CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 9384
authors Burry, M., Datta, S. and Anson, S.
year 2000
title Introductory Computer Programming as a Means for Extending Spatial and Temporal Understanding
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 129-135
summary Should computer programming be taught within schools of architecture? Incorporating even low-level computer programming within architectural education curricula is a matter of debate but we have found it useful to do so for two reasons: as an introduction or at least a consolidation of the realm of descriptive geometry and in providing an environment for experimenting in morphological time-based change. Mathematics and descriptive geometry formed a significant proportion of architectural education until the end of the 19th century. This proportion has declined in contemporary curricula, possibly at some cost for despite major advances in automated manufacture, Cartesian measurement is still the principal ‘language’ with which to describe building for construction purposes. When computer programming is used as a platform for instruction in logic and spatial representation, the waning interest in mathematics as a basis for spatial description can be readdressed using a left-field approach. Students gain insights into topology, Cartesian space and morphology through programmatic form finding, as opposed to through direct manipulation. In this context, it matters to the architect-programmer how the program operates more than what it does. This paper describes an assignment where students are given a figurative conceptual space comprising the three Cartesian axes with a cube at its centre. Six Phileban solids mark the Cartesian axial limits to the space. Any point in this space represents a hybrid of one, two or three transformations from the central cube towards the various Phileban solids. Students are asked to predict the topological and morphological outcomes of the operations. Through programming, they become aware of morphogenesis and hybridisation. Here we articulate the hypothesis above and report on the outcome from a student group, whose work reveals wider learning opportunities for architecture students in computer programming than conventionally assumed.
series ACADIA
email mark.burry@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id ga0007
id ga0007
authors Coates, Paul and Miranda, Pablo
year 2000
title Swarm modelling. The use of Swarm Intelligence to generate architectural form
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary .neither the human purposes nor the architect's method are fully known in advance. Consequently, if this interpretation of the architectural problem situation is accepted, any problem-solving technique that relies on explicit problem definition, on distinct goal orientation, on data collection, or even on non-adaptive algorithms will distort the design process and the human purposes involved.' Stanford Anderson, "Problem-Solving and Problem-Worrying". The works concentrates in the use of the computer as a perceptive device, a sort of virtual hand or "sense", capable of prompting an environment. From a set of data that conforms the environment (in this case the geometrical representation of the form of the site) this perceptive device is capable of differentiating and generating distinct patterns in its behavior, patterns that an observer has to interpret as meaningful information. As Nicholas Negroponte explains referring to the project GROPE in his Architecture Machine: 'In contrast to describing criteria and asking the machine to generate physical form, this exercise focuses on generating criteria from physical form.' 'The onlooking human or architecture machine observes what is "interesting" by observing GROPE's behavior rather than by receiving the testimony that this or that is "interesting".' The swarm as a learning device. In this case the work implements a Swarm as a perceptive device. Swarms constitute a paradigm of parallel systems: a multitude of simple individuals aggregate in colonies or groups, giving rise to collaborative behaviors. The individual sensors can't learn, but the swarm as a system can evolve in to more stable states. These states generate distinct patterns, a result of the inner mechanics of the swarm and of the particularities of the environment. The dynamics of the system allows it to learn and adapt to the environment; information is stored in the speed of the sensors (the more collisions, the slower) that acts as a memory. The speed increases in the absence of collisions and so providing the system with the ability to forget, indispensable for differentiation of information and emergence of patterns. The swarm is both a perceptive and a spatial phenomenon. For being able to Interact with an environment an observer requires some sort of embodiment. In the case of the swarm, its algorithms for moving, collision detection, and swarm mechanics conform its perceptive body. The way this body interacts with its environment in the process of learning and differentiation of spatial patterns constitutes also a spatial phenomenon. The enactive space of the Swarm. Enaction, a concept developed by Maturana and Varela for the description of perception in biological terms, is the understanding of perception as the result of the structural