CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 5225
authors Gomez de Silva Garza, Andres and Maher, Mary Lou
year 2001
title Using Evolutionary Methods for Design Case Adaptation
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 180-191
summary Case-based reasoning (CBR) provides a methodology for directly using previous designs in the development of a new design. An aspect of CBR that is not well developed for designing is the combination and adaptation of previous designs. The difficulty with this aspect of case-based design is partly due to the extensive amounts of specialised knowledge needed to select the appropriate features of a previous design to include in the new design and the adaptation of these features to fit the context of a new design problem. In this paper we present a design process model that combines ideas from CBR and genetic algorithms (GA’s). The CBR paradigm provides a method for the overall process of case selection and adaptation. The GA paradigm provides a method for adapting design cases by combining and mutating their features until a set of new design requirements and constraints are satisfied. We have implemented the process model and illustrate the model for residential floor plan layout. We use a set of Frank Lloyd Wright prairie house layouts as the case base. The constraints used to determine whether new designs proposed by the process model are acceptable are taken from feng shui, the Chinese art of placement. This illustration not only clarifies how our process model for design through the evolutionary adaptation of cases works, but it also shows how knowledge sources with distinct origins can be used within the same design framework.
keywords Evolutionary Design, Case-Based Reasoning, Floor Plan Layout
series ACADIA
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id a16d
authors Heylighen, A. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2001
title A case base of Case-Based Design tools for architecture
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 33 (14) (2001) pp. 1111-1122
summary In the 1990s, Case-Based Design (CBD) seemed an appealing approach to develop intelligent design support. Based on an alternative view of human cognition, CBDsystems find new design solutions by adapting similar experiences from the past. Although several CBD applications have been built, a convincing breakthrough by thesesystems has yet to come. In search of reasons for this limited success, this article embarks on a critical review of the CBD approach. Its underlying cognitive model servesas a framework to analyse six CBD systems and to identify gaps in CBD research. The article focuses primarily on CBD applications for architecture, yet the findings maybe relevant for other design domains as well.
keywords Design Automation, Case-Based Design, Architecture
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id avocaad_2001_14
id avocaad_2001_14
authors Adam Jakimowicz
year 2001
title Non-Linear Postrationalisation: Architectural Values Emergence in a Teamwork Interpretation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The paper presents the outcomes of the experiment being conducted at the Faculty of Architecture in Bialystok, which derives form three main sources: a new course of architectural composition by computer modelling, developed and conducted in Bialystok postrationalisation as a formulation platform for new architectural values and theories, applied by e.g. Bernard Tschumi the idea of new values emergence resulting form a teamwork, when placed in an appropriate environment; It is assumed that the work performed first intuitively, can be later seriously interpreted, and to some extent rationalised, verbalised, described. With no doubt we can state, that in creative parts of architectural activities, very often decision are taken intuitively (form design). So this ‘procedure’ of postrationalisation of intuitively undertaken efforts and results seems to be very important –when trying to explain ideas. This kind of activity is also very important during the first years of architectural education. In case of this experiment, the students’ works from the course of architectural composition are taken as a base and subjects for interpretation, and values research. However, when at first, individual works are being interpreted by their authors, at the latter stage, the teams are to be formed. The aim of the teamwork is to present individual works, analyse them, find common value(s), and represent it (them) in an appropriate, creative way. The ideal environment to perform this work is hypertext based internet, because the non-linearity of team interpretations is unavoidable. On the other hand, the digital input data (computer models) is a very appropriate initial material to be used for hypermedia development. The experiment is to analyse the specific of the following: the self-influence of the group on the individual work ‘qualification’, mutual influence of the team members on their own work interpretation, the influence of the digital non-linear environment on the final outcome definition. The added value of hypertext in architectural groupwork digital performance shall be examined and described. A new value of individualised, though group based, non-linearity of expression will be presented and concluded.
series AVOCAAD
email jakima@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0b74
authors Chow, B., Lam, S. and Tsou, J.
