CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id avocaad_2001_05
id avocaad_2001_05
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Analysis and the descriptive approach
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The rise of consciousness concerning the quality of working and living conditions has been a permanent though frequently underplayed theme in architecture and building since the reconstruction period. It has led to an explosive growth of programmatic requirements on building behaviour and performance, thus also stimulating the development of design analysis. The first stage of development was characterized by the evolution of prescriptive systems. These reversed the structure of pre-existing proscriptive systems into sequences of known steps that should be taken in order to achieve adequate results. Prescriptive systems complemented rather than replaced proscriptive ones, thereby creating an uncertain mixture of orthodoxy and orthopraxy that failed to provide design guidance for improving design performance and quality.The second stage in the development of design analysis focuses on descriptive methods and techniques for analyzing and supporting evaluation. Technologies such as simulation and scientific visualization are employed so as to produce detailed, accurate and reliable projections of building behaviour and performance. These projections can be correlated into a comprehensive and coherent description of a building using representations of form as information carriers. In these representations feedback and interaction assume a visual character that fits both design attitudes and lay perception of the built environment, but on the basis of a quantitative background that justifies, verifies and refines design actions. Descriptive analysis is currently the most promising direction for confronting and resolving design complexity. It provides the designer with useful insights into the causes and effects of various design problems but frequently comes short of providing clear design guidance for two main reasons: (1) it adds substantial amounts of information to the already unmanageable loads the designer must handle, and (2) it may provide incoherent cues for the further development of a design. Consequently the descriptive approach to analysis is always in danger of been supplanted by abstract decision making.One way of providing the desired design guidance is to complement the connection of descriptive analyses to representations of form (and from there to synthesis) with two interface components. The first is a memory component, implemented as case-bases of precedent designs. These designs encapsulate integrated design information that can be matched to the design in hand in terms of form, function and performance. Comparison between precedents with a known performance and a new design facilitate identification of design aspects that need be improved, as well as of wider formal and functional consequences. The second component is an adaptive generative system capable of guiding exploration of these aspects, both in the precedents and the new design. The aim of this system is to provide feedback from analysis to synthesis. By exploring the scope of the analysis and the applicability of the conclusions to more designs, the designer generates a coherent and consistent collection of partial solutions that explore a relevant solution space. Development of the first component, the design case-bases, is no trivial task. Transformability in the representation of cases and flexible classification in a database are critical to the identification and treatment of a design aspect. Nevertheless, the state of the art in case-based reasoning and the extensive corpus of analysed designs provide the essential building blocks. The second component, the adaptive generative system, poses more questions. Existing generative techniques do not possess the necessary richness or multidimensionality. Moreover, it is imperative that the designer plays a more active role in the control of the process than merely tweaking local variables. At the same time, the system should prevent that redesigning degenerates into a blind trial-and-error enumeration of possibilities. Guided empirical design research arguably provides the means for the evolutionary development of the second component.
series AVOCAAD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ga0122
id ga0122
authors Miranda Carranza, Pablo
year 2001
title Self-design and Ontogenetic evolution
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The context and long term goal of the project is to develop design environments in which the computer becomes an active and creative partner in the design process. To try to set-up a system that would enhance the design process by suggesting possibilities, has been preferredto an approach that emphasises optimisation and problem-solving.The work develops around the general concept of morphogenesis, the process of development of a system's form or structure. Besides the obvious example of embryological growth, biological evolution, learning, and societal development can also be considered as morphogenetic processes.The aim is to set a foundation from where latter work can develop in the study of how form unravels, and the implications and possibilities of the utilisation of such processes in design. Some basic principles are established, regarding the idea of Ontogenesis, the study of thedevelopment of organisms, and Epigenesis, the mode Ontogenesis operates.Drawing on D’Arcy Thompson’s ideas and inspired on the models and approaches developed in the recent field of Artificial Life, this work explores the possibilities of using a model based in bone accretion to develop structural systems. The mechanisms by which bone is able toadapt are relatively known and simple, and at the same time they address a sensible problem, such as it is the case of the static performance of a structure. This may seem contradictory with what was mentioned above regarding problem solving. The problem is anyway approached not with the intention of finding optimal solutions, but challenging and creativeones. It is not answers the computer should provide, but questions about the problematic of the design. It is in this context of “problem-worrying” (as opposed to problem solving) that the work has been carried.
