 3DCG model parts, a re-compose system which can compose scenes in a visual space, were constructed; and finally, to support architects at the conceptual stage, a sketch VRML system which can compose 3D sketches, was constructed.
keywords Environmental Design, Re-composition 3DCG, Database
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 2190
authors Yan-chuen, L., Phil, M. and Gilleard, John D.
year 2000
title Refurbishment of building services engineering systems under a collaborative design environment
source Automation in Construction 9 (2) (2000) pp. 185-196
summary In this paper hypermedia is suggested as a suitable paradigm to represent the design processes associated with a shopping center refurbishment project. In addition, by adopting a collaborative design model, the paper makes reference to such factors as synchronous vs. asynchronous and active vs. passive modeling. Concepts in complex problem solving are also explored such as the soft system methodology as well as the application of agent-based decision support systems. Identification of primary information elements and analysis of the relations between these elements indicates that the flow of design information may be readily represented in hypermedia which features nonlinear characteristics in organizing information. The justification of developing a hypermedia tool to cope with changing conditions of a complex design problem instead of providing a solution for a predetermined problem is also argued. The paper illustrates the complex nature of collaborative design process with reference to a case study associated with the building services systems design for a Hong Kong Housing Authority refurbishment project.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 4cd1
authors Abdelmawla, S., Elnimeiri, M. and Krawczyk, R.
year 2000
title Structural Gizmos
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 115-121
summary Architects are visual learners. The Internet has enabled interactive learning tools that can be used to assist in visual thinking of structural concepts, especially at the introductory levels. Here, we propose a visual approach for understanding structures through a series of interactive learning modules, or ’gizmos’. These gizmos, are the tools that the student may use to examine one structural concept at a time. Being interactive, they offer many more possibilities beyond what one static problem can show. The approach aims to enhance students’ visual intuition, and hence understanding of structural concepts and the parameters affecting design. This paper will present selected structural gizmos, how they work, and how they can enhance structural education for architects.
series ACADIA
email krawczyk@iit.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id b0e7
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2000
title The Re-Convergence of Art and Science: A Vehicle for Creativity
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 491-500
summary Ever-increasing complexity in product design and the need to deliver a cost-effective solution that benefits from a dynamic approach requires the employment and adoption of innovative design methods which ensure that products are of the highest quality and meet or exceed customers' expectations. According to Bronowski (1976) science and art were originally two faces of the same human creativity. However, as civilisation advances and works became specialised, the dichotomy of science and art gradually became apparent. Hence scientists and artists were born, and began to develop work that was polar opposite. The sense of beauty itself became separated from science and was confined within the field of art. This dichotomy existed through mankind's efforts in advancing civilisation to its present state. This paper briefly examines the relationship between art and science through the ages and discusses their relatively recent re-convergence. Based on this hypothesis, this paper studies the current state of the convergence between arts and sciences and examines the current relationship between the two by considering real world applications and products. The study of such products and their successes and impact they had in the marketplace due to their designs and aesthetics rather than their advanced technology that had partially failed them appears to support this argument. This text further argues that a re-convergence between art and science is currently occurring and highlights the need for accelerating this process. It is suggested that re-convergence is a result of new technologies which are adopted by practitioners that include effective visualisation and communication of ideas and concepts. Such elements are widely found today in multimedia and Virtual Environments (VEs) where such tools offer increased power and new abilities to both scientists and designers as both venture in each other's domains. This paper highlights the need for the employment of emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to enhance the design process through real-time prototyping and visualisation, better decision-making, higher quality communication and collaboration, lessor error and reduced design cycles. Effective employment and adoption of innovative design methods that ensure products are delivered on time, and within budget, are of the highest quality and meet customer expectations are becoming of ever increasing importance. Such tools and concepts are outlined and their roles in the industries they currently serve are identified. Case studies from differing fields are also studied. It is also suggested that Virtual Reality interfaces should be used and given access to Computer Aided Design (CAD) model information and data so that users may interrogate virtual models for additional information and functionality. Adoption and appliance of such integrated technologies over the Internet and their relevance to electronic commerce is also discussed. Finally, emerging software and hardware technologies are outlined and case studies from the architecture, electronic games, and retail industries among others are discussed, the benefits are subsequently put forward to support the argument. The requirements for adopting such technologies in financial, skills required and process management terms are also considered and outlined.
