CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 739

_id 0dc3
authors Chambers, Tom and Wood, John B.
year 1999
title Decoding to 2000 CAD as Mediator
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 210-216
summary This paper will present examples of current practice in the Design Studio course of the BDE, University of Strathclyde. The paper will demonstrate an integrated approach to teaching design, which includes CAD among other visual communication techniques as a means to exploring design concepts and the presentation of complex information as part of the design process. It will indicate how the theoretical dimension is used to direct the student in their areas of independent study. Projects illustrated will include design precedents that have involved students in the review and assessment of landmarks in the history of design. There will be evidence of how students integrate DTP in the presentation of site analysis, research of appropriate design precedents and presentation of their design solutions. CADET underlines the importance of considering design solutions within the context of both our European cultural context and of assessing the environmental impact of design options, for which CAD is eminently suited. As much as a critical method is essential to the development of the design process, a historical perspective and an appreciation of the sophistication of communicative media will inform the analysis of structural form and meaning in a modem urban context. Conscious of the dynamic of social and historical influences in design practice, the student is enabled "to take a critical stand against the dogmatism of the school "(Gadamer, 1988) that inevitably insinuates itself in learning institutions and professional practice.
keywords Design Studio, Communication, Integrated Teaching
series eCAADe
email j.b.wood@strath.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 9d16
authors Chan, Chiu-Shui
year 2000
title A Virtual Reality Tool to Implement City Building Codes on Capitol View Preservation
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 203-209
summary In urban planning, the urban environment is a very complicated system with many layers of building codes cross-referenced and interacting together to guide urban growth. Especially, if a new urban design is located in a historical area, additional restrictions will be imposed upon regular zoning regulations to maintain the area’s historical characteristics. Often, urban regulations read as text are difficult to understand. A tool that generates adequate urban information and a quick visualization of the design will ease decision-making and enhance urban design processes. The goal of this research project is to develop a virtual reality (VR) tool with high resolution, speedy computation, and a userfriendly environment. This project initiates an interactive visualization tool to enforce city-planning regulations on viewing access to the state capitol building in Des Moines, Iowa. The capitol building houses the Iowa Legislature and is a symbol of state power. Maintaining the view from surrounding areas will preserve the building’s monumental and symbolic meaning. To accomplish this, the City Community Development Department and the Capitol Planning Committee developed a Capitol View Corridor Project, which sets up seven visual corridors to prevent the view toward the capitol from being blocked by any future designs. Because city regulations are not easy for the public and designers to interpret and comprehend, this project intends to develop a VR tool to create a transparent environment for visualizing the city ordinances.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id 958e
authors Coppola, Carlo and Ceso, Alessandro
year 2000
title Computer Aided Design and Artificial Intelligence in Urban and Architectural Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 301-307
summary In general, computer-aided design is still limited to a rather elementary use of the medium, as it is mainly used for the representation/simulation of a design idea w an electronic drawing-table. hich is not computer-generated. The procedures used to date have been basically been those of an electronic drawing-table. At the first stage of development the objective was to find a different and better means of communication, to give form to an idea so as to show its quality. The procedures used were 2D design and 3D simulation models, usually used when the design was already defined. The second stage is when solid 3D modelling is used to define the formal design at the conception stage, using virtual models instead of study models in wood, plastic, etc. At the same time in other connected fields the objective is to evaluate the feasibility of the formal idea by means of structural and technological analysis. The third stage, in my opinion, should aim to develop procedures capable of contributing to both the generation of the formal idea and the simultaneous study of technical feasibility by means of a decision-making support system aided by an Artificial Intelligence procedure which will lead to what I would describe as the definition of the design in its totality. The approach to architectural and urban design has been strongly influenced by the first two stages, though these have developed independently and with very specific objectives. It is my belief that architectural design is now increasingly the result of a structured and complex process, not a simple act of pure artistic invention. Consequently, I feel that the way forward is a procedure able to virtually represent all the features of the object designed, not only in its definitive configuration but also and more importantly in the interactions which determine the design process as it develops. Thus A.I. becomes the means of synthesis for models which are hierarchically subordinated which together determine the design object in its developmental process, supporting decision-making by applying processing criteria which generative modelling has already identified. This trend is currently being experimented, giving rise to interesting results from process design in the field of industrial production.