series other
email pablom@interactiveinstitute.se
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ga0120
id ga0120
authors Devetakovic, M.
year 2001
title Communicating Generic Process – Some Issues of Representation Related to Architectural Design
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary It is commonly the intent of an architect to represent the development of an idea from the early sketches to the final artefact, as well as to explain particular functions of its parts or complex construction processes. But the opening of the secret of generic process to the public - presenting a range of possibilities instead of one final solution and even involving external participants in the creation process - is brand new. The contemporary communication of architectural ideas presumes both – visual/formal representation and interaction. As a result of research in the field of communication in architecture, this paper is focused ongeneric process phenomena, in particular on issues of its representation. It is based on analysis of a wide range of examples that have appeared in recent years, either in electronic, printed or physical form. It offers a systematization of approaches to representation and discusses thepotential and limitations of each type – series of physical objects, sequences of graphics (single, linear, planar and spatial) and animation, as well as their combinations (sequences of animations). A particular emphasis is placed on increasing the functionality of sequence-basedrepresentation (interacting, navigating…) and its interdependence with animation as a special case. Finally, the author proposes a rethinking of the role of both the architect, who defines a system of possibilities rather than a single solution, and the information recipient, who becomes not merely a passive spectator, but a creative participant in the design process.
series other
email mdevetakovic@unitec.ac.nz
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id avocaad_2001_22
id avocaad_2001_22
authors Jos van Leeuwen, Joran Jessurun
year 2001
title XML for Flexibility an Extensibility of Design Information Models
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The VR-DIS research programme aims at the development of a Virtual Reality – Design Information System. This is a design and decision support system for collaborative design that provides a VR interface for the interaction with both the geometric representation of a design and the non-geometric information concerning the design throughout the design process. The major part of the research programme focuses on early stages of design. The programme is carried out by a large number of researchers from a variety of disciplines in the domain of construction and architecture, including architectural design, building physics, structural design, construction management, etc.Management of design information is at the core of this design and decision support system. Much effort in the development of the system has been and still is dedicated to the underlying theory for information management and its implementation in an Application Programming Interface (API) that the various modules of the system use. The theory is based on a so-called Feature-based modelling approach and is described in the PhD thesis by [first author, 1999] and in [first author et al., 2000a]. This information modelling approach provides three major capabilities: (1) it allows for extensibility of conceptual schemas, which is used to enable a designer to define new typologies to model with; (2) it supports sharing of conceptual schemas, called type-libraries; and (3) it provides a high level of flexibility that offers the designer the opportunity to easily reuse design information and to model information constructs that are not foreseen in any existing typologies. The latter aspect involves the capability to expand information entities in a model with relationships and properties that are not typologically defined but applicable to a particular design situation only; this helps the designer to represent the actual design concepts more accurately.The functional design of the information modelling system is based on a three-layered framework. In the bottom layer, the actual design data is stored in so-called Feature Instances. The middle layer defines the typologies of these instances in so-called Feature Types. The top layer is called the meta-layer because it provides the class definitions for both the Types layer and the Instances layer; both Feature Types and Feature Instances are objects of the classes defined in the top layer. This top layer ensures that types can be defined on the fly and that instances can be created from these types, as well as expanded with non-typological properties and relationships while still conforming to the information structures laid out in the meta-layer.The VR-DIS system consists of a growing number of modules for different kinds of functionality in relation with the design task. These modules access the design information through the API that implements the meta-layer of the framework. This API has previously been implemented using an Object-Oriented Database (OODB), but this implementation had a number of disadvantages. The dependency of the OODB, a commercial software library, was considered the most problematic. Not only are licenses of the OODB library rather expensive, also the fact that this library is not common technology that can easily be shared among a wide range of