series CAADRIA
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my, karboulonis@clara.co.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 9b44
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2000
title The Importance of Virtual Environments in the Design of Electronic Games and Their Relevance to Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 181-185
summary Ever increasing complexity in architectural design and the need to deliver a cost effective solution requires the employment and adoption of innovative design methods. Although technological changes have entered the field of architecture at a slower pace, the recent adoption of 3D modelling, Virtual Environment and multimedia represent significant changes in architectural design, visualisation and presentation. These now include tools for conceptualisation, design synthesis, design presentation, desktop publishing, animation, Internet and hypermedia authoring. Uddin argues that the major activities involved in the creative and dynamic process of architectural design deal with conceptualisation, visualisation and expression of alternative ideas through two-dimensional and three-dimensional model. This paper highlights the need for the employment of emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to enhance the design process through better decision-making, higher quality communication and collaboration, error reduction, spatial awareness, interactive design and real-time visualisation.
keywords CAD, Game Design, Virtual Reality, Virtual Environments, Virtual Prototyping, Internet Technologies, Architecture
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id a172
authors Brian Jeffrey Palidar
year 2000
title Live and Direct:A Research and Development Facility for Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Applications
source University of Washington, Design Machine Group
summary This thesis proposed a design project focusing on creating a center for the incorporation, assembly, and demonstration of cutting edge research in AI applications. The project s client is an Institute dedicated to developing the platform for general intelligence by assembling current research and technologies into composite prototypes that push the boundaries of artificial beings. This center also proposes an interactive forum in which the general public can experience the results of the research first hand as well as learn about past projects, attend lectures and presentations, and other activities related to this endeavor and its implications to humanity.
series thesis:MSc
more http://dmg.caup.washington.edu/xmlSiteEngine/browsers/stylin/publications.html
last changed 2004/06/02 17:12

_id b09a
authors Ceccato, C., Falk, L. and Fischer, Th.
year 2000
title The Silk Road: An Interactive Online Encyclopaedia as a Foundation for Networked Education in Design
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 50-54
summary This paper describes a multidisciplinary design studio project conducted in Spring 2000 titled “The Silk Road”. The studio is an implementation of an innovative initiative in design education known as Networked Education in Design (NED) and is a further component in a series of on-line, interactive design studios under development at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University School of Design. NED is an educational philosophy, a pedagogical strategy encompassing several different aspects of Internet and Intranet communications, multimedia and shared learning environments, with the goal to decentralise the campus experience, enhance the local-global academic dialogue, and create an interdisciplinary, extendable and flexible virtual learning environment. In the case illustrated here, NED was manifested as an “Electronic Encyclopaedia” exercise designed to provide a universally applicable body of knowledge for students to use in design studios within their field of study, resulting in a rich and diverse body of work which in its disciplinary diversity manifested a common epistemological root.
