CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 8805
authors Flemming, U., Erhan, H.I. and Ozkaya, I.
year 2001
title Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD
source Technical Report 48-01-01. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, Institute of Complex Engineered Systems
summary This report describes a graduate interdisciplinary course offered to students in the graduate program of the School of Architecture at Carnegie Mellon and related departments in fall 2000. The motivation was the realization that when commercial CAD (Computer-Aided Design) systems recently switched from procedural application programming languages to object-oriented ones, third-party application must undergo a significant cognitive retooling"; i. e. they must know more than the syntax and semantics of the new programming language to be used and must be able to employ appropriate software development strategies that are appropriate for the new paradigm. especially with respect to the importance of modeling, a distinguishing characteristic of object-oriented programming. The goal of the course was (a) to introduce and test strategies of object-oriented application development in general and in the context of MicroStation, a state-of-the-art commercial CAD package; (b) to develop-as a course team project-an interesting application that gives students practice with these strategies and team work; and (c) to document our approach and findings so that others can learn from them. The strategies introduced were the use-case approach of Jacobson et al. and the complementary object-modeling tools of Rumbaugh that were recently integrated into the Unified Modeling Language UML. The software platform supporting the course comprised MicroStation, JMDL (a superset of Java) and ProjectBank on the CAD side and RationalRose on the modeling side. The application developed by students in the course supports the generation of drawings for remodeling projects from a set of dgn files describing the existing state of the building to be remodeled. The course was supported by a grant and in-kind contributions from Bentley with matching funds from the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technology Alliance (PITA)."
series report
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id f78f
authors Fridqvist, Sverker
year 2000
title Property-Oriented Information Systems for Design Prototypes for the BAS•CAAD system
source Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture
summary Property-oriented systems are a new kind of information systems that are based on concepts of properties instead of concepts of things or classes of things. By focusing on properties, the property-oriented systems become more flexible and more suited to the dynamic early stages of design than the traditional class-oriented systems can be. The theoretical framework for property-oriented systems developed within the BAS*CAAD project and presented in this thesis has previously been presented in several papers, a selection of which are included here. Some of the basic considerations from the papers are further developed in a separate chapter. Additionally, the thesis covers several questions regarding prerequisites for and implications of property-oriented systems. These questions have not been addressed in earlier BAS*CAAD publications. The development of research proptotypes based on the theoretical framework is presented, with a discussion of the different versions and the considerations behind them. A study of the history of computer aided building design has revealed that many basic ideas of today were developed the first time at the beginning of electronic computing, in the early sixties. Since the early development seems to be unknown today, a brief account is presented in this thesis, with special focus on issues considered in the BAS*CAAD project. Finally, the experimental architectural design software DASK, developed mainly by the present author in the later 1980s, will get its first presentation in writing in this thesis.
keywords Information Technology; Design; Construction; Product Modelling
series thesis:PhD
email S.Fridqvist@bwk.tue.nl
more http://www.lub.lu.se/cgi-bin/show_diss.pl?db=global&fname=tec_391.html
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 31d6
authors Harfmann, Anton C. and Akins, Peter E.
year 2000
title The Composite Building Sketch
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 273-280
summary This works in progress paper describes the development of an alternative method for teaching building technology using the composite sketch concept borrowed from police forensics. The composite sketch utilizes individual components and assemblies of construction in various combinations to explore the design implications of materials and connections on form and surface. To enhance the usefulness of the composite sketch, in-depth case studies of specific buildings are linked to the digital assemblies of the composite sketch so that students can see the basic concepts in actual buildings. The project currently models more than 500 combinations of components and includes approximately 200 catalogued images of buildings under construction.
series ACADIA
email HARFMAAC@UCMAIL.UC.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ddssar0013
id ddssar0013
authors Hensen, J.L.M. and Clarke, J.A.