applications, including existing applications, reduces its suitability for a system with the aforementioned specifications. In addition, the OODB approach required a relatively large effort to implement the desired functionality. It lacked adequate support to generate unique identifications for worldwide information sources that were understandable for human interpretation. This strongly limited the capabilities of the system to share conceptual schemas.The approach that is currently being implemented for the core of the VR-DIS system is based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML). Rather than implementing the meta-layer of the framework into classes of Feature Types and Feature Instances, this level of meta-definitions is provided in a document type definition (DTD). The DTD is complemented with a set of rules that are implemented into a parser API, based on the Document Object Model (DOM). The advantages of the XML approach for the modelling framework are immediate. Type-libraries distributed through Internet are now supported through the mechanisms of namespaces and XLink. The implementation of the API is no longer dependent of a particular database system. This provides much more flexibility in the implementation of the various modules of the VR-DIS system. Being based on the (supposed to become) standard of XML the implementation is much more versatile in its future usage, specifically in a distributed, Internet-based environment.These immediate advantages of the XML approach opened the door to a wide range of applications that are and will be developed on top of the VR-DIS core. Examples of these are the VR-based 3D sketching module [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; the VR-based information-modelling tool that allows the management and manipulation of information models for design in a VR environment [VR-DIS ref., 2000]; and a design-knowledge capturing module that is now under development [first author et al., 2000a and 2000b]. The latter module aims to assist the designer in the recognition and utilisation of existing and new typologies in a design situation. The replacement of the OODB implementation of the API by the XML implementation enables these modules to use distributed Feature databases through Internet, without many changes to their own code, and without the loss of the flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas that are implemented as part of the API. Research in the near future will result in Internet-based applications that support designers in the utilisation of distributed libraries of product-information, design-knowledge, case-bases, etc.The paper roughly follows the outline of the abstract, starting with an introduction to the VR-DIS project, its objectives, and the developed theory of the Feature-modelling framework that forms the core of it. It briefly discusses the necessity of schema evolution, flexibility and extensibility of conceptual schemas, and how these capabilities have been addressed in the framework. The major part of the paper describes how the previously mentioned aspects of the framework are implemented in the XML-based approach, providing details on the so-called meta-layer, its definition in the DTD, and the parser rules that complement it. The impact of the XML approach on the functionality of the VR-DIS modules and the system as a whole is demonstrated by a discussion of these modules and scenarios of their usage for design tasks. The paper is concluded with an overview of future work on the sharing of Internet-based design information and design knowledge.
series AVOCAAD
email J.P.v.Leeuwen@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id c55e
authors Miranda, Pablo
year 2001
title Self-design and Ontogenetic evolution
source 4th International Conference on Generative Art, Politecnico di Milano University, Milan, Italy
summary The work develops around the general concept of morphogenesis, the process of development of a system's form or structure. Besides the obvious example of embryological growth, biological evolution, learning, and societal development can also be considered as morphogenetic processes. The aim is to set a foundation from where latter work can develop in the study of how form unravels, and the implications and possibilities of the utilisation of such processes in design. Some basic principles are established, regarding the idea of Ontogenesis, the study of the development of organisms, and Epigenesis, the mode Ontogenesis operates. Drawing on D'Arcy Thompson's ideas and inspired on the models and approaches developed in the recent field of Artificial Life, this work explores the possibilities of using a model based in bone accretion to develop structural systems. The mechanisms by which bone is able to adapt are relatively known and simple, and at the same time they address a sensible problem, such as it is the case of the static performance of a structure. The problem is anyway approached not with the intention of finding optimal solutions, but challenging and creative ones. It is not answers the computer should provide, but questions about the problematics of the design. It is in this context of 'problem-worrying' (as opposed to problem solving) that the work has been carried.
keywords Ontogenesis; Bone Accretion; Self-designed Structures; Problem-worrying
series other
email pablom@interactiveinstitute.se
last changed 2003/03/24 15:47

_id bb5f
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Mohd Fazidin, J.