series SIGRADI
email sdchris@polyu.edu.hk, sdfalk@polyu.edu.hk, himself@tfischer.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 2f1a
authors Dabney, M.K., Wright, J.C. and Sanders, D.H.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality and the Future of Publishing Archaeological Excavations: the multimedia publication of the prehistoric settlement on Tsoungiza at Ancient Nemea
source New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
summary The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is a study of settlement and land use in a regional valley system in Greece extending from the Upper Paleolithic until the present. Active field research was conducted by four teams between 1981 and 1990. The first component was a regional archaeological survey. Second, and closely related to the first, was a social anthropological study of modern settlement and land use. Next was a team assigned to excavate the succession of prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza. Last, historical ecologists, a palynologist, and a geologist formed the environmental component of the research. As a result of advances in electronic publishing, plans for the final publication of the Nemea Valley Archaeological Project have evolved. Complete publication of the excavation of the prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza will appear in an interactive multimedia format on CD/DVD in Fall 2000. This project is planned to be the first electronic publication of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. We have chosen to publish in electronic format because it will meet the needs and interests of a wider audience, including avocational archaeologists, advanced high school and college students, graduate students, and professional archaeologists. The multimedia format on CD/DVD will permit the inclusion of text, databases, color and black-and-white images, two and three-dimensional graphics, and videos. This publication is being developed in cooperation with Learning Sites, Inc., which specializes in interactive three-dimensional reconstructions of ancient worlds http://www.learningsites.com. The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is particularly well prepared for the shift towards electronic publishing because the project's field records were designed for and entered in computer databases from the inception of the project. Attention to recording precise locational information for all excavated objects enables us to place reconstructions of objects in their reconstructed architectural settings. Three-dimensional images of architectural remains and associated features will appear both as excavated and as reconstructed. Viewers will be able to navigate these images through the use of virtual reality. Viewers will also be able to reference all original drawings, photographs, and descriptions of the reconstructed architecture and objects. In this way a large audience will be able to view architectural remains, artifacts, and information that are otherwise inaccessible.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ga0021
id ga0021
authors Eacott, John
year 2000
title Generative music composition in practice - a critical evaluation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This critical evaluation will discuss 4 computer based musical works which, for reasons I shall explain, I describe as non-linear or generative. The works have been constructed by me and publicly performed or exhibited during a two year period from October 1998 to October 2000. ‘In the beginning…’ interactive music installation, strangeAttraction, Morley Gallery, London. July 1999 ‘jnrtv’ live generative dance music May 1999 to Dec 2000 ‘jazz’ interactive music installation, another strangeAttraction Morley Gallery, London. July 2000-09-26 ‘the street’ architectural interactive music installation, University of Westminster Oct 2000 Introduction I have always loved the practice of composing, particularly when it means scoring a work to be played by a live ensemble. There is something about taking a fresh sheet of manuscript , ruling the bar lines, adding clefs, key and time signatures and beginning the gradual process of adding notes, one at a time to the score until it is complete that is gratifying and compensates for the enormous effort involved. The process of scoring however is actually one distinct act within the more general task of creating music. Recently, the notion of ‘composing’ has met challenges through an increased interest in non-linear compositional methods. It is actually the presence of Chaotic or uncontrolable elements which add real beauty to music and many if not all of the things we value. If we think of a sunset, waves lapping on the shore, plants, trees a human face and the sound of the human voice, these things are not perfect and more importantly perhaps, they are transient, constantly changing and evolving. Last year and again this year, I have organised an exhibition of interactive , non-linear music installations called 'strangeAttraction'. The title refers to what Edward Lorenz called a ‘strange attractor’ the phenomenon that despite vast degrees of Chaos and uncertainty within a system, there is a degree of predictability, the tendency for chaotic behaviour to ‘attract’ towards a probable set of outcomes. Composition that deals with 'attractors' or probable outcomes rather than specific details which are set in stone is an increasingly intriguing notion.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 34f7
authors Ehrhardt, Mark A. and Gross, Mark D.
year 2000
title Place Based Web Resources for Historic Buildings
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 177-179
summary Web sites with animations, panoramic images, sound, and virtual reality can provide a strong sense of place, richer than text and photographs and more interactive than cinema. Constructing these sites demands a great deal of visual and textual information, which must be organized, integrated, and coded for delivery. Existing authoring packages are general-purpose, not specifically for architectural applications, and require technical sophistication. In our process for building Place Based Web Resources (PBWRs), after assembling photographic, drawing, text, and audio resources, the author follows a straightforward series of steps. The Hagia Sophia Web Resource resulted from this process; it includes panoramic pictures, photographs and interpretive text about the building and a VRML model.
keywords Historic Documentation, Web Authoring Tools, Representations of Place
series eCAADe
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 3cd1
authors Friedman, Asaf
year 2000
title Language and Movement in CAD Application
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 423-432
summary The paper attempts to explain some of the fundamental concepts as they relate to the experience of movement in space and the representation of walking-through or fly-over in architectural space. My goal is towards improving existing movement-in-architectural-space representation tolls. This study involves current research in cognitive science, in the domain of vision and spatial reasoning, in which we attempt to built a rudimentary model of the apparatus through which people experience space, and, in particular, architectural space. These conceptions necessitated the analysis of language. From the studies we can draw up a small number of critical qualities that have to be present in an improved version of a new movement-in-space representation tool. As opposed to existing computational tools representing movement in space navigation, the tool we build can offer a more immersive interactive experience for evaluating design solution alternatives and predicting moving-in-space experience.