coupling of an environment and an observer. Enaction does not address cognition in the currently conventional sense as an internal manipulation of extrinsic 'information' or 'signals', but as the relation between environment and observer and the blurring of their identities. Thus, the space generated by the swarm is an enactive space, a space without explicit description, and an invention of the swarm-environment structural coupling. If we consider a gestalt as 'Some property -such as roundness- common to a set of sense data and appreciated by organisms or artefacts' (Gordon Pask), the swarm is also able to differentiate space 'gestalts' or spaces of some characteristics, such as 'narrowness', or 'fluidness' etc. Implicit surfaces and the wrapping algorithm. One of the many ways of describing this space is through the use of implicit surfaces. An implicit surface may be imagined as an infinitesimally thin band of some measurable quantity such as color, density, temperature, pressure, etc. Thus, an implicit surface consists of those points in three-space that satisfy some particular requirement. This allows as to wrap the regions of space where a difference of quantity has been produced, enclosing the spaces in which some particular events in the history of the Swarm have occurred. The wrapping method allows complex topologies, such as manifoldness in one continuous surface. It is possible to transform the information generated by the swarm in to a landscape that is the result of the particular reading of the site by the swarm. Working in real time. Because of the complex nature of the machine, the only possible way to evaluate the resulting behavior is in real time. For this purpose specific applications had to be developed, using OpenGL for the Windows programming environment. The package consisted on translators from DXF format to a specific format used by these applications and viceversa, the Swarm "engine", a simulated parallel environment, and the Wrapping programs, to generate the implicit surfaces. Different versions of each had been produced, in different stages of development of the work.
series other
email p.s.coates@uel.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id d1a6
authors Corona Martínez, A., Vigo, L. and Folchi, A.
year 2001
title SEMINARIO/TALLER DE INVESTIGACION PROYECTUAL ESTRUCTURA DE TALLER ACTIVO PARA LA ENSEÑANZA E INVESTIGACIÓN PROYECTUAL ARQUITECTÓNICA ASISTIDO POR TÉCNOLOGÍAS DIGITALES (Research Seminar/Workshop on the Structure of Active Design Studios for Training and Research on Computer Aided Design)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 227-228
summary In a previous paper (SiGradi 2000) we presented a design approach based upon the architectural research that regarded digital technologies as a subordinated tool to architectural design. From that starting point and from various research experiences, we have re-oriented certain guidelines and latter developed specific techniques that can be used both for teaching and for the professional practice of architecture. Through the use of paradigmatic and hermeneutic techniques developed ad hoc, architectural projects are developed in a three-stage sequence: a) development of a narrative framework; b) analysis based on object oriented programming thechniques; and c) digital development of the preliminary design. We believe that the positive aspects of the inclusion of these idea-centered techniques to the digital realm unifies and extends the architectural knowledge and strengthens its conception.
series SIGRADI
email corona@cvtci.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensión Fenotípica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Análisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension – An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
email mail@maurocosta.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 9b63
authors De Mesa, A., Quilez, J. and Regot, J.
year 1999
title Sunlight Energy Graphic and Analytic Control in 3D Modelling
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 733-738
summary Linking solar positions with architecture is a traditional idea, but the use of graphical tools to control sunlight in urban surroundings or buildings is relatively recent. A three-dimensional working environment like the computer offers a new dimension to verify the relationships between the sun and the architecture. This paper shows a new way to calculate the incidence of solar energy in architectural environments using computer 3D modelling. The addition of virtual space visualisation to the analytic computation brings a new tool that simplifies the technical study of sunlight. We have developed several programs based upon the three-dimensional construction of the solar vault and the obstructing objects for a defined position. The first one draws the solar vault for a defined range of dates according to latitude, that is the basis of the energetic calculation. The second program computes the obstruction, i.e. the solar regions that are obstructed by any object. Finally, the third one, allow us to define an orientation to compute the energy that arrives to the analysed positioning. The last program returns the result of calculation in several ways: it shows the amount of energy through colours and makes a list of solar hours according to its energy.