year 2001
title Creating a City Administration System (CAS) using Virtual Reality in an Immersive Collaborative Environment (ICE)
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 449-453
summary Current problems in administration of a city are found to be decentralized and noninteractive for an effective city management. This usually will result in inconsistencies of decision-making, inefficient services and slow response to a particular action. City administration often spends more money, time and human resource because of these problems. This research demonstrates our research and development of creating a City Administration System (CAS) to solve the problems stated above. The task of the system is to use information, multimedia and graphical technologies to form a database in which the city administrators can monitor, understand and manage an entire city from a central location. The key technology behind the success of the overall system uses virtual reality and immersive collaborative environment (ICE). This system employs emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to ensure effective decisionmaking process, improved communication, and collaboration, error reduction, (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2000) between multi disciplinary users and approaches. This multi perspective approach allows planners, engineers, urban designers, architects, local authorities, environmentalists and general public to search, understand, process and anticipate the impact of a particular situation in the new city. It is hoped that the CAS will benefit city administrators to give them a tool that gives them the ability to understand, plan, and manage the business of running the city.
keywords City Administration System (CAS), Virtual Reality, Immersive Collaborative Environment (ICE), Database
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my, fazidin@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id avocaad_2001_13
id avocaad_2001_13
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Modeling irregular and complex forms
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Computational technologies provide arguably the first real opportunity architectural design has had for a comprehensive description of built form. With the advent of affordable computer-aided design systems (including drafting, modeling, visualization and simulation tools), architects believe they can be in full control of geometric aspects and, through these, of a wide spectrum of other aspects that are implicit or explicit in the geometric representation. This belief is based primarily on the efficiency and effectiveness of computer systems, ranging from the richness and adaptability of geometric primitives to the utility of geometric representations in simulations of climatic aspects. Such capabilities support attempts to design and construct more irregular or otherwise complex forms. These fall under two main categories: (1) parsing of irregularity into elementary components, and (2) correlation of the form of a building with complex geometric structures.The first category takes advantage of the compactness and flexibility of computational representations in order to analyse the form of a design into basic elements, usually elementary geometric primitives. These are either arranged into simple, unconstrained configurations or related to each other by relationships that define e.g. parametric relative positioning or Boolean combinations. In both cases the result is a reduction of local complexity and an increase of implicit or explicit relationships, including the possibility of hierarchical structures.The second category attempts to correlate built form with constraints that derive usually from construction but can also be morphological. The correlation determines the applicability of complex geometric structures (minimally ruled surfaces) to the description of a design. The product of this application is generally variable in quality, depending upon the designer's grounding in geometry and his ability to integrate constraints from different aspects in the definition of the design's geometry.Both categories represent a potential leap forward but are also equally hampered by the rigidity of the implementation mechanisms upon which they rely heavily. The paper proposes an approach to making these mechanisms subordinate to the cognitive and technical aspects of architectural thinking through fuzzy modeling. This way of modeling involves a combination of (a) canonical forms, (b) tolerances around canonical forms and positions, (c) minimal and maximal values, (d) fuzzy boundaries, and (e) plastic interaction between elements based on the dual principles of local intelligence and autonomy. Fuzzy models come therefore closer to the intuitive manners of sketching, while facilitating transition to precise and complex forms. The paper presents two applications of fuzzy modeling. The first concerns the generation of schematic building layouts, including adaptive control of programmatic requirements. The second is a system for designing stairs that can adapt themselves to changes in their immediate environment through a fuzzy definition of geometric and topological parametrization.
series AVOCAAD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 1f37
authors Alpha, Lee W.K. and Iki, Kazuhisa
year 2001
title Moving Architecture and Transiting Landscape. Interactive Rendering System for Animated Assessment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 739-752
summary In this paper, an Interactive Rendering System for Animated Assessment (IRSA2) is proposed. Using IRSA2, different to the usual process that the respondents are allowed only to select alternatives designed by planners, they are allowed to participate in the design process and create alternatives as proposals in a web-based collaborative environment. This gives roads to an autonomous process in landscape planning and design. The system efficiency was verified by a case study of its use in a wind farm project in Japan.