year 2001
title The impact of computer-based design tools for daylighting simulation and prediction for a built environment
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 169-179
summary This paper investigates the application of computer daylighting simulation to provide qualitative assessment and comparison for designers to improve the built environment especially for non-technical architecture students. A comprehensive study was carried out to evaluate different daylighting design tools and to identify the limitation of current systems in the academic field. The paper will focus mainly on the dynamic information exchange between scientific visualization and the design decision-making process. Both architectural design studio environment and practical design problems in the real world setting were experimented and evaluated. Two case studies are presented: a proposed gallery space for a museum, and a detail architectural design of a community church. Architectural design alterations are proposed, simulated and discussed. The recursive feedback of the designers are studied and documented. Through a combination of qualitative assessment and comparison, designers can evaluate and compare different design options in the computing environment before implementing in the real world situation.
series CAADRIA
email kaming@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 3dd6
authors Guzmán Dumont, Guillermo and Hughes, Thomas
year 2001
title MATERIAL PRESENCE: SPATIAL POTENTIAL
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 september 2001, pp. 186-188
summary This paper describes two design studio projects with first year architecture students at the University of Nottingham. Originally, this exercise was aimed to introduce them to CAD drawing tools, but due to some particular characteristics of the brief, some unexpected results came to add an interesting value to their design learning process. From the exploration of a functional building typology through the digital construction of an iconic case study, it was developed a creative fabrication of absent architecture based on research, analysis and imagination. Then there was identified the most appropriate medium for communication of these defining characteristics. Unexpected focus on material considerations over spatial analysis, motivated a second exercise which used image manipulation, based on graphic source material and digital imaging of physical models.
series other
email gguzman@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2001/12/01 20:46

_id d146
authors He, Jie
year 2001
title CAD Study in Visual Analysis of the Visual Sustainability for China Urban Natural Landscape Planning
source Chinese University of Hong Kong
summary In this thesis a GIS-based CAD system prototype of evaluating visual quality of urban natural landscape environment is presented. This prototype is an indispensable component of the integrative Visual Sustainability research, and offers a calculable and visualizable technique to urban visual natural landscape assessment. This scientific method provides precise data to estimate the visibility of natural landscape in urban construction actuality. Furthermore, it can also work out supporting information for maintaining and protecting valuable visual landscape resources in further planning. Introduction of this methodology intends to improve the natural landscape cooperation in China urban planning through visual protection. Combining with popular CAD software such as AutoCAD and Microstation, the research team uses ArcView GIS software and its 3D Analyst extension to accomplish a set of research procedure, which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis. In addition, this system can create simultaneous 3D scenes or hire other information media as reference tools for professional analysis, design consultation and intercommunication. The core technologies of this proposed system are viewshed calculation and overlay analysis. In viewshed analysis, human visual characteristics are simulated by a series of ergonomics parameters of viewpoints. Viewshed of each viewpoint can be calculated into vector data and mapped by polygons identifying which region is visible and which is not. Overlay function of the proposed system is used in visual sensibility analysis to achieve the division of higher visual sensible area which indicates the common visible area from different viewpoints. Additionally, viewshed maps and visual sensibility results can add more information to mark out the areas that can satisfy certain visual parameters such as appropriate visual angle or visual distance. These overlaying results can visualized the visible areas into hierarchical visual perception quality categories in order to define the visual landscape significance of particular planning regions. A case study was operated to evaluate this system. The case is in Zhongshan city, Guangdong Province of China. Jinzishan hill region is the study site that picked by collaborating discussion of research team and the local government. It is located on the edge of urban built-up area. Jinzishan massif is the prominent landscape element of the surrounding environment. There are three topics in Jinzishan visual perception in this paper. The first topic is the visual quality evaluation of the intersections of its surrounding road system. The second is the integrated visual perception of two main roads called Qiwandao and Bo’ailu. Finally is the analysis of the hill skyline visual quality in surrounding area. The analysis results in GIS vector data can be converted into popular data format and combined with other spatial information for practical application. And comments for future urban planning are collected and analyzed by professional responses to the computer-generated information investigation.
keywords Natural Landscaping; Computer-Aided Design; Landscape Architecture; City Planning; Geographic Information Systems
series thesis:MSc
email hejie@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e6c5
authors Heintz, John L.