year 2000
title Building systems and indoor environment: simulation for design decision support
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper outlines the state-of-the-art in integrated building simulation for design support. The ESP-r system is used as an example where integrated simulation is a core philosophy behind the development. The paper finishes with indicating a number of barriers, which hinder routine application of simulation for building design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 9a6b
authors Hofmeyer, Herm Combined
year 2000
title Combined web crippling and bending moment failure of first-generation trapezoidal steel sheeting : experiments, finite element models, mechanical models
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary Cold-formed trapezoidal sheeting of thin steel plate is a very popular product for building construction. It combines low weight and high strength and is economical in use. Current design rules, which predict sheeting failure for an interior support, do not provide sufficient insight into the sheeting behaviour, and can differ up to 40% in their predictions. To develop a new design rule, this thesis presents new experiments in which first-generation sheeting behaviour is studied for practical situations. The experiments show that after ultimate load, three different post-failure modes arise. Mechanical models have been developed for the three post-failure modes. These models can help to explain why a certain post-failure mode occurs. Finite element models were used to simulate the experiments. Studying stress distributions with finite element simulations, it can be seen that there are only two ultimate failure modes at ultimate load. One of these ultimate failure modes is not relevant for practice. A mechanical model has been developed for the other ultimate failure mode. This model performs as well as the current design rules, and it provides insight into the sheeting behaviour.
keywords Steelstructures; Constructive Design; Thin Walled Beams; Local Buckling; Steel Profiles
series thesis:PhD
email h.hofmeijer@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ca7b
authors Howes, Jaki
year 1999
title IT or not IT? An Examination of IT Use in an Experimental Multi-disciplinary Teamwork Situation
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 370-373
summary Leeds Metropolitan University is well placed to carry out research into multi-disciplinary team-working, as all the design and construction disciplines are housed in one faculty. Staff have set up an experimental project, TIME IT (Team-working in Multi-disciplinary Environments using IT) which examines ways of working in the design/construction process and how IT is used when there is no commercial pressure. Four groups of four students, one graduate diploma architect, and one final year student from each of Civil Engineering, Construction Management and Quantity Surveying have been working on feasibility studies for projects that are based on completed schemes or have been devised by collaborators in the Construction Industry. Students have been asked to produce a PowerPoint presentation, in up to five working days, of a design scheme, with costs, structural analysis and construction programme. The students are not assessed on the quality of the product, but on their own ability to monitor the process and use of IT. Despite this, aggressive competition evolved between the teams to produce the 'best' design. Five projects were run in the 1998/99 session. A dedicated IT suite has been provided; each group of students had exclusive use of a machine. They were not told how to approach the projects nor when to use the available technology, but were asked to keep the use of paper to a minimum and to keep all their work on the server, so that it could be monitored externally. Not so. They plotted the AO drawings of an existing building that had been provided on the server. They like paper - they can scribble on it, fold it, tear it and throw it at one another.
keywords IT, Multi-disciplinary, Teamwork
series eCAADe
email J.Howes@imu.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id c839
authors Hwang, Jie-Eun
year 2002
title SpaceScope: Developing a Spatial Information Retrieval System - Focused on Apartment Unit Floor Plans -
source Yonsei University, Dept. of Housing & Interior Design
summary This research investigates the spatial information retrieval (IR) in architecture focused on constructing efficient metadata that is crucial for data retrieval. Generally speaking, metadata is ‘structured data about data’ to describe resources especially in a digital format. In this research, metadata is a sort of data object to be useful in searching spatial information. Metadata is also used to describe raw spatial data object as not only attribute data but also content structurally and semantic ally. There are two issues that motivate this research; 1) what is the spatial information – that materializes the intangible space as a data object, and 2) how we can search the information efficiently – the content-based information retrieval. Although knowledge of a building’s spatial content is most important in architecture, there has been no logical method to manage it.

From the viewpoint of content-based retrieval, the researcher analyzes spatial information of a floor plan, with a focus on the apartment unit floor plan common in Korea. Then the metadata items are extracted in a structured manner. To manage the items efficiently, the researcher develops a data model for spatial information according to the concept of the “Structured Floor Plan”. The main object of content to retrieve is a spatial network that consists of nodes of spaces and their linkages. There are two ways to organize the metadata: the traditional index files and the RDF (Resource Description Framework). While the index files are still efficient with computability, the RDF applies greater options to retrieve, such as fuzzy predicates, semantic predicates, and so on. To exploit the metadata, this research shows several possibilities of query operations that present a set of sample queries about L-DK(Living room – Dining room – Kitchen). Implementation of the prototype system is divided into three parts: 1) a modeling module using Vitruvius; 2) an indexing module using MS SQL Server? 2000 in conjunction XML; and 3) a browsing module using the SpaceScope browser.