keywords Sunlight, Energy, 3D modelling
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 53c8
authors Donath, Dirk and Lömker, Thorsten Michael
year 2000
title Illusion, Frustration and Vision in Computer-Aided Project Planning: A Reflection and Outlook on the Use of Computing in Architecture
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 3-9
summary This paper examines the progressive and pragmatic use of computers and CAAD systems in the architectural practice. With the aid of three scenarios, this paper will illustrate gainful implementation of computer aided project planning in architecture. The first scenario describes an actual situation of implementation and describes conceptual abortive developments in office organization as well as in software technology. Scenario two outlines the essential features of an integrated building design system and the efforts involved in its implementation in the architectural practice. It clearly defines preconditions for implementation and focuses on feasible concepts for the integration of different database management systems. A glance at paradigms of conceptual work currently under development will be taken. The third scenario deals with the structure and integration of innovative concepts and the responsibility the architect will bear with regard to necessary alterations in office and workgroup organization. A future-oriented building design system will be described that distinguishes itself from existing programs because of its modular, net-based structure. With reference to today’s situation in architectural offices and according to realizable improvements, this article will demonstrate courses for future IT-support on the basis of an ongoing research project. The presented project is part of the special research area 524 “Materials and Constructions for the Revitalization of Existing Buildings” which is funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. It deals with the integration of various parties that are involved in the revitalization process of existing buildings as well as with the provision of adequate information within the planning process resting upon the survey of existing building substance. Additional concepts that might change the way an architect’s work is organized will also be presented. “Case-based-reasoning” methods will make informal knowledge available, leading to a digital memory of preservable solutions.
series ACADIA
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2007/11/27 07:22

_id db00
authors Espina, Jane J.B.
year 2002
title Base de datos de la arquitectura moderna de la ciudad de Maracaibo 1920-1990 [Database of the Modern Architecture of the City of Maracaibo 1920-1990]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 133-139
summary Bases de datos, Sistemas y Redes 134The purpose of this report is to present the achievements obtained in the use of the technologies of information andcommunication in the architecture, by means of the construction of a database to register the information on the modernarchitecture of the city of Maracaibo from 1920 until 1990, in reference to the constructions located in 5 of Julio, Sectorand to the most outstanding planners for its work, by means of the representation of the same ones in digital format.The objective of this investigation it was to elaborate a database for the registration of the information on the modernarchitecture in the period 1920-1990 of Maracaibo, by means of the design of an automated tool to organize the it datesrelated with the buildings, parcels and planners of the city. The investigation was carried out considering three methodologicalmoments: a) Gathering and classification of the information of the buildings and planners of the modern architectureto elaborate the databases, b) Design of the databases for the organization of the information and c) Design ofthe consultations, information, reports and the beginning menu. For the prosecution of the data files were generated inprograms attended by such computer as: AutoCAD R14 and 2000, Microsoft Word, Microsoft PowerPoint and MicrosoftAccess 2000, CorelDRAW V9.0 and Corel PHOTOPAINT V9.0.The investigation is related with the work developed in the class of Graphic Calculation II, belonging to the Departmentof Communication of the School of Architecture of the Faculty of Architecture and Design of The University of the Zulia(FADLUZ), carried out from the year 1999, using part of the obtained information of the works of the students generatedby means of the CAD systems for the representation in three dimensions of constructions with historical relevance in themodern architecture of Maracaibo, which are classified in the work of The Other City, generating different types ofisometric views, perspectives, representations photorealistics, plants and facades, among others.In what concerns to the thematic of this investigation, previous antecedents are ignored in our environment, and beingthe first time that incorporates the digital graph applied to the work carried out by the architects of “The Other City, thegenesis of the oil city of Maracaibo” carried out in the year 1994; of there the value of this research the field of thearchitecture and computer science. To point out that databases exist in the architecture field fits and of the design, alsoweb sites with information has more than enough architects and architecture works (Montagu, 1999).In The University of the Zulia, specifically in the Faculty of Architecture and Design, they have been carried out twoworks related with the thematic one of database, specifically in the years 1995 and 1996, in the first one a system wasdesigned to visualize, to classify and to analyze from the architectural point of view some historical buildings of Maracaiboand in the second an automated system of documental information was generated on the goods properties built insidethe urban area of Maracaibo. In the world environment it stands out the first database developed in Argentina, it is the database of the Modern andContemporary Architecture “Datarq 2000” elaborated by the Prof. Arturo Montagú of the