year 2001
title Coordinating virtual building design teams
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 65-76 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary Most research in design project management support systems treats the subject as an isolated objective problem. The goals to be met are defined in terms of a supposed universal view of the project, and now outside concerns are taken into account. While such approaches, including project simulation, may yield excellent results, they ignore what, for many projects, are the real difficulties. Design projects are not isolated. All participants have other obligations that compete with the given project for attention and resources. The various participants in the design process have different goals. For these reasons it is proposed that design project management can be best facilitated by tools which assist the participating actors to share suitable management information in order to make better co-ordination possible, while allowing the resource balancing between projects to occur in private. Such a tool represents the design project management task as a negotiation task that spans both projects and firms; the management of one project is the management of all. The model of design collaboration upon which the Design Coordination System (DeCo) is built was developed from 1) a heuristic case study used to gain insight into the ways in which designers co-ordinate their efforts, and 2) the application of the theory of the social contract as developed by John Rawls to the problem of design project management. The key innovation in the DeCo system is the shaping of the project management system around existing practices of collaborative project design management and planning. DeCo takes advantage of how designers already co-ordinate their work with each other and resolve disputes over deadlines and time lines. The advantage of DeCo is that it formalises these existing practices in order to accommodate both the increasing co-ordination burden and the difficulties brought about by the internationalisation of design practice. DeCo, the design project management system proposed here, provides a representation, a communications protocol, and a game theoretical decision structure. The combination of these three units provides users with the ability to exchange structured pictures of the project as seen from the points of view of individual actors. Further, it suggests a mechanism based on a specific principle of fairness for arriving at mutually acceptable project plans. The DeCo system permits the users freedom to manage their design processes as they will, while providing a basic compatibility between practices of design team members which supports their collaborative efforts to co-ordinate their design work.
series other
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id e9b1
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2001
title Destination: Practice – Towards a maintenance contract for the architect’s degree
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 090-099
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) in architectural design, we present a Web-based design assistant for student- and professional architects called DYNAMO. Its main objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by CBR’s cognitive model. Rather than adopting this model as such, DYNAMO extrapolates it beyond the individual by stimulating and intensifying several modes of interaction. One mode – the focus of this paper – concerns the interaction between the realm of design education and the world of practice. DYNAMO offers a platform for exchanging design efforts and insights, in the form of cases, between both parties, which perfectly chimes with the current tendency towards life-long learning and continuing education. Just like our university advises graduates to ‘Take a maintenance contract with your degree’, architecture schools may encourage recently qualified architects to subscribe to DYNAMO. To what extent the tool can fulfill this role of maintenance contract is discussed at the end of the paper, which reports on how DYNAMO was used and appreciated by professional architects at different levels of expertise.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Web-Based Learning, Digital Repositories
series ACADIA
email ann.heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 4c45
authors QaQish, Ra'Ed K.
year 2001
title Exploiting Tools of Evaluation to Improve CAAD Teaching Methods. A Case Study of Inter & Intra ECTM Model
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 215-230
summary This paper reports on an ongoing research study model into the Evaluation of CAAD Teaching Methods (ECTM) of which a number of resolutions and strategies were attained via an empirical investigation. The first stage of the study findings proposed a framework for the evaluation of architecture courses in tandem with CAAD. The second stage was based on the Inter & Intra ECTM design model as a strategy for acquiring solutions to CAAD problems through the exploitation of CAAD evaluation tools. The ECTM model structure criteria: the Model Concepts, the Operational Context, Dialectic Meanings, Relational Context, Performing Methods and Level of Integration were illuminated. ECTM model has a twofold involvement junctures, which describe CAAD evaluation behaviour. The first involves the evaluator in an interdepartmental comparison of CAAD integration into the curriculum, and/or between schools of architecture. The second engages the evaluator in an intradepartmental study of CAAD integration, and within the institution. The study projected an attempt to validate the Inter & Intra ECTM design model in concert with evaluation. The paper presents an extended description of the objectives, procedures and testing designed for the two abovementioned junctures composing the proposed ECTM case studies. Sequences of methods of data collection employed as a vehicle for the ECTM were Kirkpatrick model, questionnaire survey, observation (using an ECTM checklist) and experimental studies. The paper also explores variables and indicators used, and advances to shed some light on the methods of statistical analysis employment. ECTM model as a tool to attain CAAD effectiveness might redefine the role of collaborators/ team partnerships in CAAD tuition; and induce the level of technology selection and adaptation amongst schools, e.g. tutors and coursework interconnectivity. The ECTM model may also work as a framework of strategies to augment interactivity and positive learning amongst both staff and students.