series eCAADe
email carlo.coppola@unina2.it
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 9b63
authors De Mesa, A., Quilez, J. and Regot, J.
year 1999
title Sunlight Energy Graphic and Analytic Control in 3D Modelling
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 733-738
summary Linking solar positions with architecture is a traditional idea, but the use of graphical tools to control sunlight in urban surroundings or buildings is relatively recent. A three-dimensional working environment like the computer offers a new dimension to verify the relationships between the sun and the architecture. This paper shows a new way to calculate the incidence of solar energy in architectural environments using computer 3D modelling. The addition of virtual space visualisation to the analytic computation brings a new tool that simplifies the technical study of sunlight. We have developed several programs based upon the three-dimensional construction of the solar vault and the obstructing objects for a defined position. The first one draws the solar vault for a defined range of dates according to latitude, that is the basis of the energetic calculation. The second program computes the obstruction, i.e. the solar regions that are obstructed by any object. Finally, the third one, allow us to define an orientation to compute the energy that arrives to the analysed positioning. The last program returns the result of calculation in several ways: it shows the amount of energy through colours and makes a list of solar hours according to its energy.
keywords Sunlight, Energy, 3D modelling
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 349e
authors Durmisevic, Sanja
year 2002
title Perception Aspects in Underground Spaces using Intelligent Knowledge Modeling
source Delft University of Technology
summary The intensification, combination and transformation are main strategies for future spatial development of the Netherlands, which are stated in the Fifth Bill regarding Spatial Planning. These strategies indicate that in the future, space should be utilized in a more compact and more efficient way requiring, at the same time, re-evaluation of the existing built environment and finding ways to improve it. In this context, the concept of multiple space usage is accentuated, which would focus on intensive 4-dimensional spatial exploration. The underground space is acknowledged as an important part of multiple space usage. In the document 'Spatial Exploration 2000', the underground space is recognized by policy makers as an important new 'frontier' that could provide significant contribution to future spatial requirements.In a relatively short period, the underground space became an important research area. Although among specialists there is appreciation of what underground space could provide for densely populated urban areas, there are still reserved feelings by the public, which mostly relate to the poor quality of these spaces. Many realized underground projects, namely subways, resulted in poor user satisfaction. Today, there is still a significant knowledge gap related to perception of underground space. There is also a lack of detailed documentation on actual applications of the theories, followed by research results and applied techniques. This is the case in different areas of architectural design, but for underground spaces perhaps most evident due to their infancv role in general architectural practice. In order to create better designs, diverse aspects, which are very often of qualitative nature, should be considered in perspective with the final goal to improve quality and image of underground space. In the architectural design process, one has to establish certain relations among design information in advance, to make design backed by sound rationale. The main difficulty at this point is that such relationships may not be determined due to various reasons. One example may be the vagueness of the architectural design data due to linguistic qualities in them. Another, may be vaguely defined design qualities. In this work, the problem was not only the initial fuzziness of the information but also the desired relevancy determination among all pieces of information given. Presently, to determine the existence of such relevancy is more or less a matter of architectural subjective judgement rather than systematic, non-subjective decision-making based on an existing design. This implies that the invocation of certain tools dealing with fuzzy information is essential for enhanced design decisions. Efficient methods and tools to deal with qualitative, soft data