The future works may consider XML-based databases and a knowledge based query language, such as RQL/XQL, working on such databases. The more specific domain knowledge is involved, the more practical systems would be. Even in architecture, there may be a diverse range of domain knowledge, such as design, building performance, facility management, energy management, post occupied evaluation, historical research, and so on. Also the issue of interface should be investigated in depth, so that it will be adequate to the needs of the architectural field.

keywords Content-based Information Retrieval; Metadata; RDF; XML; Spatial Information; Apartment Floor Plan; Semantics
series thesis:MSc
email curiozen@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2003/04/25 05:27

_id ddssar0023
id ddssar0023
authors Jens Pohl, Art Chapman, and Kym Jason Pohl
year 2000
title Computer-aided design systems for the 21st century: some design guidelines
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper proposes nine design principles for a new generation of computer-aided design (CAD) systems that actively support the decision making and problem solving activities of environmental design. Foremost among these are: a meaningful internal object-based representation of the artifact being designed within its environmental context; a collaborative problem solving paradigm in which the human designer and the computer form a complementary partnership; and, the notion of decision-support tools rather than predefined solutions. Two prototype computer-aided design systems implemented by the CAD Research Center that embody most of these concepts are described. ICADS (Intelligent Computer-Aided Design System) incorporates multiple expert agents in domains such as natural and artificial lighting, noise control, structural system selection, climatic determinants, and energy conservation. Given a particular building design context, the agents in ICADS draw upon their own expertise and several knowledgebases as they monitor the actions of the human designer and collaborate opportunistically. KOALA (Knowledge-Based Object-Agent Collaboration) builds on the multi-agent concepts embodied in ICADS by the addition of two kinds of agents. Mentor agents represent the interests of selected objects within the ontology of the design environment. In the implemented KOALA system building spaces are represented by agents capable of collaborating with each other, with domain agents for the provision of expert services, and with the human designer. Facilitator agents listen in on the communications among mentor agents to detect conflicts and moderate arguments. While both of these prototype systems are limited in scope by focussing on the earliest design stages and restricted in their understanding of the inherent complexity of a design state, they nevertheless promise a paradigm shift in computer-aided design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 37b2
authors Johansson, P.
year 2000
title Case-Based Structural Design - using weakly structured product and process information
source Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Steel and Timber Structures, Publ. S 00:7, Göteborg
summary Empirical knowledge plays a significant role in the human reasoning process. Previous experiences help in understanding new situations and in finding solutions to new problems. Experience is used when performing different tasks, both those of routine character and those that require specific skill. This is also the case for structural designers. Over 50% of the work done by the designer on a day-to-day basis is routine design that consists of modifying past designs (Moore 1993). That is, most of the design problems that the designer solves have been solved before, in many cases over and over again. In recent years, researchers have started to study if cases (information about specific problem-solving experiences) could be used as a representation of experiential knowledge. Making use of past experience in the form of cases is commonly known as Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). A requirement for Case-Based Design (Case-Based Reasoning applied in design) to be successful is that the design information is computerized. One information type used in structural design that is starting to become computerized is the one in design calculation documents. Such information is weakly structured (which holds for much of the information representing experience) and it contains both product and process information. In this thesis it is shown how the weak structure of this information can be used to subdivide it into components, which in turn makes it possible to apply the object-oriented abstraction principles also to this kind of information. It is also shown how the detailed design process can be represented and how this representation can facilitate automatic acquisition, retrieval of relevant old design information, and adaptation of this information. Two prototypes BridgeBase and ARCADE have been developed, where the principles described above are applied. Using ARCADE, the more general of these two prototypes, it is presented how information in computerized design calculation documents, gathered from real projects, can serve as containers and carriers for both project information and experience. The experience from the two prototypes shows that Case-Based Design can be usable as a tool for structural engineers.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4815
authors Johnson, Scott and Johnson, Brian
year 2000
title Binary Oppositions: Should Designers Learn to Think Differently in order to Better Utilize Digital Design Tools?