keywords Evaluation, Teaching Methods, Interactivity, Effectiveness
series CAAD Futures
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ecaade2007_044
id ecaade2007_044
authors Richter, Katharina; Heylighen, Ann; Donath, Dirk
year 2007
title Looking Back to the Future
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 285-292
summary In the early and mid 1990s the idea to apply CBR to the task of designing — in short Case-Based Design (CBD) — led to a considerable number of research initiatives across the world. Several promising CBD tools and prototypes were developed and enthusiastically celebrated within the research community, seemingly announcing a promising future for CAAD. However, because the predicted breakthrough failed to appear, an in-depth evaluation of six CBD tools was conducted in 2001 in search of reasons for this limited success. At first sight the situation has not changed much since then, yet a closer look reveals CBD research still to be quite active, be it sometimes disguised. This observation, combined with our belief in CBD’s potential for aiding professional and student architects, motivated an expanded issue of the 2001 study. This issue determines the position of current CBD research within the CAAD domain and uncovers focal points set by CBD researchers and the tools they created. Additionally it analyses the role of emerging technologies in overcoming earlier identified drawbacks of CBD tools in architecture.
keywords Case-based design, architectural design, design support systems
series eCAADe
email katharina.richter@archit.uni-weimar.de, ann.heylighen@asro.kuleuven.be, donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id e577
authors Wadhwa, Ashwan and Lonsway, Brian
year 2001
title A Self-Organizing Neural System for Urban Design
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 386-391
summary The focus of this research is the development of an urban simulation system and its use to analyze growth factors in an urban design proposal. Unlike predictive simulation models, which attempt to accurately simulate future conditions resulting from a proposal, our neural network model is tuned to creatively present socioeconomic deficiencies and requirements for proposed developments. The system is built using a novel variant of Kohonen’s self-organizing neural map algorithm. Urban data of a simulated region is embedded in the neural net and correlated, in varying degrees, with data obtained from case study and/or other local regions. By projecting design ideas onto this network, designers gain an insight into the proposal’s impact based on complex, non-linear relationships of socio-economic data, which are otherwise difficult to envision.
keywords Neural Networks, Self Organizing Maps
series ACADIA
email wadhwa2@rpi.edu
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id avocaad_2001_05
id avocaad_2001_05
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Analysis and the descriptive approach
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The rise of consciousness concerning the quality of working and living conditions has been a permanent though frequently underplayed theme in architecture and building since the reconstruction period. It has led to an explosive growth of programmatic requirements on building behaviour and performance, thus also stimulating the development of design analysis. The first stage of development was characterized by the evolution of prescriptive systems. These reversed the structure of pre-existing proscriptive systems into sequences of known steps that should be taken in order to achieve adequate results. Prescriptive systems complemented rather than replaced proscriptive ones, thereby creating an uncertain mixture of orthodoxy and orthopraxy that failed to provide design guidance for improving design performance and quality.The second stage in the development of design analysis focuses on descriptive methods and techniques for analyzing and supporting evaluation. Technologies such as simulation and scientific visualization are employed so as to produce detailed, accurate and reliable projections of building behaviour and performance. These projections can be correlated into a comprehensive and coherent description of a building using representations of form as information carriers. In these representations feedback and interaction assume a visual character that fits both design attitudes and lay perception of the built environment, but on the basis of a quantitative background that justifies, verifies and refines design actions. Descriptive analysis is currently the most promising direction for confronting and resolving design complexity. It provides the designer with useful insights into the causes and effects of various design problems but frequently comes short of providing clear design guidance for two main reasons: (1) it adds substantial amounts of information to the already unmanageable loads the designer must handle, and (2) it may provide incoherent cues for the further development of a design. Consequently the descriptive approach to analysis is always in danger of been supplanted by abstract decision making.One way of providing the desired design guidance is to complement the connection of descriptive analyses to representations of form (and from there to synthesis) with two interface components. The first is a memory component, implemented as case-bases of precedent designs. These designs encapsulate integrated design information that can be matched to the design in hand in terms of form, function and performance. Comparison between precedents with a known performance and a new design facilitate identification of design aspects that need be improved, as well as of wider formal and functional consequences. The second component is an adaptive generative system capable of guiding exploration of these aspects, both in the precedents and the new design. The aim of this system is to provide feedback from analysis to synthesis. By exploring the scope of the analysis and the applicability of the conclusions to more designs, the designer generates a coherent and consistent collection of partial solutions that explore a relevant solution space. Development of the first component, the design case-bases, is no trivial task. Transformability in the representation of cases and flexible classification in a database are critical to the identification and treatment of a design aspect. Nevertheless, the state of the art in case-based reasoning and the extensive corpus of analysed designs provide the essential building blocks. The second component, the adaptive generative system, poses more questions. Existing generative techniques do not possess the necessary richness or multidimensionality. Moreover, it is imperative that the designer plays a more active role in the control of the process than merely tweaking local variables. At the same time, the system should prevent that redesigning degenerates into a blind trial-and-error enumeration of possibilities. Guided empirical design research arguably provides the means for the evolutionary development of the second component.