series CAADRIA
email friedman@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id f85d
authors Geraedts, Rob P and Pollalis, Spiro N.
year 2001
title Remote Teaching in Design Education - Educational and Organizational Issues and Experiences
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 305-310
summary The Department of Real Estate and Project Management (BMVB) of the Faculty of Architecture at the Delft University of Technology has been working closely with Professor Spiro N. Pollalis of Harvard University, Graduate School of Design in Cambridge, USA since 1991. His case-based interactive seminars about the management of the design & construction process have been highly appreciated by many generations of students. In Spring 2000, Pollalis suggested to extend the scope of his involvement by introducing a remote teaching component, the subject of his research in the last few years. As Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Design and Construction Industry is part of his lectures, it was appropriate to provide the students with a first hand experience on the subject. In the following experiment, the teacher would remain in his office at Harvard while the interactive work and discussion sessions with 130 students in a full lecture room would take place in Delft as planned. The consequences this experiment has had for the course, for the techniques and facilities used, how teachers and students experienced these, and which conclusions and recommendations can be made, are the topics of this paper.
keywords Remote Teaching, Design & Construction Education, And ICT
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 3936
authors Geroimenko, Vladimir
year 1999
title Online Photorealistic VR with Interactive Architectural Objects
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 414-417
summary This paper describes how Virtual Reality (VR) technologies can be used for modelling photorealistic environments with interactive and changeable architectural content. This application of VR allows us to create photograph-based panoramic models of real places that include a variety of interactive architectural objects and details. The user is able not only to navigate through a virtual environment (look around, up and down, zoom, jump to another viewpoint or location) but also to change buildings or their architectural details by clicking, moving or rotating. The following types of interactive objects are completely integrated with a virtual environment: 2D image-based objects, 3D image-based objects, 3D VRML-based objects and onscreen world controls. The application can be used effectively for teaching, including distance Internet-based education, project presentations and rapid prototyping. A sample VR environment is presented and some of the key creative and technological issues are discussed.
keywords Virtual Reality Modelling, Architectural Design, Interactive Contents, Photorealistic Environments
series eCAADe
email vladg@soc.plym.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 6899
authors Groisman, Martin
year 2000
title Tal Vez Mañana - Un Estudio sobre la Ficción Narrativa en los Hypermedios (Perhaps Tomorrow - A Study on the Fictional Narrative in Hypermedia)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 304-306
summary Medio y Medio is an interdisciplinary argentine-uruguayan group of research and production that originated two years ago in the academic context of the ORT University of Uruguay, with the object of exploring the possibilities of narrative fiction in multimedia language. With the participation of teachers and professionals in the field of graphic design, fine arts, the cinema, TV, music, system programming and literature, a product has been devised, called “Maybe Tomorrow...” It is an interactive novel constructed on CD-ROM support. It is based on an original narration, developed around four stories that take place in the city of Montevideo. Each story has a different image treatment which responds to the use of different audiovisual languages. The reading of this interactive novel offers different trajectories, making the navigation in diverse ways possible. In this way, the reader constructs the meaning of the narration as he/she advances in the reading.
series SIGRADI
email mgrois@fadu.uba.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ga0028
id ga0028
authors Kabala, J., Conrado, C. and Overveld, K. van
year 2000
title Communicative Profiles - Generative Art Applied in Information Access Interfaces
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The path of ubiquitous computing and the domain of ambient intelligence are expected to stimulate emergence of new interaction paradigms. There is a need to develop adequate means of natural communication with an intelligent information system. This, presumably, requires a more integrated development of form and function of the interface. The interface design concept proposed in this paper is based on an evolutionary mechanism and it aims at development of an interactive and adaptive animation system. It is proposed that through a coherent process of adaptation of a system functionality and its appropriate visualization, a personalized and more natural experience of interaction might be achieved.