are scarce, especially in the architectural domain. Traditionally well established methods, such as statistical analysis, have been used mainly for data analysis focused on similar types to the present research. These methods mainly fall into a category of pattern recognition. Statistical regression methods are the most common approaches towards this goal. One essential drawback of this method is the inability of dealing efficiently with non-linear data. With statistical analysis, the linear relationships are established by regression analysis where dealing with non-linearity is mostly evaded. Concerning the presence of multi-dimensional data sets, it is evident that the assumption of linear relationships among all pieces of information would be a gross approximation, which one has no basis to assume. A starting point in this research was that there maybe both linearity and non-linearity present in the data and therefore the appropriate methods should be used in order to deal with that non-linearity. Therefore, some other commensurate methods were adopted for knowledge modeling. In that respect, soft computing techniques proved to match the quality of the multi-dimensional data-set subject to analysis, which is deemed to be 'soft'. There is yet another reason why soft-computing techniques were applied, which is related to the automation of knowledge modeling. In this respect, traditional models such as Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems have drawbacks. One important drawback is that the development of these systems is a time-consuming process. The programming part, in which various deliberations are required to form a consistent if-then rule knowledge based system, is also a time-consuming activity. For these reasons, the methods and tools from other disciplines, which also deal with soft data, should be integrated into architectural design. With fuzzy logic, the imprecision of data can be dealt with in a similar way to how humans do it. Artificial neural networks are deemed to some extent to model the human brain, and simulate its functions in the form of parallel information processing. They are considered important components of Artificial Intelligence (Al). With neural networks, it is possible to learn from examples, or more precisely to learn from input-output data samples. The combination of the neural and fuzzy approach proved to be a powerful combination for dealing with qualitative data. The problem of automated knowledge modeling is efficiently solved by employment of machine learning techniques. Here, the expertise of prof. dr. Ozer Ciftcioglu in the field of soft computing was crucial for tool development. By combining knowledge from two different disciplines a unique tool could be developed that would enable intelligent modeling of soft data needed for support of the building design process. In this respect, this research is a starting point in that direction. It is multidisciplinary and on the cutting edge between the field of Architecture and the field of Artificial Intelligence. From the architectural viewpoint, the perception of space is considered through relationship between a human being and a built environment. Techniques from the field of Artificial Intelligence are employed to model that relationship. Such an efficient combination of two disciplines makes it possible to extend our knowledge boundaries in the field of architecture and improve design quality. With additional techniques, meta know/edge, or in other words "knowledge about knowledge", can be created. Such techniques involve sensitivity analysis, which determines the amount of dependency of the output of a model (comfort and public safety) on the information fed into the model (input). Another technique is functional relationship modeling between aspects, which is derivation of dependency of a design parameter as a function of user's perceptions. With this technique, it is possible to determine functional relationships between dependent and independent variables. This thesis is a contribution to better understanding of users' perception of underground space, through the prism of public safety and comfort, which was achieved by means of intelligent knowledge modeling. In this respect, this thesis demonstrated an application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) as a partner in the building design process by employing advanced modeling techniques. The method explained throughout this work is very generic and is possible to apply to not only different areas of architectural design, but also to other domains that involve qualitative data.