University of Buenos Aires. The general objective of this work it was the use of new technologies for the prosecution in Architecture and Design (MONTAGU, Ob.cit). In the database, he intends to incorporate a complementary methodology and alternative of use of the informationthat habitually is used in the teaching of the architecture. When concluding this investigation, it was achieved: 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, of which some form part of the historical patrimony of Maracaibo; 2) organized registrations of type text: historical, formal, space and technical data, and graph: you plant, facades, perspectives, pictures, among other, of the Moments of the Architecture of the Modernity in the city, general data and more excellent characteristics of the constructions, and general data of the Planners with their more important works, besides information on the parcels where the constructions are located, 3)construction in digital format and development of representations photorealistics of architecture projects already built. It is excellent to highlight the importance in the use of the Technologies of Information and Communication in this investigation, since it will allow to incorporate to the means digital part of the information of the modern architecturalconstructions that characterized the city of Maracaibo at the end of the XX century, and that in the last decades they have suffered changes, some of them have disappeared, destroying leaves of the modern historical patrimony of the city; therefore, the necessity arises of to register and to systematize in digital format the graphic information of those constructions. Also, to demonstrate the importance of the use of the computer and of the computer science in the representation and compression of the buildings of the modern architecture, to inclination texts, images, mapping, models in 3D and information organized in databases, and the relevance of the work from the pedagogic point of view,since it will be able to be used in the dictation of computer science classes and history in the teaching of the University studies of third level, allowing the learning with the use in new ways of transmission of the knowledge starting from the visual information on the part of the students in the elaboration of models in three dimensions or electronic scalemodels, also of the modern architecture and in a future to serve as support material for virtual recoveries of some buildings that at the present time they don’t exist or they are almost destroyed. In synthesis, the investigation will allow to know and to register the architecture of Maracaibo in this last decade, which arises under the parameters of the modernity and that through its organization and visualization in digital format, it will allow to the students, professors and interested in knowing it in a quicker and more efficient way, constituting a contribution to theteaching in the history area and calculation. Also, it can be of a lot of utility for the development of future investigation projects related with the thematic one and restoration of buildings of the modernity in Maracaibo.
keywords database, digital format, modern architecture, model, mapping
series SIGRADI
email jacky@convergence.com.ve., jjespina@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id gerardgabriel_phd
id gerardgabriel_phd
authors Gabriel, Gerard Caesar
year 2000
title COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION IN DESIGN
source PhD Thesis, Faculty of Architecture, University of Sydney
summary Up till now, architects collaborating with other colleagues did so mostly face-to-face (FTF). They had to be in the same space (co-located) at the same time. Communication was ‘spontaneous’ and ideas were represented, whether verbal or nonverbal, by talking and using ‘traditional drawing tools’. If they were geographically displaced, the interaction was then space affected as well as the probability of being time affected. In this case communication was usually mediated through the telephone, and graphically represented ideas were sent by Fax or posted documents. Recently, some architectural firms started using modems and Internet connections to exchange information, by transferring CAD drawings as well as design information, through e-mail and file transfer protocol (FTP). Discussing ideas in architecture, as a more abstract notion, is different from discussing other more concrete arguments using video conferencing. It is more important to ‘see’ what is being discussed at hand than ‘watch’ the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the mode of communication. Taking into consideration recent developments in computer and communication technologies this thesis investigates different communication channels utilised in architectural collaboration through Computer Mediated Collaborative Design (CMCD) sessions as opposed to FTF sessions. This thesis investigates the possible effects these different channels have on collaborative design in general and collaborative design communication in particular. We argue that successful CMCD does not necessarily mean emulating close proximity environments. Excluding certain communication channels in a CMCD environment might affect the flow and quantity of synchronous collaborative communication, but not necessarily the quality and content of mutually communicated and represented design ideas. Therefore different communication channels might affect the type of communication and not necessarily the content of the communication. We propose that audio and video are not essential communication channels in CMCD environments. We posit that architects will collaborate and communicate design representations effectively although with some differences, since those two channels might cause interruptions and successful collaborative sessions can take place without them. For this purpose we conducted twenty-four one-hour experiments involving final year architecture students all working to the same design brief. The experiments were divided into three categories, FTF, full computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-a; audio-video