keywords natural interaction, ambient intelligence, artificial evolution, interactive animation system, personalization, user experience
series other
email joanna.kabala@philips.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 30c8
authors Koutamanis, A., Barendse, P.B74 and Kempenaar, J.W.
year 1999
title Web-based CAAD Instruction: The Delft Experience
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 159-168
summary In the early 1990s, the introduction of an extensive CAAD component in the compulsory curriculum of the Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, stimulated experimentation with computer-based instruction systems. The emergence of the World Wide Web presented new possibilities. Nevertheless, the reasons for investing in Web-based CAAD instruction were mostly pragmatic, i.e. a reaction to necessity, rather than an intention to explore, experiment and revolutionize. One of the problems addressed in our Web-based CAAD instruction is CAAD literacy. Help files and manuals that accompany software have proven to be unsuitable for introductory courses in design computing. This led to the development of a series of dynamic Web-based tutorials, in the form of interactive slide shows. The implementation of the tutorials is based on a cooperative framework that allows teachers and students to contribute at different levels of technical and methodical complexity. The use of the Web in CAAD education also stimulated a more active attitude among students. Despite the limited support and incentives offered by the Faculty, the Web-based CAAD courses became an invitation to intelligent and meaningful use of Web technologies by students for design presentation and communication. This is not only a useful addition to the opportunities offered by CAAD systems but also a prerequisite to new design communities.
keywords WWW Technologies, Teaching
series eCAADe
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 5919
authors Lentz, Uffe
year 1999
title Integrated Design with Form and Topology Optimizing
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 116-121
summary The topic of this paper is to describe the ability of 3D CAD systems to integrate designers and engineers into a simultaneous process developing a functional and aesthetic concept in a close and equal interdisciplinary process. We already have the Finite Element Method, FEM systems for analyzing the mechanical behavior of constructions. This technique is suitable for justifying design aspects in the final part of the design process. A new group of CAE systems under the generic term Topology optimizing has the potentials to handle aspects of conceptual design and aesthetic criteria. Such interactive design tools do not eliminate the designer, but the relationship between the designer and other professions and the professional consciousness of the designer will change. It is necessary to develop common ideas able to connect the scientific and the artistic fields. The common aesthetic values must be clarified and the corresponding formal ideas be developed. These tools could be called "Construction tools for the intelligent user" (Olhoff, 1998) because the use of optimizing is based on a profound knowledge of the techniques.
keywords Form, Topology, Optimizing
series eCAADe
email uffe.lentz@a-aarhus.dk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id sigradi2012_391
id sigradi2012_391
authors Lopez, Gabriela Bustos
year 2012
title Ética en la Complejidad del Diseño Arquitectónico con Tecnología Digital (TD): redes multidimensionales colaborativas [Ethics in the Complexity of Architectonic Design with Digital Technology (DT): Multidimensional Collaborative Networks]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 43-46
summary This article reflects on the ethical implications of digital technology (DT) in architectonic design. Such a reflection is based on the definition of complex epistemology and the educational ethical reform (Morin 2000). The article ends with a conceptual proposal of an interactive, multidimensional and collaborative environment of design. The goal is to re-set patterns and strategies of design with DT from plural perspectives and poly-temporal creations, all of it inserted in a complex ethical point of view of a contemporary design. The wanted result is a social 3d network of design that unifies visualization, modeling tools, videoconferencing, chatting, and social-academic network managing.