keywords Underground Space; Perception; Soft Computing
series thesis:PhD
email s.durmisevic@wannadoo.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 2aca
authors Faucher, Didier and Nivet, Marie-Laure
year 2000
title Playing with design intents: integrating physical and urban constraints in CAD
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 93-105
summary Our work deals with the exploration of a universe of forms that satisfy some design intents. That is, we substitute a "generate and test" approach for a declarative approach in which an object is created from its properties. In this paper we present an original method that takes into account design intents relative to sunlight, visibility and urban regulation. First of all we study how current CAD tools have considered these properties until now. Our conclusion is that the classical design/simulation/analysis process does not suit design practices, especially in the early stages. We think that an improved CAD system should offer the architect the option of manipulating abstract information such as design intents. We define an intent as a conceptual expression of constraints having an influence on the project. For instance, a visual intent will be stated with no reference to vision geometry: "from this place, I want to see the front of the new building". We show how to represent each of these constraints with a 3D volume associated to some characteristics. If some solutions exist, we are sure that they are included in these volumes. For physical phenomena we compute the volume geometry using the principles of inverse simulation. In the case of urban regulation we apply deduction rules. Design intents are solved by means of geometrical entities that represent openings or obstructions in the project. Computing constraint volumes is a way of guiding the architect in his exploration of solutions. Constraint volumes are new spaces that can restore the link between form and phenomenon in a CAD tool. Our approach offers the designer the possibility of manipulating design intents.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ddssar0023
id ddssar0023
authors Jens Pohl, Art Chapman, and Kym Jason Pohl
year 2000
title Computer-aided design systems for the 21st century: some design guidelines
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper proposes nine design principles for a new generation of computer-aided design (CAD) systems that actively support the decision making and problem solving activities of environmental design. Foremost among these are: a meaningful internal object-based representation of the artifact being designed within its environmental context; a collaborative problem solving paradigm in which the human designer and the computer form a complementary partnership; and, the notion of decision-support tools rather than predefined solutions. Two prototype computer-aided design systems implemented by the CAD Research Center that embody most of these concepts are described. ICADS (Intelligent Computer-Aided Design System) incorporates multiple expert agents in domains such as natural and artificial lighting, noise control, structural system selection, climatic determinants, and energy conservation. Given a particular building design context, the agents in ICADS draw upon their own expertise and several knowledgebases as they monitor the actions of the human designer and collaborate opportunistically. KOALA (Knowledge-Based Object-Agent Collaboration) builds on the multi-agent concepts embodied in ICADS by the addition of two kinds of agents. Mentor agents represent the interests of selected objects within the ontology of the design environment. In the implemented KOALA system building spaces are represented by agents capable of collaborating with each other, with domain agents for the provision of expert services, and with the human designer. Facilitator agents listen in on the communications among mentor agents to detect conflicts and moderate arguments. While both of these prototype systems are limited in scope by focussing on the earliest design stages and restricted in their understanding of the inherent complexity of a design state, they nevertheless promise a paradigm shift in computer-aided design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2683
authors Kos, Jose Ripper
year 2000
title Architectural Hypermedia Based on 3D Models
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 221-224
summary The World Wide Web gave a new dimension to the terms hypermedia and hypertext. Their distinctions are not very clear and in this paper we will use both with the same meaning. They are usually defined in a very generic way as a revolutionary form of writing. The generalization and glorification of hypertext, however, obscures a clearer view of its real possibilities. Architects will benefit by investigating carefully its resources - and how it can be a powerful tool for the profession, particularly when associated with 3D models.
keywords Hypermedia, 3D Model, Hypertext, Latin-American Cities, Architecture
series eCAADe
email josekos@pobox.com
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2001/04/03 19:30

_id ddssar0018
id ddssar0018
authors Loon, Peter Paul van
year 2000
title Team design from the individual points of viewa humanistic approach
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary This paper deals with design in teams from the individual points of view of all the parties involved in the process: principals, investors, owners, specialists, experts, advisors, officials, builders, users and residents. Taken together, these different points of view enable us to describe decentralised design in its pure form.Discussion of the individual points of view is possible only if one assumes that the parties involved have their own standpoints in the form of a collection of definable goals (all their wishes, efforts, principles, standards etc.), that they will endeavour to achieve those goals and that they will adjust their actions and decisions during the design process to serve those goals. For the elaboration of this individual point of view (of team design in a matrix structure) I shall take as a basis two concepts from decision theory: ‘methodological individualism’ and ‘the actor’s viewpoint’.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 3888
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2000
title Computational Situated Learning in Designing - Application to Architectural Shape Semantics
source The University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture
summary Learning the situatedness (applicability conditions), of design knowledge recognised from design compositions is the central tenet of the research presented in this thesis. This thesis develops and implements a computational system of situated learning and investigates its utility in designing. Situated learning is based on the concept that "knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by its situation". In this sense learning is tuned to the situations within which "what you do when you do matters". Designing cannot be predicted and the results of designing are not based on actions independent of what is being designed or independent of when, where and how it was designed. Designers' actions are situation dependent (situated), such that designers work actively with the design environment within the specific conditions of the situation where neither the goal state nor the solution space is completely predetermined. In designing, design solutions are fluid and emergent entities generated by dynamic and situated activities instead of fixed design plans. Since it is not possible in advance to know what knowledge to use in relation to any situation we need to learn knowledge in relation to its situation, i.e. learn the applicability conditions of knowledge. This leads towards the notion of the situation as having the potential role of guiding the use of knowledge.