conferencing plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space) and limited computer mediated collaborative design sessions (CMCD-b; with Lambda MOO used as a chat medium plus whiteboard as a shared drawing space). The experiments were video and audio taped, transcribed and coded into a custom developed coding scheme. The results of the analysed coded data and observations of the videotapes provided evidence that there were noticeable differences between the three categories. There was more design communication and less communication control in the CMCD-b category compared to the FTF and CMCD-a categories. Verbal communication became shorter and straight to the point in CMCD-b as opposed to spontaneous non-stop chat in the other two categories. Moreover in CMCD-b the subjects were observed to be more reflective as well as choosing and re-examining their words to explain ideas to their partners. At times they were seen scrolling back through the text of the conversation in order to re-analyse or interpret the design ideas at hand. This was impossible in FTF and CMCD-a sessions, since the subjects were more spontaneous and audio representations were lost as soon as they were uttered. Also the video channel in the CMCD-a category was ignored and hardly used except for the first few minutes of the experiments, for a brief exchange of light humour on the appearance of each subject. The results obtained from analysing the experiments helped us conclude that different communication channels produce different collaborative environments. The three categories of communication for architectural collaboration explored in our experiments are indicative of the alternatives available to architects now. What is not clear to architects is why they would choose one category over another. We propose that each category has its own strengths and difficulties for architectural collaboration, and therefore should be selected on the basis of the type of communication considered to be most effective for the stage and tasks of the design project.
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email gerard.gabriel@usyd.edu.au
last changed 2005/09/09 11:02

_id d931
authors Gabryszewski, Artur B.
year 1999
title Idea of an Intelligent Building - Development Prospects
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 739-743
summary An ever-increasing number of offices as also residential buildings are being realised by designers and investors in accordance with the concept of an intelligent building. Houses of the new generation are being constructed. This is possible thanks to dynamic progress in the development of computer and microprocessor engineering techniques. Putting into reality the idea of the 'intelligent building' will become one of the most interesting assignments of Polish building industry in the rapidly approaching XXI century. The term 'intelligent building' first appeared in the eighties. The idea behind this conception is aspiring to create a friendly, work supporting, effective environment. The revolution in telecommunications and information technology along with change in the standards of office work, have caused computer networks and modem systems of automation and protection, to invade buildings. From the technical point of view, an intelligent building is an object in which all the subsystems co-operate with each other, forming a friendly environment for man. For users of an intelligent building, the most important issue is realisation of the following aims: object management which includes both control of human resources and automation systems in the building and also efficient management of the building space in such a way that the costs of its utilisation are minimised. The possibility of optional installation of modern systems and equipment should be facilitated by the architecture itself. Therefore, the specifics of all the building elements should be taken into account right at the designing stage. The following features characterise an intelligent building: integration of telecommunication systems in the building, central management and supervision system and utilisation of structural cabling as the carrier of signals controlling most of the systems in the building. Presently, there is no building in Poland that could be characterised by the three features mentioned.
keywords High-tech Architecture, Ecology, CAAD
series eCAADe
email zarnow@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id c6db
authors Heylighen, Ann
year 2000
title In Case of Architectural Design. Critique and Praise of Case-Based Design in Architecture
source Dissertation - Doct. Toegepaste wetenschappen, KU Leuven, Fac. Toegepaste wetenschappen, Dep. architectuur, stedebouw en ruimtelijke ordening (ISBN 90-5682-248-9)
summary Architects are said to learn design by experience. Learning design by experience is the essence of Case-Based Design (CBD), a sub-domain of Artificial Intelligence. Part I critically explores the CBD approach from an architectural point of view, tracing its origins in the Theory of Dynamic Memory and highlighting its potential for architectural design. Seven CBD systems are analysed, experienced architects and design teachers are interviewed, and an experiment is carried out to examine how cases affect the design performance of architecture students. The results of this exploration show that despite its sound view on how architects acquire (design) knowledge, CBD is limited in important respects: it reduces architectural design to problem solving, is difficult to implement and has to contend with prejudices among the target group. With a view to stretching these limits, part II covers the design, implementation and evaluation of DYNAMO (Dynamic Architectural Memory On-line). This Web-based design tool tailors the CBD approach to the complexity of architectural design by effecting three transformations: extending the concern with design products towards design processes, turning static case bases into dynamic memories and upgrading users from passive case consumers to active case-based designers.