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 2-4
summary The development of information technology and its application to design disciplines has changed how buildings are described and even how they are built. Engineers, architects, contractors, and other parties often exchange files instead of paper drawings, and manufacturers can be sent numeric data to guide the fabrication of customized building components. The tools of the trade, even the things possible in the trade, are changing. This brings up the issue of how best to utilize this emerging technology. Should we mold this technology to fit the tasks and concepts we have in mind, or should we learn new ways of thinking about architecture and our role as architects? Do we need to get used to thinking in terms of RGB values, external file references, geometric transformations, and paper space vs. model space? In short, should designers learn to think differently in order to better utilize digital design tools?
series ACADIA
email sven@umich.edu
last changed 2003/03/24 20:01

_id d7af
authors Jung, Thomas and Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2000
title Immersive Redliner: Collaborative Design in Cyberspace
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 185-194
summary The Immersive Redliner supports annotation of three-dimensional artifacts in collaborative design. It enables team members to drop annotation markers in a VRML world that are linked to comment text stored on a server. Visitors to the world later can review the design annotations in the locations where they were made. We report on two phases of the Redliner project: the first involves a hypothetical design scenario, the second a real application on a rehabilitation in a residence building in Strasbourg.
keywords Annotation, Collaboration, Design, Virtual Worlds, Redlining.
series ACADIA
email ellendo@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/10/04 05:49

_id f197
authors Kensek, K., Leuppi, J. and Noble, D.
year 2000
title Plank Lines of Ribbed Timber Shell Structures
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 261-266
summary This paper discusses a method for determining the plank lines of ribbed timber shell structures. The information is necessary for the construction of the roof, but the information is usually not depicted accurately in three-dimensional modeling programs.
keywords Geodesic Line, Finite Element Algorithm, Ribbed Shell Structure, Lightweight Structure, Timber Construction.
series ACADIA
email kensek@usc.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 217b
authors Kolarevic, B. Schmitt, G., Hirschberg, U., Kurmann, D. and Johnson, Brian
year 2000
title An experiment in design collaboration
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 73-81
summary Computer supported communication and collaboration among partners in the building design and construction process are no longer mere possibilities, but, given the will and know-how of the participants, a reality. Team members could work on a building design at any place, simultaneously together (synchronously) or separately (asynchronously), while the latest state of the design would always be available in a shared database. But to be successful, this emerging type of cooperation often requires new design and communication methods. This paper documents an experimental approach to design collaboration, tested in an intensive, one-week long Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions. It briefly describes the structure and goals of the studio exercise, the methodologies applied, the resulting process of collaboration, and the lessons learned.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ddssar0016
id ddssar0016
authors Koutamanis, Alexander and Mitossi, Vicky
year 2000
title Grammatical and syntactic properties of CAAD representations for the early design stages
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary CAAD representations for the early design stages have traditionally focused on aspects apparently relating to design creativity, such as flexible, effortless and rich geometric modelling. However, modelling capabilities are generally unconnected to the control and analysis of design constraints that affect the further development of the design. These usually refer to functional and spatial aspects that are only implicit in a CAAD representation of design ‘solids’. Moreover, the stability and reliability of control and analysis rely on the grammatical and syntactic quality of the representation. In particular, (a) the grammatical well-formedness of spatial and building primitives, and (b) the syntactic completeness and unambiguity of spatial relations are essential prerequisites to any meaningful analysis of aspects such as fulfilment of programmatic requirements, indoor climate, lighting or human interaction with the built environment. The paper describes a dual spatial and building element representation implemented on top of a standard drawing system. The representation attempts to minimize input requirements, while at the same time providing feedback on the grammatical and syntactic quality of the design description.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 3760
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2000
title Recognition and Indexing of Architectural Features in Floor Plans on the Internet
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 357-366
summary The Internet promises a worldwide information system, capable of uniting different sources and types of original, up-to-date and directly usable information. Among the main components of this system are retrieval mechanisms characterized by high precision and recall, as well as by supportive relevance feedback. The textual versions of these retrieval mechanisms have been available for some time and have achieved a certain degree of efficiency and sophistication. Image retrieval lags behind, despite the recent advances in content-based retrieval. In architecture this is largely due to the lack of integration of domain knowledge and known formalisms. Indexing and retrieval of architectural floor plans can rely on existing generative systems such as shape grammars and rectangular arrangements. By reversing generative systems in purpose we derive compact descriptions that describe completely a floor plan and make explicit all relevant features rather than a small number of features. The main limitation of reversed generative systems is that they apply to specific classes of designs. Unification in indexing and retrieval can only take place at the level of basic primitives, i.e. spaces and building elements. In both vector and pixel images of architectural floor plans this can be achieved by a universal recognition system that identifies salient local features to produce a basic spatial representation.