Situated Learning in Designing (SLiDe) is developed and implemented within the domain of architectural shape composition (in the form of floor plans), to construct the situatedness of shape semantics. An architectural shape semantic is a set of characteristics with a semantic meaning based on a particular view of a shape such as reflection symmetry, adjacency, rotation and linearity. Each shape semantic has preconditions without which it cannot be recognised. Such preconditions indicate nothing about the situation within which this shape semantic was recognised. The situatedness or the applicability conditions of a shape semantic is viewed as, the interdependent relationships between this shape semantic as the design knowledge in focus, and other shape semantics across the observations of a design composition. While designing, various shape semantics and relationships among them emerge in different representations of a design composition. Multiple representations of a design composition by re-interpretation have been proposed to serve as a platform for SLiDe. Multiple representations provide the opportunity for different shape semantics and relationships among them to be found from a single design composition. This is important if these relationships are to be used later because it is not known in advance which of the possible relationships could be constructed are likely to be useful. Hence, multiple representations provide a platform for different situations to be encountered. A symbolic representation of shape and shape semantics is used in which the infinite maximal lines form the representative primitives of the shape.

SLiDe is concerned with learning the applicability conditions (situatedness), of shape semantics locating them in relation to situations within which they were recognised (situation dependent), and updating the situatedness of shape semantics in response to new observations of the design composition. SLiDe consists of three primary modules: Generator, Recogniser and Incremental Situator. The Generator is used by the designer to develop a set of multiple representations of a design composition. This set of representations forms the initial design environment of SLiDe. The Recogniser detects shape semantics in each representation and produces a set of observations, each of which is comprised of a group of shape semantics recognised at each corresponding representation. The Incremental Situator module consists of two sub-modules, Situator and Restructuring Situator, and utilises an unsupervised incremental clustering mechanism not affected by concept drift. The Situator module locates recognised shape semantics in relation to their situations by finding regularities of relationships among them across observations of a design composition and clustering them into situational categories organised in a hierarchical tree structure. Such relationships change over time due to the changes taken place in the design environment whenever further representations are developed using the Generator module and new observations are constructed by the Recogniser module. The Restructuring Situator module updates previously learned situational categories and restructures the hierarchical tree accordingly in response to new observations.

Learning the situatedness shape semantics may play a crucial role in designing if designers pursue further some of these shape semantics. This thesis illustrates an approach in which SLiDe can be utilised in designing to explore the shapes in a design composition in various ways; bring designers! attention to potentially hidden features and shape semantics of their designs; and maintain the integrity of the design composition by using the situatedness of shape semantics. The thesis concludes by outlining future directions for this research to learn and update the situatedness of design knowledge within the context of use; considering the role of functional knowledge while learning the situatedness of design knowledge; and developing an autonomous situated agent-based designing system.

series thesis:PhD
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/06 09:34

_id 8637
authors Segre, R., Novick, A., Caride, H. and Macchin, C.
year 2000
title Espacios y Tiempos de Buenos Aires: Volumen I - (Spaces and Time of Buenos Aires: Volume I)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 147-148
summary This multimedia refer about the Buenos Aires general historical evolution. Navigation define four basic subjects. a) A narrative description that permits to approximate to its main historical periods, defined by economical and social events. b) The urban grid. Here the user access to the city plan where is possible to have information about the growth of Buenos Aires along the time; the circulation system; density of population; green areas and public transportation. With a particular icon is possible to know about a group of main sites, that have a symbolic meaning in the city. The urban context and the surroundings buildings are analyzed in a detailed way. c) Documents, historical plans, director plans and bibliography. d) postcards that with one hundred pictures of the city is establish a relationship with literature, music, historical films and poetry.