keywords Architectural Design; Case-Based Design
series thesis:PhD
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/12/14 18:29

_id 5e85
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 1999
title Learning from Experience: Promises, Problems and Side-effects of CBD in Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 567-575
summary Learning from design experience is the essence of Case-Based Design (CBD). Because architects are said to learn design by experience, CBD seems to hold great promises for architectural design, which have inspired various CBD tools. Learning from the experience of developing and using these tools is the objective of this paper. On the one hand, the original expectations seem far from being accomplished today. Reasons for this limited success can be found at three different levels. Level one is the cognitive model underlying CBD, which raises some specific difficulties within the field of architecture. At the level of implementation, few tools manage to draw the full consequences of this view, thus leading to an oversimplification of CBD and/or architectural design. Level three has to do with introducing CBD tools in design education and assessing the effects of this introduction. On the other hand, CBD seems to have caused some interesting side effects, such as an increased interest in creativity and copyright, and the recent re-discovery of the key-role cases play inside and outside the field of CAAD. Thus, although its promises may not be fulfilled, CBD definitely can contribute to design education, be it sometimes without the support of computer technology.
keywords Case-Based Design, Design Education
series eCAADe
email ann.heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 394a
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2000
title WebOutliner: A Web-Based Tool for Collaborative Space Programming and Design
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 195-201
summary This paper discusses a web-based tool that allows members of a design team to collaboratively specify a hierarchical spatial program for an architectural project. Given its object orientation, the represented artifacts have built-in data and methods that allow them to respond to user actions and manage their own sub-artifacts. Given that these components are hierarchical allows users to filter information, analyze and compare design parameters and aggregate hierarchical amounts in realtime. Furthermore, the software goes beyond outlining functions to support synchronous collaborative design by linking each item in the spatial program to a detail page that allows file uploading, realtime group marking of images, and textual chat. Thus, the software offers a seamless transition from the largely asynchronous definition of an architectural program to synchronous collaboration. In addition, and in contrast to commercially available groupware, the software allows multiple collaboration sessions to run at the same time. These sessions are artifact-based in the sense that they get automatically initiated once participants visit the same architectural space in the program hierarchy. The software employs a three-tier object-oriented, web-based scheme for a richer representation of hierarchical artifacts coupled with a relational database for server-side storage. The prototype integrates this technology with Java-based tools for synchronous web-based collaboration.
series ACADIA
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 161c
authors Juroszek, Steven P.
year 1999
title Access, Instruction, Application: Towards a Universal Lab
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 141-150
summary In January 1998, the Montana State University School of Architecture embarked upon an initiative to successfully integrate computer technology into its design curriculum. At that time only a handful of student computers could be found in the design studio. By January 1999 over 95 students have and use computers in their courses. The increase in computer access and use is occurring through a five-phase initiative called the Universal Lab-a school-wide commitment to the full integration of computer technology into all design studios, support courses and architectural electives. The Universal Lab uses the areas of Access, Instruction and Application as the vehicles for appropriate placement and usage of digital concepts within the curriculum. The three-pronged approach allows each instructor to integrate technology using one, two or all three areas with varying degrees of intensity. This paper presents the current status of the Universal Lab-Phase I and Phase II-and describes the effect of this program on student work, course design and faculty instruction.
keywords Design, Access, Instruction, Application, Integration
series eCAADe
email stevej@montana.edu
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 95e9
authors Monteiro de Menezes, Alexandre
year 2000
title O uso do computador no ensino de desenho de representação nas Escolas de Arquitetura Brasileiras (The Use of Computers for Teaching Representation Drawings in Brazilians Schools of Architecture)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 374-376
summary This paper studies the computer in teaching drawings in architecture schools. To accomplish it differences are set between expression and representation drawings and three periods are analyzed from the perspective of historical evolution of representation drawing and relationship with architects. The first period is Renaissance and we focus on the appearance of the Perspective Method. The second is the VVIII century and the development of the Projective Method. The third is the XX century and the advent of graphic computation. The information technology in architecture course must be regarded as issue for the entire institution. We conclude that the challenge for Architecture Schools is to create ways of using computer in the architectural project process. This research show that the possibilities of teaching break away with the importance given to the projective drawing and setting the three dimensional environment as the starting point for the process of architectonic creation.