series AVOCAAD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 1f37
authors Alpha, Lee W.K. and Iki, Kazuhisa
year 2001
title Moving Architecture and Transiting Landscape. Interactive Rendering System for Animated Assessment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 739-752
summary In this paper, an Interactive Rendering System for Animated Assessment (IRSA2) is proposed. Using IRSA2, different to the usual process that the respondents are allowed only to select alternatives designed by planners, they are allowed to participate in the design process and create alternatives as proposals in a web-based collaborative environment. This gives roads to an autonomous process in landscape planning and design. The system efficiency was verified by a case study of its use in a wind farm project in Japan.
keywords Collaborative Design, Utilization Of Internet, Overall Design Strategy,
series CAAD Futures
email iki@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 1b10
id 1b10
authors Bay, Joo-Hwa
year 2001
title Cognitive Biases - The case of tropical architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This dissertation investigates, i) How cognitive biases (or illusions) may lead to errors in design thinking, ii) Why architects use architectural precedents as heuristics despite such possible errors, and iii) Develops a design tool that can overcome this type of errors through the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism. The mechanism controls biases and improves accuracy in architectural thinking. // The research method applied is interdisciplinary. It employs knowledge from cognitive science, environmental engineering, and architectural theory. The case study approach is also used. The investigation is made in the case of tropical architecture. The investigation of architectural biases draws from work by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman in 1982 on “Heuristics and biases”. According to Tversky and Kahneman, the use of heuristics of representativeness (based on similarity) and availability (based on ease of recall and imaginability) for judgement of probability can result in cognitive biases of illusions of validity and biases due to imaginability respectively. This theory can be used analogically to understand how errors arise in the judgement of environmental behaviour anticipated from various spatial configurations, leading to designs with dysfunctional performances when built. Incomplete information, limited time, and human mental resources make design thinking in practice difficult and impossible to solve. It is not possible to analyse all possible alternative solutions, multiple contingencies, and multiple conflicting demands, as doing so will lead to combinatorial explosion. One of the ways to cope with the difficult design problem is to use precedents as heuristic devices, as shortcuts in design thinking, and at the risk of errors. This is done with analogical, pre-parametric, and qualitative means of thinking, without quantitative calculations. Heuristics can be efficient and reasonably effective, but may not always be good enough or even correct, because they can have associated cognitive biases that lead to errors. Several debiasing strategies are discussed, and one possibility is to introduce a rebuttal mechanism to refocus the designer’s thinking on the negative and opposite outcomes in his judgements, in order to debias these illusions. The research is carried out within the framework of design theory developed by the Design Knowledge System Research Centre, TUDelft. This strategy is tested with an experiment. The results show that the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism can debias and improve design judgements substantially in environmental control. The tool developed has possible applications in design practice and education, and in particular, in the designing of sustainable environments.
keywords Design bias; Design knowledge; Design rebuttal; Design Precedent; Pre-parametric design; Tropical architecture; Sustainability
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email philipjhbay@gmail.com
last changed 2006/05/28 05:42

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id diss_duarte
id diss_duarte
authors Duarte, J. P.