keywords Collaborative Design, Utilization Of Internet, Overall Design Strategy,
series CAAD Futures
email iki@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id avocaad_2001_10
id avocaad_2001_10
authors Bige Tunçer, Rudi Stouffs, Sevil Sariyildiz
year 2001
title Facilitating the complexity of architectural analyses
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary It is common practice for architecture students to collect documents on prominent buildings relevant to their design task in the early stage of design. While practitioners can rely on a body of design experience of their own, during the process of a new design, students can only draw from the examples of success and failure from other architects. In the past, such precedent based learning was implicit in the master-apprentice relationship common in the educational system. Nowadays academics commonly no longer have the possibility to maintain an extensive design practice, and instead introduce important outside precedents to the students. Thus, the study of important historical precedents or designs plays an important role in design instruction and in the students’ design processes. While there is no doubt that the most effective outcome of such a study would be achieved when the student does entire the study herself, students also benefit from a collaboration with peers, where they form groups to do an analysis of various aspects of a same building or over a group of buildings. By integrating the respective results into a common, extensible, library, students can draw upon other results for comparisons and relationships between different aspects or buildings. The complexity this introduces is best supported in a computer medium.The Web offers many examples of architectural analyses on a wide variety of subjects. Commonly, these analyses consist of a collection of documents, categorized and hyperlinked to support navigation through the information space. More sophisticated examples rely on a database for storage and management of the data, and offer a more complex categorization of the information entities and their relationships. These studies present effective ways of accessing and browsing information, however, it is precluded within these analyses to distinguish and relate different components within the project documents. If enabled, instead, this would offer a richer information structure presenting new ways of accessing, viewing, and interpreting this information. Hereto, documents can be decomposed by content. This implies both expanding the document structure, replacing document entities by detailed substructures, and augmenting the structure’s relatedness with content information. The relationships between the resulting components make the documents inherently related by content.We propose a methodology to integrate project documents into a single model, and present an application for the presentation of architectural analyses in an educational setting. This approach provides the students with a simple interface and mechanisms for the presentation of an analysis of design precedents, and possibly their own designs. Since all the information is integrated within a single environment, students will benefit from each others’ studies, and can draw new conclusions across analyses and presentations from their peers.
series AVOCAAD
email b.tuncer@bk.tudelft.nl, I.s.sariyildiz@bk.tudelft.nl, r.stouffs@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7ff9
authors Choi, J.-W., Lee, H.-S., Hwang, J.-E. and Kim, M.-J.
year 2001
title The Wooden Construction data modeling of korean traditional architecture - Focused on the structure of Gongpo in Buseoksa MuRyangsujun
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 265-274
summary Finding national identities from its traditional heritages might be an important research issue especially for Asian architects and researchers. Nevertheless, it is noticed that the structure of Korean traditional architecture has not been fully explored in a systematical or computational manner and its information is not shared efficiently. This study thus explores a computational way of structuring construction knowledge and building information of Korean traditional architecture.Ý To do this, we select a well-known old temple building, Buseoksa Muryangsujun, one of the oldest Buddhist temple in Korea, as a prototype. We first build an accurateÝ three-dimensional model of the building with an aid of a traditional building expert, categorize its building components, and then analyze their connectivity and the connectivity patterns and rules by especially focusing on the capital order system, called Gongpo. The result of the study shows several schema diagrams representing the wooden construction data model carefully designed for an intelligent building simulation and generative system that will be developed in the near future.Ý The paper also demonstrates a way of computationally describing some shape grammars that explain the components' connectivity.
series CAADRIA
email jchoi@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2001/05/27 16:30

_id ga0123
id ga0123
authors Coates P., Appels, T. Simon, C. and Derix, C.
year 2001
title Current work at CECA
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The centre for environment computing and architecture continues to experiment with new ways to form, and this paper presents three recent projects from the MSc programme. The three projects all share underlying assumptions about the use of generative algorithms to constructform, using fractal decomposition, lindenmayer systems and the marching cubes algorithm respectively to construct three dimensional "architectural" objects. The data needed to drive the morphology however ranges from formal proportional systems and Genetic L systems programming through swarming systems to perceptive self organising neural nets. In all cases, the projects pose the question what is architectural form. While after Stanford Anderson (Anderson 66) we know it is simplistic to say that it is an automatic outcome of a proper definition of the brief, it is also difficult to accept that the form of a building is an entirely abstract geometrical object existing without recourse to social or contextual justification. In anattempt to resolve these issues we have turned to the study of systems and general system theory as a way of understanding the mechanics of emergence and morphogenesis generally, and the
series other
email P.S.Coates@uel.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 5c22
authors Durmisevic, S., Ciftcioglu, Ö. and Sariyildiz, S.