series SIGRADI
email bobsegre@acd.ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 3f51
authors Streich, B., Oxman, R. and Fritz, O.
year 2000
title Computer-Simulated Growth Processes in Urban Planning and Architecture
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 233-237
summary Urban structures, developed and grown over a period of time, are created by processes that, due to the number of influential factors, are not longer comprehensible as a whole. Their development is very complex and depends on a big number of reciprocal factors that even architects or planners sometimes cannot recognize the formal, functional and rational processes of thinking behind it. The involved mechanisms however are particularly obvious in historical urban structures that came to exist over a period of centuries. The planned relationships within these conglomerates are governed by nearly indiscernible rules and show similarities in form and shape to living and non-living forms in nature. They are clearly analogous to fractals or systems with chaotic behavior. In the course of the research project “media experimental design”, financed by the German Research Foundation, algorithms are sought that are able to simulate urban analogous structures digitally. To this effect the main rules of growth processes are researched and extracted. Then, by following these rules, virtual structures are developed and shown by using powerful three-dimensional techniques. The developed mechanisms allow urban planning to be process-oriented, interactive and flexible for permanently changing parameters. With an implemented set of rules the computer is able to create a design and to react to changing situations. In several experimental studies structures were successfully generated which have different forms and qualities depending on their set of rules. For example, structures were programmed which are similar to a big city while other look like a village in hilly landscape. Diverse rules and strategies have been used in order to reduce them to shape specific factors. The rules for growth are administered by a specifically developed databank with sophisticated search mechanisms using the Issue-Concept- Form tool as case-based-reasoning method.
keywords Simulation, Urban Growth-Processes, Virtual Reality
series ACADIA
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id ddssar0028
id ddssar0028
authors Uysal, V. Safak and Wilsing, Markus
year 2000
title Embodying architecture, studying dance: movement as means of studying body-space relationship
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Body, even at its most still form, is the most violent against the acclamations of architectural space formulated in terms of a “search for the order in the environment”. It leans against the wall, hits the table, falls over the bed, approaches the window case, shakes and trembles in empty space: in short, it moves; it is alive. However violently, the presence of the human being is the fundamental input for the architectural practice since it is an art of creating spaces to enhance the living conditions of the human being. In recognizing the violent character of the body, we must include not only the real bodily movement, but also the extensions of that movement which we make in imagination. In this study, the authors discuss the possibilities of studying theatrical dance in order to understand the body-space relationship, constructing an analogy to the contact improvisation technique. Use of space in performance is examined on a two dimensional model: one dimension marked by body and space at its extremes, and the other marked by the affirmative and the negative types of interaction. The schema provides one with a general categorization that classifies space as (1) background, (2) motivator, (3) partner in dialogue, (4) mental counterpart. The limitations brought about by the universal approach are mentioned at the end, in order to be approached within the following study.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e978
authors [Zupancic] Strojan, Tadeja Z.
year 1999
title CyberUniversity
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 196-200
summary The study of a cyberuniversity derives from an analogy between real urban space and its virtual "substitution". It represents an attempt to balance some views, which seems to be contrary, exclusive, but they are just parts of the same wholeness. Especially the notion of a cyber society is lately considered such an exaggeration, that it is possible to forget the meaning of a real life experience and interactions, which are already threatened. One should contribute to the awarness that is used in such a comparison, it is "just" an analogy, not a real similarity. At the same time it is possible to point out some limitations of a cyberspace and indicate a more realistic view of the meaning of cyber communities. Awarness of the development processes could help to find a balance between reality and virtuality, using cyberfacilities not to destroy us (our identity) but to improve the quality of our (real) life.