year 2001
title Customizing mass housing: a discursive grammar for Siza’s Malagueira houses
source PhD dissertation, Department of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass
summary This thesis proposes a process of providing mass-customized housing based on computer-aided design and production systems. It focuses on the design part, which mainly consists of an interactive system for the generation of design solutions based on a mathematical model called discursive grammar. A discursive grammar includes a shape grammar, a description grammar, and a set of heuristics. The shape grammar provides the rules of formal composition, whereas the description grammar describes the design from other relevant viewpoints. The set of heuristics is used to guide the generation of designs by comparing the description of the evolving design with the description of the desired house. The generation of a design proceeds first by producing a design brief from the user-prompted requirements and then by finding a solution that satisfies this brief. Search is largely deterministic, which decreases the amount of time required to find a solution, thereby making it reasonable to develop Web-based implementations. The proposed model enables an enduring designer's dream, that of the mass customization of housing. The model is illustrated with a case study that includes a shape grammar developed for the houses designed by the architect Alvaro Siza at Malagueira, a description grammar based on the Portuguese housing regulations, and a set of heuristics inferred after a set of experiments. In these experiments, designers were asked to generate houses based on the Malagueira grammar for specific clients. It is argued that this discursive grammar provides a rigorous method for understanding and teaching Siza's design process and that similar grammars could be developed for other styles. A Web page for explaining the grammar and generating new designs on-line was developed as a prototype.
series thesis:PhD
email jduarte@civil.ist.utl.pt
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id 8805
authors Flemming, U., Erhan, H.I. and Ozkaya, I.
year 2001
title Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD
source Technical Report 48-01-01. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon University, Institute of Complex Engineered Systems
summary This report describes a graduate interdisciplinary course offered to students in the graduate program of the School of Architecture at Carnegie Mellon and related departments in fall 2000. The motivation was the realization that when commercial CAD (Computer-Aided Design) systems recently switched from procedural application programming languages to object-oriented ones, third-party application must undergo a significant cognitive retooling"; i. e. they must know more than the syntax and semantics of the new programming language to be used and must be able to employ appropriate software development strategies that are appropriate for the new paradigm. especially with respect to the importance of modeling, a distinguishing characteristic of object-oriented programming. The goal of the course was (a) to introduce and test strategies of object-oriented application development in general and in the context of MicroStation, a state-of-the-art commercial CAD package; (b) to develop-as a course team project-an interesting application that gives students practice with these strategies and team work; and (c) to document our approach and findings so that others can learn from them. The strategies introduced were the use-case approach of Jacobson et al. and the complementary object-modeling tools of Rumbaugh that were recently integrated into the Unified Modeling Language UML. The software platform supporting the course comprised MicroStation, JMDL (a superset of Java) and ProjectBank on the CAD side and RationalRose on the modeling side. The application developed by students in the course supports the generation of drawings for remodeling projects from a set of dgn files describing the existing state of the building to be remodeled. The course was supported by a grant and in-kind contributions from Bentley with matching funds from the Pennsylvania Infrastructure Technology Alliance (PITA)."
series report
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id f85d
authors Geraedts, Rob P and Pollalis, Spiro N.
year 2001
title Remote Teaching in Design Education - Educational and Organizational Issues and Experiences
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 305-310
summary The Department of Real Estate and Project Management (BMVB) of the Faculty of Architecture at the Delft University of Technology has been working closely with Professor Spiro N. Pollalis of Harvard University, Graduate School of Design in Cambridge, USA since 1991. His case-based interactive seminars about the management of the design & construction process have been highly appreciated by many generations of students. In Spring 2000, Pollalis suggested to extend the scope of his involvement by introducing a remote teaching component, the subject of his research in the last few years. As Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Design and Construction Industry is part of his lectures, it was appropriate to provide the students with a first hand experience on the subject. In the following experiment, the teacher would remain in his office at Harvard while the interactive work and discussion sessions with 130 students in a full lecture room would take place in Delft as planned. The consequences this experiment has had for the course, for the techniques and facilities used, how teachers and students experienced these, and which conclusions and recommendations can be made, are the topics of this paper.
keywords Remote Teaching, Design & Construction Education, And ICT
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id dfe6
authors Hendricx, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2001
title The Use of Design Cases to Test Architectural Building Models
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 73-78
summary The IDEA+ project aims at developing an Integrated Design Environment for Architect designers, in which design tools and computational tests make use of one and the same core building description. Such a description must be apt to describe architecture in a full-fledged way. Hereto, the authors have put the IDEA+ model to the test with actual design cases. These cases have been used to test isolated design concepts and to mimic the global design process.
keywords Building Model, CAAD, Case, Object-Oriented, Architecture, Architectural Model
series eCAADe
email herman.neuckermans@asro.kuleuven.ac.be, ann.hendricx@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

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