series SIGRADI
email amenezes.bhz@zaz.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 7321
authors Potier, S., Maltret, J.L. and Zoller, J.
year 2000
title Computer graphics: assistance for archaelogical hypotheses
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 117-128
summary This paper is a contribution to the domain of computer tools for architectural and archeological restitution of ancient buildings. We describe an application of these tools to the modeling of the 14th century AD. Thermae of Constantin in Arles, south of France. It was a diploma project in School of Architecture of Marseille-Luminy, and took place in a context defined in the European ARELATE project. The general objective of this project is to emphasize the archeological and architectural heritage of the city of Arles; it aims, in particular, to equip the museum of ancient Arles with a computer tool enabling the storage and consultation of archaeological archives, the communication of information and exchange by specialized networks, and the creation of a virtual museum allowing a redescription of the monuments and a "virtual" visit of ancient Arles. Our approach involves a multidisciplinary approach, calling on architecture, archeology and computer science. The archeologist's work is to collect information and interpret it; this is the starting point of the architect's work who, using these elements, suggests an architectural reconstruction. This synthesis contains the functioning analysis of the structure and building. The potential provided by the computer as a tool (in this case, the POV-Ray software) with access to several three-dimensional visualizations, according to hypotheses formulated by the architect and archaeologists, necessitates the use of evolutive models which, thanks to the parametrization of dimensions of a building and its elements, can be adapted to all the changes desired by the architect. The specific contribution of POV-Ray in architectural reconstruction of thermae finds its expression in four forms of this modeling program, which correspond to the objectives set by the architect in agreement with archeologists: (a) The parametrization of dimensions, which contributes significantly in simplifying the reintervention process of the architectural data base; (b) Hierarchy and links between variables, allowing "grouped" modifications of modelized elements in order to preserve the consistency of the architectural building's morphology; (c) The levels of modeling (with or without facing, for example), which admit of the exploration of all structural and architectural trails (relationship form/function); and, (d) The "model-type", facilitating the setting up of hypotheses by simple scaling and transformation of these models (e.g., roofing models) on an already modelled structure. The methodological validation of this modeling software's particular use in architectural formulation of hypotheses shows that the software is the principal graphical medium of discussion between architect and archaeologist, thus confirming the hypotheses formulated at the beginning of this project.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 3888
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2000
title Computational Situated Learning in Designing - Application to Architectural Shape Semantics
source The University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture
summary Learning the situatedness (applicability conditions), of design knowledge recognised from design compositions is the central tenet of the research presented in this thesis. This thesis develops and implements a computational system of situated learning and investigates its utility in designing. Situated learning is based on the concept that "knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by its situation". In this sense learning is tuned to the situations within which "what you do when you do matters". Designing cannot be predicted and the results of designing are not based on actions independent of what is being designed or independent of when, where and how it was designed. Designers' actions are situation dependent (situated), such that designers work actively with the design environment within the specific conditions of the situation where neither the goal state nor the solution space is completely predetermined. In designing, design solutions are fluid and emergent entities generated by dynamic and situated activities instead of fixed design plans. Since it is not possible in advance to know what knowledge to use in relation to any situation we need to learn knowledge in relation to its situation, i.e. learn the applicability conditions of knowledge. This leads towards the notion of the situation as having the potential role of guiding the use of knowledge.

Situated Learning in Designing (SLiDe) is developed and implemented within the domain of architectural shape composition (in the form of floor plans), to construct the situatedness of shape semantics. An architectural shape semantic is a set of characteristics with a semantic meaning based on a particular view of a shape such as reflection symmetry, adjacency, rotation and linearity. Each shape semantic has preconditions without which it cannot be recognised. Such preconditions indicate nothing about the situation within which this shape semantic was recognised. The situatedness or the applicability conditions of a shape semantic is viewed as, the interdependent relationships between this shape semantic as the design knowledge in focus, and other shape semantics across the observations of a design composition. While designing, various shape semantics and relationships among them emerge in different representations of a design composition. Multiple representations of a design composition by re-interpretation have been proposed to serve as a platform for SLiDe. Multiple representations provide the opportunity for different shape semantics and relationships among them to be found from a single design composition. This is important if these relationships are to be used later because it is not known in advance which of the possible relationships could be constructed are likely to be useful. Hence, multiple representations provide a platform for different situations to be encountered. A symbolic representation of shape and shape semantics is used in which the infinite maximal lines form the representative primitives of the shape.