year 2001
title Quantifying the Qualitative Design Aspects
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 111-116
summary Architecture is a mixture of art and technique. This implies that the architect deals not only with engineering aspects that can be easily quantified and thereafter processed, but deals with aesthetics as well which is in first place qualitative and therefore rather difficult to estimate and numerically represent. As an example, in such cases, these ‘qualitative quantities’ are expressed in linguistic form which should be somehow expressed in numerical form in order to treat such data by powerful and conclusive numerical analysis methods. Expressions such as: bright colour, light room, large space are some of these examples. These expressions are fuzzy concepts whose actual interpretation is hidden and all of them together attach a qualitative value to a certain space. To deal with such information the emerging technologies of the last decade can provide an important aid. One of them is the soft computing technology that can deal with such soft data. In this paper, based on the case studies, we explain the potential of using soft computing techniques.
keywords Qualitative Design Data, Information Processing, Soft Computing, Knowledge Modeling, Neuro-Fuzzy Network
series eCAADe
email I.S.Sariyildiz@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 270d
authors Elezkurtaj, Tomor and Franck, Georg
year 2001
title Evolutionary Algorithms in Urban Planning
source CORP 2001, Vienna, pp. 269-272
summary The functions supported by commercial CAD software are drawing, construction and presentation. Until now, no programssupporting the creative part of architectural and urban problem solving are on the market. The grand hopes of symbolic AI ofprogramming creative architectural and urban design have been disappointed. In the meantime, methods called New AI are available.Among these methods, evolutionary algorithms are particularly promising for solving design problems. The paper presents anapproach to town panning and architectural problem solving that combines an evolutionary strategy (ES), a genetic algorithm (GA)and a Particle System. The problem that remains incapable of being solved algorithmically has to do with the fact that in architectureand urbanizm form as well as function count. Because function relates to comfort, easiness of use, and aesthetics as well, it ishopeless to fully specify the fitness function of architecture. The approach presented circumvents a full specification through dividinglabor between the software and its user. The fitness function of town plans is defined in terms only of proportions of the shapes, areasand buildings to be accommodated and topological relations between them. The rest is left to the human designer who interactivelyintervenes in the evolution game as displayed on the screen.
series other
email tomor@osiris.iemar.tuwien.ac.at
more www.corp.at
last changed 2002/12/19 11:17

_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id ef84
authors Gero, John S. and Kazakov, Vladimir
year 2001
title Entropic-Based Similarity and Complexity Measures of 2D Archtectural Drawings
source J. S. Gero, B. Tversky and T. Purcell (eds), 2001, Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, II - Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Australia
summary In this paper we construct an information-theoretic model ofarchitectural drawings. This model is then used to quantify and measurethe complexities and similarities of drawings. The approach is appliedwithin a linear qualitative shape representation but can be generalized toother types of representation. The descriptive and analytic power of theproposed methods are demonstrated by studying the time evolution ofthe architectural plans produced by Aalto and Kahn and by comparingthem to each other.
series other
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
more http://www.arch.usyd.edu.au/kcdc/conferences/vr01/
last changed 2003/05/02 09:13

_id 9bee
authors Gerzso, J. Michael
year 2001
title Automatic Generation of Layouts of an Utzon Housing System via the Internet
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 202-211
summary The article describes how architectural layouts can be automatically generated over the Internet. Instead of using a standard web server sending out HTML pages to browser client, the system described here uses an approach that has become common since 1998, known as three tier client/server applications. The server part of the system contains a layout generator using SPR(s), which stands for “Spatial Production Rule System, String Version”, a standard context- free string grammar. Each sentences of this language represents one valid Utzon house layout. Despite the fact that the system represents rules for laying out Utzon houses grammatically, there are important differences between SPR(s) and shape grammars. The layout generator communicates with Autocad clients by means of an application server, which is analogous to a web server. The point of this project is to demonstrate the idea that many hundreds or thousands of clients can request the generation of all of the Utzon layouts simultaneously over the Internet by the SPR(s) server, but the server never has to keep track when each client requested the generation of all of the layouts, or how many layouts each client has received.
keywords Internet, Spatial-Production-Rules Grammars, Utzon
series ACADIA
email 104164.341@compuserve.com
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

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