series CAADRIA
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id 6cc5
authors Kowaltowski, D.C.C.K., Da Silva, V.G., Gouveia, A.P.S., Pina. G., Ruschel, R.C., Filho, F.B. and Fávero, E.
year 2000
title Ensino de Projeto com Inserção da Informática Aplicada: O curso de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da UNICAMP (Design Teaching with the Introduction of Applied Computing: The Architecture and Urbanism course at UNICAMP)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 352-354
summary This paper discusses the formal educational base of the Architecture course of the State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, which opened in 1999. Applied computing, thoerical content and technical aspects of design are principal educational elements of the course. The paper will show and discuss the structure of building up knowledge for design activities through drafting, applied computing and theory and practical design disciplines present in the course.
series SIGRADI
email doris@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id ga0005
id ga0005
authors Kubasiewicz, Jan and Jang, DK  
year 2000
title InfoGEOMETRY. Conceptual Prototype for Navigating InfoSPACE
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary InfoGEOMETRY  is the word the authors use to describe the concept of utilizing geometric patterns and dynamic symmetry in graphical user interface design for navigating complex information. This paper refers to a specific collaborative project in which the concept of infoGeometry was first introduced as an alternative tool of information architecture. In their design process, the authors tried to reconcile the visual nature of geometric vocabulary with parametric nature of interface design and dynamic nature of information organization. The project resulted in experimental interactive tools for information search and navigating complex information structures. 2. YOU ARE HERE. A study in interactivity. This paper refers to a studio project in interface design, conducted at the Massachusetts College of Art in Boston, where individual designers explored essential concepts in navigating complex structures of information. Taking the notion of You-Are-Here as a point of departure, individual designers explored various definitions and interpretations of the notion's three components: You(We/They, etc)-Are(Will Be/Have Been, etc)-Here(in Time/in Space). Exploring specific instances of parametric design and developing linked, multiple representations for information display resulted in a broad spectrum of contexts associated with navigation. Specific descriptions of individual instances will accompany the final presentation of the project.  
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 5f69
authors Kvan, Th., Gibson, I. and Ming, L.W.
year 2000
title Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Models
source ECPPM2000 – Product and Process Modelling in Building and Construction, Lisbon, Portugal, Balkema Publishers, September 25-27, 2000, pp. 351-359
summary Rapid prototyping (RP) technology has developed as a result of the requirements of manufacturing industry. There are a number of other application areas where RP has been used to good effect and one of these is architectural modelling. However; such application areas often have different requirements from what is offered by the current technology. This paper describes work carried out by the authors to investigate potential applications for architectural modelling; as well as an attempt to explore the limits of the technology. It will go on to discuss how the technology may be developed to better serve the requirements of architects.
keywords Rapid Prototyping; Architectural Design
series other
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id 03af
authors Kvan, Th., Schmitt, G., Maher, M.L. and Cheng, N.
year 2000
title Teaching Architectural Design in Virtual Studios
source Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, Renate Fruchter, Feniosky Pena-Mora and W. M. Kim Roddis, ASCE 2000, pp. 162–169
summary Virtual studios have provided a valuable content in which to explore and test approaches to both collaborative design and pedagogy. While there has been extensive earlier experience in virtual campuses; not least that at The Open University in England; virtual design studios have explored a different nature of collaboration and interaction; shedding light on a new range of tasks and methods. These lessons have been applied in many fields. For example; the lessons have been used to understand the nature of collaboration. Most directly; they have been applied to the context of teaching design and understanding better how students learn to design. The change in technology can open up new opportunities in what is taught; not only how it is taught. Most broadly; they have been taken in to consideration in the creation of virtual campuses for broader university teaching. All these aspects are explored in this paper.
keywords Pedagogy; Learning; Virtual Studio; Collaboration
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

_id fa3a
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 2000
title Technology in Support of Design Learning
source Computing in Civil and Building Engineering, Renate Fruchter, Feniosky Pena-Mora and W. M. Kim Roddis, ASCE, pp. 1148-1155
summary In the many years of conferences on the teaching of computer skills or application of computers in design studios; we see discussions about the needs; methods and benefits of teaching the use of computer tools. A few of the papers review how students learn but none report how computer tools can be directly beneficial to the student’s learning of design. This paper reviews design learning and illustrates how computer tools have been used to support learning.
keywords Pedagogy; Learning; Virtual Studio
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2002/11/15 17:29

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