SLiDe is concerned with learning the applicability conditions (situatedness), of shape semantics locating them in relation to situations within which they were recognised (situation dependent), and updating the situatedness of shape semantics in response to new observations of the design composition. SLiDe consists of three primary modules: Generator, Recogniser and Incremental Situator. The Generator is used by the designer to develop a set of multiple representations of a design composition. This set of representations forms the initial design environment of SLiDe. The Recogniser detects shape semantics in each representation and produces a set of observations, each of which is comprised of a group of shape semantics recognised at each corresponding representation. The Incremental Situator module consists of two sub-modules, Situator and Restructuring Situator, and utilises an unsupervised incremental clustering mechanism not affected by concept drift. The Situator module locates recognised shape semantics in relation to their situations by finding regularities of relationships among them across observations of a design composition and clustering them into situational categories organised in a hierarchical tree structure. Such relationships change over time due to the changes taken place in the design environment whenever further representations are developed using the Generator module and new observations are constructed by the Recogniser module. The Restructuring Situator module updates previously learned situational categories and restructures the hierarchical tree accordingly in response to new observations.

Learning the situatedness shape semantics may play a crucial role in designing if designers pursue further some of these shape semantics. This thesis illustrates an approach in which SLiDe can be utilised in designing to explore the shapes in a design composition in various ways; bring designers! attention to potentially hidden features and shape semantics of their designs; and maintain the integrity of the design composition by using the situatedness of shape semantics. The thesis concludes by outlining future directions for this research to learn and update the situatedness of design knowledge within the context of use; considering the role of functional knowledge while learning the situatedness of design knowledge; and developing an autonomous situated agent-based designing system.

series thesis:PhD
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/06 09:34

_id 65f7
authors Rügemer, Jörg and Russell, Peter
year 2000
title Promise and Reality: The impact of the Virtual Design Studio on the Design and Learning Process in the Architectural Education
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 41-44
summary In step with the popular trend of including virtual working methods and tools in the process of teaching, the Virtual Design Studio (VDS) has been developed by the Institute for Industrial Building Production (ifib), at the University of Karlsruhe over the past three years. Alongside the technical aspects of such a studio, the challenge persisted to incorporate computer based tools into the architectural design and planning process with the goal of enhancing the relationship between all participants. The VDS is being further developed and refined, experiencing regular changes in its organization and teaching methods. With the establishment of the Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture (VuuA) and the introduction of the Virtual Design Studio into the curriculum of the Institute for Architectural Presentation and CAD (adai), BTU Cottbus, the VDS extended beyond the borders of a single architectural school, aiming towards a wide acceptance and use within architectural education institutions.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, Education, Interactive Design Development, Team Processes
series eCAADe
email joerg@ruegemer.de, peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
more http://www.ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id a337
authors Testa, P., O’Reilly, U.-M. and Greenwold, S.
year 2000
title AGENCY GP: Genetic Programming for Architectural Design
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 227-231
summary AGENCY GP is a prototype for a system using genetic programming (GP) for architectural design exploration. Its software structure is noteworthy for its integration into a high-end three-dimensional modeling environment, its allowance for direct user interruption of evolution and reintegration of phenotypically modified individuals, and its agent-based evaluation of fitness.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id b7df
authors Uddin, M. Saleh
year 1999
title Beyond Mere Representation: The Changing Perspective of Computer Use in American Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 511-518
summary By surveying a total of 55 cutting-edge architectural design offices (mostly in the United States), this paper looks at the use of computational media to get an overall understanding of its current use for architectural design presentation. The intent of this paper is to highlight the changing direction of computer presentation through graphic examples, specifically three-dimensional modelling that goes beyond conventional representation. The paper also illustrates various types of uses of computer media by designers into specific categories, and extracts a summary of hardware and software preferences.
keywords Digital Media, Design Offices, Non-conventional Representation, 3D Modelling
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

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