keywords Ethics; Digital Technology (DT); Architectonic Design; Multidimensional Collaborative Networks
series SIGRADI
email bustosgabriela@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ga0004
id ga0004
authors Lund, Andreas
year 2000
title Evolving the Shape of Things to Come - A Comparison of Interactive Evolution and Direct Manipulation for Creative Tasks
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper is concerned with differences between direct manipulation and interactive evolutionary design as two fundamentally different interaction styles for creative tasks. Its main contribution to the field of generative design is the treatment of interactive evolutionary design as a general interaction style that can be used to support users in creative tasks. Direct manipulation interfaces, a term coined by Ben Shneiderman in the mid-seventies, are the kind of interface that is characteristic of most modern personal computer application user interfaces. Typically, direct manipulation interfaces incorporate a model of a context (such as a desktop environment) supposedly familiar to users. Rather than giving textual commands (i.e. "remove file.txt", "copy file1.txt file2.txt") to an imagined intermediary between the user and the computer, the user acts directly on the objects of interest to complete a task. Undoubtedly, direct manipulation has played an important role in making computers accessible to non-computer experts. Less certain are the reasons why direct manipulation interfaces are so successful. It has been suggested that this kind of interaction style caters for a sense of directness, control and engagement in the interaction with the computer. Also, the possibilities of incremental action with continuous feedback are believed to be an important factor of the attractiveness of direct manipulation. However, direct manipulation is also associated with a number of problems that make it a less than ideal interaction style in some situations. Recently, new interaction paradigms have emerged that address the shortcomings of direct manipulation in various ways. One example is so-called software agents that, quite the contrary to direct manipulation, act on behalf of the user and alleviate the user from some of the attention and cognitive load traditionally involved in the interaction with large quantities of information. However, this relief comes at the cost of lost user control and requires the user to put trust into a pseudo-autonomous piece of software. Another emerging style of human-computer interaction of special interest for creative tasks is that of interactive evolutionary design (sometimes referred to as aesthetic selection). Interactive evolutionary design is inspired by notions from biological evolution and may be described as a way of exploring a large – potentially infinite – space of possible design configurations based on the judgement of the user. Rather than, as is the case with direct manipulation, directly influencing the features of an object, the user influences the design by means of expressing her judgement of design examples. Variations of interactive evolutionary design have been employed to support design and creation of a variety of objects. Examples of such objects include artistic images, web advertising banners and facial expressions. In order to make an empirical investigation possible, two functional prototypes have been designed and implemented. Both prototypes are targeted at typeface design. The first prototype allows a user to directly manipulate a set of predefined attributes that govern the design of a typeface. The second prototype allows a user to iteratively influence the design of a typeface by means of expressing her judgement of typeface examples. Initially, these examples are randomly generated but will, during the course of interaction, converge upon design configurations that reflect the user’s expressed subjective judgement. In the evaluation of the prototypes, I am specifically interested in users’ sense of control, convergence and surprise. Is it possible to maintain a sense of control and convergence without sacrificing the possibilities of the unexpected in a design process? The empirical findings seem to suggest that direct manipulation caters for a high degree of control and convergence, but with a small amount of surprise and sense of novelty. The interactive evolutionary design prototype supported a lower degree of experienced control, but seems to provide both a sense of surprise and convergence. One plausible interpretation of this is that, on the one hand, direct manipulation is a good interaction style for realizing the user’s intentions. On the other hand, interactive evolutionary design has a potential to actually change the user’s intentions and pre-conceptions of that which is being designed and, in doing so, adds an important factor to the creative process. Based on the empirical findings, the paper discusses situations when interactive evolutionary design may be a serious contender with direct manipulation as the principal interaction style and also how a combination of both styles can be applied.
series other
email andreas.lund@interactiveinstitute.se
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 60a7
authors Monedero, Javier
year 2000
title Parametric design: a review and some experiences
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 369-377
summary During the last few years there has been an extraordinary development of computer-aided tools intended to present or communicate the results of architectural projects. But there has not been a comparable progress in the development of tools intended to assist design to generate architectural forms in an easy and interactive way. Even worse, architects who use the powerful means provided by computers as a direct tool to create architectural forms are still an exception. Architecture continues to be produced by traditional means using the computer as little more than a drafting tool. The main reasons that may explain this situation can be identified rather easily, although there will be significant differences of opinion. In my opinion, it is a mistake trying to advance too rapidly and, for instance, proposing integrated design methods using expert systems and artificial intelligence while no adequate tools to generate and modify simple 3D-models are available. The modeling tools we have at the present moment are unsatisfactory. Their principal limitation is the lack of appropriate instruments to modify interactively the model once it has been created. This is a fundamental aspect in any design activity, where the designer is constantly going forward and backwards, re-elaborating once and again some particular aspect of the model, or its general layout, or even coming back to a previous solution that had been temporarily abandoned. This paper presents a general summary of the actual situation and recent developments that may be incorporated to architectural design tools in a near future, together with some critical remarks about their relevance to architecture.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

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