keywords University, Cyberuniversity, Space, Cyberspace
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email tadeja.zupancic@guest.arnes.si
last changed 2007/03/04 06:03

_id bb5f
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Mohd Fazidin, J.
year 2001
title Creating a City Administration System (CAS) using Virtual Reality in an Immersive Collaborative Environment (ICE)
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 449-453
summary Current problems in administration of a city are found to be decentralized and noninteractive for an effective city management. This usually will result in inconsistencies of decision-making, inefficient services and slow response to a particular action. City administration often spends more money, time and human resource because of these problems. This research demonstrates our research and development of creating a City Administration System (CAS) to solve the problems stated above. The task of the system is to use information, multimedia and graphical technologies to form a database in which the city administrators can monitor, understand and manage an entire city from a central location. The key technology behind the success of the overall system uses virtual reality and immersive collaborative environment (ICE). This system employs emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to ensure effective decisionmaking process, improved communication, and collaboration, error reduction, (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2000) between multi disciplinary users and approaches. This multi perspective approach allows planners, engineers, urban designers, architects, local authorities, environmentalists and general public to search, understand, process and anticipate the impact of a particular situation in the new city. It is hoped that the CAS will benefit city administrators to give them a tool that gives them the ability to understand, plan, and manage the business of running the city.
keywords City Administration System (CAS), Virtual Reality, Immersive Collaborative Environment (ICE), Database
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my, fazidin@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddssar0002
id ddssar0002
authors Aoki, Yoshitsugu and Inage, Makoto
year 2000
title Linguistic Operation System for Design of Architectural Form
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary In a process of architectural design, an architect not only draws by himself/herself but also lets another person modify a design by given a linguistic instruction expressing how the design ought to be. In the case of utilization of CAD systems, it is useful if the system modifies the design according to the linguistic instruction. On the other hand, because of the recent increase of the opportunities of designing a building whose roof has complicated curved surface, it extremely takes labor to change the design. This paper proposes a linguistic operation system that modifies a design according to the linguistic instruction of the modification by the user to support design of a complicated form with curved surface. The proposed system is expected to be integrated with a CAD system. First, the system presents a perspective sketch of a designed form. From the values of the design variables that characterize the form in the system, the system calculates the position of the form in “the association image space.” Second, the designer puts a linguistic instruction i.e., words as like as “let it be more light” to modify the form. The words used for the instruction have the position in the association image space. In the association image space, the system moves the position of the form to a new position that gets to be near the position of the given word. The system calculates the values of the design variables of the form corresponding to the new position. We need a mapping from every vector representing the position of the changed form in the association image space to the corresponding vector representing the values of the design variables. To find the mapping, we construct a neural network system with three levels. Finally, the system presents a perspective sketch of changed form using the calculated values of design variables.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 3642
authors Asojo, Abimbola Oluwatoni
year 2000
title Design Algorithms after Le Corbusier
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 17-24
summary Some views of design are the act as puzzle making, problem solving, evolutionary, and decision-making. All these focus on form generation as constructive, therefore characterizing design as a path-planning problem through a space of possibilities. Design problems consist sets of information divided into initial, intermediate, and goal states. Design in its simplest state consist of a set of operators, sequences (or paths) between initial and goals states. In this paper, I present design algorithms for Le Corbusier because of his distinct compositional techniques particularly for his “White Villas” in which some elements have been identified to recursively occur.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddssar0003
id ddssar0003
authors Bax, Th., Trum, H. and Nauta, D.jr.
year 2000
title Implications of the philosophy of Ch. S. Peirce for interdisciplinary design: developments in domain theory
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Subject of this paper is the establishment of a connection between categorical pragmatism, developed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) through phenomenological analysis, and Domain Theory, developed by Thijs Bax and Henk Trum since 1977. The first is a phenomenological branch of philosophy, the second a theory of interdisciplinary design. A connection seems possible because of similarity in form (three-partitions with an anarcho-hierarchical character), the not-absolute conception of functionality and the interdisciplinary and procedural (participation based action) character of both theories.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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